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GOVT. COLLEGE, LIEil^RY 

KOTA (Raj.) 



For Official use only 


GAZETTEER OF INDIA 
RAJASTHAN 

BIKANER 



RAJASTHAN DISTRICT 
GAiZETTEERS 



BIKANER 


By 

K, K. SEHGAL 


DIRECXORATE, DISTBICST GAZETTEERS 
GOVERNMENT OF RAJASTHAN, 
JAIPUR, 


Obtainable from : 


(1) DIRECTORATE, DISTRICT GAZETTEERS, 
RAJASTHAM, JAIPUR (INDIA) 

(2) PUBLICATIONS BRANCH, 

GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS, 

JAIPUR (INDIA) 


Criitted at ; 

BHARAT PRINTERS, 

M. I. ROAD. JAIPUR (Rajasthak) 



PREFACE 


The District Gazetteer of Bikaner is the tenth in the series of 
District Gazetteers being published by the Government of Rajas- 
than in collaboration with the Central Gazetteers Unit of India. 
The area now comprising the district of Bikaner formed a part of 
the erstwhile princely State of Bikaner, which was founded by Rao 
Bika, a Rathor prince, in the fifteenth century A.D. The antiquity 
of the tract is, however, much older and a reference about it is 
available in the Mahabharata. For sometime the area remained the 
cradle of the migrant Yaudheyas. When the Rathors appeared on 
the scene, the territory was inhabited by various Jat clans. For 
about half-a-millennium the descendants of Rao Bika ruled over 
this region with Bikaner town as the seat of their Government. 
Under the Rathors the State witnessed various upheavals. The 
ramparts of Bikaner fort remind us even today of the saga of many a 
fierce battle. With the growth of Mughal power under Akbar, 
Bikaner became one of the leading states of Rajputana, Its brave 
soldiery, known for its chivalrous deeds, constituted the flower of 
the Mughal army. After the disintegration of the Mughal empire 
the Bikaner House suffered a set-back and there was a slow decline 
in its prosperity and power. In the beginning of the 19th century, 
the State sought British protection owing to internecine feuds with 
its own nobility and the neighbouring states. 

Bikaner remained a great centre of learning during the medic* 
val period. The town still possesses one of the biggest collections of 
rare manuscripts in the country. Known connoisseurs of art and 
literature, the Bikaner rulers gave patronage to many renowned 
litterateurs, painters and architects in their courts. 

The first Gazetteer of the Bikaner State, written by Captain P.W. 
Powlett, was published in 1874. Erskine’s Gazetteer of Western 
Rajputana States and Bikaner Residency was published about three 
de'cadcs later in 1909. A brief description of the State and its 
constituent parts was also included in the Imperial Gazetteer of 
India and its provincial scries. The Gazetteers of the pre-indepen- 
dence days contained onl}- such information as would prove useful 
to a colonial$OYcrnmcni in administering a country of .continental 



11 


dimensions. In the princely States the Gazetteers were prepared 
solely for the use of the Darbars, the State officials and the 
political officers accredited to' them. These publications merely 
highlighted the customs and traditions of the upper echelons of the 
society while completely ignoring the lower strata. 

• Mighty .transformations have taken place in India, in political, 
social . and economic sphere during the past -.few decades. The 
country, has experienced far-reaching changes, lUndcr the impact of 
internal and international _ social forces. The old _ Gazetteers, 
although a valuable source material for the scholars and historians, 
have become out-of-date in the changed circumstances. The work 
of revising and rewriting the Gazetteers was, therefore,. taken, up 
as a national project which is being implemented by the Government 
of India, State Governments and the Administrations of, the. Union 
Territories. The new series of District Gazetteers gives an all-sided 
and inter-connected account of the- emerging democratic pattern of 
life in the country since Independence. 

The material available in. the, old Gazetteers has, been used 
freely particularly in chapters dealing with subjects like topography, 
rivers, geology etc. where no change in the text was required. The 
bulk of the information had, however, to be collected,from a, number 
of publications. Government and private, and from pther sources. 
The data included in the volume, unless specifically mentioned in 
the text otherwise, pertain to the period ending. 1965-66. 

I am greatly indebted to the various departments of the State 
and Central Government. Semi-Government institutions , and indi- 
viduals who have helped us by extending their -co-operation and 
making the necessary material ..available. 1 must , make a special 
mention and express my .thanks to Dr. P-U. Chopra, M.. A, Ph, D., 
Editor, District Gazetteers and the staff of Central Gazetteers Unit, 

. Union Ministry of Education -and Youth Services, -New Delhi, for 
their effective role in planning arid co-ordinating the work of pre- 
paration of the District Gazetteers. The Unit .scrutinised the draft 
of this volume with great care and-madc several helpful suggestions 
.with a view to improving the standard and quality of the publication, 
lam also indebted . to Shri Maya Ram, the then Director, who 
prepared the first draft of this- Gazetteer and sent it to Central 
Gazetteer* Vmt, New Delhi. I makc grateful acknowledgement of my 



in 


obligations to Sliri K.P.U Menon and Shri Z. S. Jhala, 
the ex-Chief Secretaries and Shri S.L. Khurana the present Chief 
Secretary to the Government of Rajasthan, for guiding and helping 
us in the work. 

My thanks are also due to the staff of the Gazetteers Depart- 
ment who worked as a team to help me in the difficult task of 
compilation of the Gazetteer. I must record my genuine appreciation 
for the services rendered by them. 


K. K. SEHGAL 

Director. District Gazetteers, 
Rajasthan’, Jaip’Ur. 



GAZETTEER OF BIKANER DISTRICT 


PLAN OF CONTENTS 


CHArTERS 

Pag gs 

I — General 

1—18 

11 — History 

19—82 

III— People 

83—123 

■IV — ^Agriculture and Irrigation 

124—155 

V — Industries 

156—184 

VI — Banking, Trade and Commerce 

185—206 

VII — Communications 

207—220 

VIII — Miscellaneous Occupations 

221—237 

IX — Economic Trends 

238—260 

X — General Administration 

261—265 

XI — Revenue Administration 

266—291 

XII — Law and Order and Justice 

292—309 

XIII — ^Other Departments 

310—320 

XIV — Local Self-Government 

321—339 

XV — Education and Culture 

340—364 

XVI— Medical and Public Health Services 

365— 382 

XVII — Other Social Services 

383—3X8 

XVITI— Public Life and Voluntary Social 


Service Organisations 

389—410 

XIX — ^Places of Interest 

411—422 

Bibliography 

423—425 

Glossary 

426—428 

Index 

429—451 

Plates 




CONVERSION TABLE 


Length 


1 inch=2.54 centimetres 
1 foot=: 30.48 centimetres 
1 yard=91. 44 centimetres 
1 raile=1.61 kilometres 


Area 

1 square foot— 0.093 square metre 
1 square yard=0.836 square metre 
1 square mile=2.59 square kilometres 
1 acre =0.405 hectare 

Volume 

1 cubic foot=0.028 cubic metre 
Capacity 

I gallon (Iraperial)=4.55 litres 
1 seer (80 tola)=0.937 litre 

Weight 

1 tola = 11.66 grams 
1 chhatank=58.32 grams 
1 scer=933.10 grams 
1 maund =37.32 kilograms 
1 seer (24 tolas)=279.93 grams 
1 ounce =28.35 grams 
1 pound=453.59 grams 
I ton=l,016;05 kilograms 

Temperatute 

t* Fahrcnhcit=9/5 (1° centigrade) 0 f 32 
Metric Weights & Measures 

Length 

10 miUimctrcs=l centimetre 
100 centimctrcs=l metre 
1,000 mcttcs^l kilometre 



Area 


100 square Tnillimetres=l square centimetre 

10.000 square centimelres=l square metre or centiare 
100 square metres = I are 

100 ares=l hectare 

100 hectares or 1,000,000 square metres=l sq. kflometre 
Volume 

1,000,000 cubic centimetres=l cubic metre 
Capacity 

1.000 millilitres=l litre 

1,000 litres — 1 kilolitre 

Weight 

1,000 milligrams=l gran 

1,000 grams=l kilogram 
100 kilograms =1 quintal 

1,000 kilcgrams = l tonne 
200 milligrams=',i carat 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
CHAPTER I 
General 

INTRODUCTORY— Origin of the name of the district. 
Location, boundaries, area and population. History of the 
district as an administrative unit; TOPOGRAPHY; 
RIVER SYSTEM AND WATER RESOURCES— Lakes, 
rivers and tanks, Underground water; GEOLOGY— 
Geological formation, Minerals-Fuller’s Earth {MnUani 
Mini), Lignite, Gypsum, White Clay, Yellow ochre. Glass 
sand, Sandstone, Limestone, Grit {Bajri)-, Seismicity of 
Bikaner; FLORA— Forests, Revenue from Forest Depart- 
ment, Protected and Private Foiests-Research Institute-; 
FAUNA— Animals. Reptiles, Birds, Game Sanctuaries; 
CLIMATE— Rainfall, Temperature, Humidity, Cloudiness, 
Winds, Special Weather Phenomena; APPENDICES I 
to V, 1 - 18 


CHAPTER II 
History 

PRE-HISTORY; PROTO-HISTORY; ANCIENT HISTORY— 
The Yaudheyas. the Gurjara-Pratiharas, the Chahamanas 
and the Bhatis; MEDIEV AL PERIOD-Rao Lunkaran, Rao 
Jet Sigh, Rao Kalyan Singh, Raja Rai Singh, Maharaja 
Dalpai Singh. Sur Singh, Karan Singh. Maharaja Anup 
Singh, Swamp Singh, Sujan Singh, Maharaja Zorawar 
Singh, Maharaja Gaj Singh, Maharaja Raj Singh, Maharaja 
Pratap Singh; MODERN PERIOD — Maharaja Surat Singh, 
Maharaja Ratan Singh, Maharaja Sardar Singh, Maharaja 
Dungar Singh, Maharaja Ganga Singh. Maharaja Sadul 
Singh, Political Awakening in Bikaner, Bikaner Conspiracy 
Case (1932); APPENDICES 1 to VII — ] 



11 


CHAPTER III 
People 

POPULATION— Total population, Growth of population, Sex 
Ratio, Age, Urban and Rural population. Emigration and 
Immigration, Displaced Persons; LANGUAGE — Bilingu- 
alism; RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL GROUPS— Hindus- 
Brahmans, Mahajans, Jats, Rajputs, Nayaks or Thoris, 
Meghwals, Bishnois, Darogas, Alakhgirs-, Mohammedans, 
Christians, Sikhs, Jains, Religious Beliefs and Practices, 
Nomenclature; SOCIAL LIFE — Joint family system. 
Inheritance, Adoption, Polygamy, Restrictions on Marri- 
age, Marital Status, Marital Reforms, Marriage Customs, 
Dowry, Divorce, Widow Remarriage-Position of women-, 
Prostitution, Drinking-Daily life-, Home-life-House-holds-, 
Furniture, Dwellings, Dress, Ornaments, Food, Communal 
Life-Fairs & Festivals, Festivals, Fairs, Mokama Fair, 
Kolayat Fair, Deshnoke Fair, Teej Fair. Shiv Bari Fair, 
Naginiji Fair, Nar Singh Chautrdashi Fair, Sujandesar 
Fair, Ken, ara Fair, Jetha Bhutta Fair, Kodemdesar Fair, 
Ridmalsar Fair, Dada-ji-ka-Mela-, Dance, Music, Folk 
lore. Songs, Amusements-Sports and Games, Other 
Recreation, Puppets, Cinemas, Clubs-, Impacf of Recent 
Social and Economic Changes ••• *“ <S3-!23 

CHAPTER IV 

Agriculture axd Irrigation 

General, Co-operative Movement, Afforestation; IRRIGA- 
TION — Irrigation fay Lakes & Tanks— Gajner Lake, 
Kolayat Tank. Ganga Sarowar Tank, Bund No. I;,Mudh 
Bund, Bund No. 2, Bund No. 3, Band No. 4, Dadar Tank, 

Sallia Tank, KhudiTank, Jhinjhiniya Tank, Kiniya Tank, 

Bhatia Tank-, Irrigation fay wells: SOIL EROSION; 
AGRICULTURE — Soil and Crops; Agricultural Opera- 
tions, Agricultural Crops-, Bajra, Jowar, Wheat, Pulses. 

Fruits and Vegetables, Oil seeds-. Manures, Crop Rota- 
tion, Crop diseases, Agricultural pests, Departmental 
Activities, Agricultural implements. Seeds; ANIMAL 



in 


HUSBANDRY AND FISHERIES— Animal Husbandry- 
Fodder, Livestock, Poultry Development-, Fisheries 
Artificial Insemination, Animal Diseases, Goshalas, 

Cattle Fairs; FAMINES- Early Visitations, Famine 
of 1868-69, Famine of 1891-92, Famine of 1896-97, 

Famine of 1899-1900, Famine of 1939-40, Famines 
during recent years; APPENDICES I to V •" 124-155 

CHAPTER V 


Industries 

OLD TIME INDUSTRIES; POWER— Rural Electrification; 
MINERALS — Non-metallic — Gypsum, White-clay, Fuller’s 
earth, Yellow Ochre, Glass sand--, Fuel-Lignite (Brown 
coal)-. Building Materials-, Sandstone, Limestone, Bajri 
or Grit, Kankar-, Metallic Minerals-Copper-; LARGE 
SCALE INDUSTRIES; SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES—. 
Pottery, Steel Processing, Wool Based Industries, Mineral 
based Industries, Printing Presses, Cold Storage and 
Ice Factories, Chemical Industries-Plastic & Celluloid 
Industries, Hair oil, Ink, Washing soap, Agarbatti, Candle, 

Pan Masalla, Tobacco and Sweet Supari Making Units, ■ 

Guar Gum Manufacturing Unit, Ayurvedic Pharmacies, 
Distilled Water and Battery Acid Units-, Electronic Indus- 
tries, Machine and Cycle Industries, Oil & Dal Mills, 

Brass Utensils, Miscellaneous Industries; COTTAGE IN- 
DUSTRIES — Hand Spinning & Weaving, Steel Fabricators; 

ARTS & CRAFTS— Dyeing & Printing, Lacquer Work, 
Wooden Toys, Carving, Papar of Bikaner, Bhujias 
Manufacturing, Handicrafts Emporium; INDUSTRIAL 
POTENTIAL; STATE ASSISTANCE; CREDIT FACILI- 
TIES; TECHNICAL EDUCATION — Government Poly- 
technic, Bikaner, Industrial Training Institute, Bikaner, 
Woollen Cottage Industries Training Institute, Bikaner; 
INDUSTRIAL ESTATE; LABOUR LAWS AND 
labour WELFARE; LABOURERS’ AND EMP- 
LOYEES’ ORGANISATIONS; APPENDCES 1 to III 156-184 



iv 


CHAPTER VI 

Banking, Trade and Commence 

BANKING AND FINANCE— Historical Aspect-Ad- 

vancing Loans against Promissory Notes, Mortgaging, 
Dastawez, Khandi, Pawning, Government Loans-,Indebted- 
ness-Causes of Indebtedness-, Co-operative Movement, 
Scheduled Banks-, State Savings Bankj Bikaner-, Rajasthan 
Financial Corporation, Insurance-State Insurance-, Nati- 
onal Savings, Bikaner Coins; TRADE AND COMMERCE- 
Imports and Exports, Marketing, Storage-Rajasthan State 
Warehousing Corporation—, Mandis — Bikaner, Naukha, 
Lankaransar“,Traders’ and Merchants’ Associations, State 
Trading, Weights and Measures-Metric System of We- 
ights and Measures. 185-236 


CHAPTER VII 
COMSIUNICATIONS 

OLD ROUTES; ROADS AND ROAD TRANSPORT-Roads, 

Road Transport— Motor Vehicles, Public Transport, Fare 
and Freight-, Stage Carriages, Public Carriers-, Road Acci- 
dents; RAILWAYS— Railway Stations and Trains, Econo- 
mic Importance of Railways; AIR SERVICES; TRA- 
VEL AND TOURIST FACILITIES— Dharamshalas, 

Rest houses, Hotels; POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS; TELE- 
PHONES; RADIO STATION; ORGANISATIONS IN 
THE FIELD OF COMMUNICATION; APPENDICES 
I to 11 207-220 


CHAPTER VIII 

MiSCEELANEOXJS OCCUPAIIONS 

PUBLIC SERVICE; PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL AND 
RELATED WORKERS; ADMINISTRATIVE, EXECU- 
TIVE AND MANAGERIAL WORKERS; CLERICAL & 
RELATED WORKERS; SALES WORKERS; FARMERS, 
FISHERMEN. HUNTERS AND RELATED WORKERS; 
MINERS, QUA RRYMEN AND RELATED WORKERS; 
TRANSPORT & COMMUNICATION SERVICES; 



V 


CRAFTSMEN AND OTHER PRODUCTION PROCESS 
WORKERS; SERVICE, SPORTS AND RECREATION 
WORKERS; EDUCATIONAL LEVEL— Urban, Rural; 
APPENDICES I to IV 221-23? 

CHAPTER IX 
Economic Trends 

LIVELIHOOD PATTERN; PRICES; WAGES; STANDARD 
OF LIVING; EMPLOYMENT; COMMUNITY DEVE- 
LOPMENT; PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT— 

First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five 
Year Plan; APPENDICES I to III 23K-2(.0 

CHAPTER X 


Gknerad Administration 

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND; PRESENT PATTERN: 

APPENDIX 261-265 

CHAPTER XI 


Revenue Administration 

LAND REVENUE ADMINISTRATION— Historical As- 
pect, Summary Settlement, Settlement of 1894-95 — Sur- 
vey-, Settlement in Jagir areas, Settlement after the merger- 
Assessment-, Set-np of the Revenue Administration, 

Income from Land Revenue; LAND REFORMS — Position 
of the Tenants, Abolition of Jagirs, Tenancy Reform, 
Revenue Cases, Land Holdings, Landless Agricultural 
Workers, Bhoodan and Gramdan; OTHER SOURCES OF 
REVENUE — Past Sources, Present Sources —Registration 
fees. Stamps, Registration of Motor Vehicles, Excise and 
Taxation, Income Tax; APPENDICES I to II 266-29 1 


All 

Law and Order and Justice 

CRIMES; POLICE— Historical uacic- 
Presei^' ^ set-up the eve of the merger, 

position, Traffic Police, Mounted Police, Range 


1 

Back- 



VI 


Training-School, Bikaner, Railway Police, Anti-Corruption 
Organisation. Rajasthan Armed Constabulary (R, A.C.y, 

CIVIL DEFEN CE—Warden Services, Home Guards; 

JAIL ADMINISTRATION— Historical Sketch, Jail 
Administration before merger. Present set-up, Prison 
discipline, Welfare of prisoners. Jail Industry; JUDICIAL 
ADMINISTRATION— Historical background of the 
Judicial System, Present position; LEGAL PROFESSION — 

Bar Association; APPENDIX 292-309 

CHAPTER XIII 
Other Departments 

STATE GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS— Office of the 
Colonisation Commissioner, Office of the Su ferintending 
Engineer, Rajasthan Canal Project, Investigation 
Circle, Town Planning Department-Office of the 
Deputy Town Planner Bikaner-, Public Works De- 
partment-Office of the Additional Chief Engineer 
( Project ), Office of the Superintending Engineer 
(Building and Roads), Office of the Executive Engineer 
(City Division) — , Rajasthan State Electricity Board- 
Office of the Superintending Engineer, Bikaner Circle, 

Office of the Executive Engineer-, Archives Department, 

Excise Department-Office of the Deputy Commissioner. 

Excise, Office of tbe District Excise Officer-, Taxation 
Departmcut-Office of the Deputy Commissioner 
(Appeals-, Commercial Taxes, Office of the Commer- 
cial Taxes Officer-, Water Works-Offi:e of the Assis- 
tant Mining Engineer, Office of the Inspector of Fac- 
tories and Boilers-; Labour Deprtment-Office of the 
Labour Officer, Employment Evchjnge, Office of the 
Principal, Industrial Training Institute, Office of the 
Principal, Panchayati Raj Training Centre-, Co- 
operative bcpartmenl-Office of the Deptuy Registrar, 
Co-operative Societies, Office of the Assistant Regis'.rar 
Co-operative Societies-, Animal Husbandry Department, 

District Stafistical Office, Devasthan, Public Relations 



vii 


Office; CENTRAL GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS— 

National Savings Organisation, Customs Office, Labour 
Enforcement Office. Field Publicity Office, Chemical 
Laboratory-Fertiliser Corporation of India, Office of 
the Locust Entomologist. Office of the Marketing Officer, 

Wool, Bristles and Goat Hair Grading Scheme, Office 
of the Sub-Divisional Officer, Telegraphs, Divisional 
Superintendent, Northern Railway 310-320 

CHAPTER XIV 
Local Self-Govebnme.vt 

HISTORY — Municipal Council, Bikaner City-History, 
Sanitation, Light, Water-Supply, Financial Position, 

Office Establishment, Education, Fire Brigade-; MUNI- 
CIPAL BOARDS— Municipal B.nard, Gangashahr Muni- 
cipal Board, Bhinasar, Municipal Board, Naukha, 
Municipal Board, Deshnokc; DISTRICT BOARDS — 
History-, District Board, Bikaner- History, Powers and 
limitations-; PANCHAYATS — History-, Re-organisa- 
tion of Panchayat System, Panchayats, Tahsil Panchayats, 
Democratic Decentralisation, Panchayats under the 
New Set-up, Nyaya Panchayats; PANCHAYAT SAMI- 
TIS — History, Financial Resources — Panchayat Samiti, 

Bikaner, Panchayat Samiti. Naukha, Panchayat Samiti, 

Kolayat, Panchayat Samiti, Lonkaransar-, Zila Parishad; 
APPENDICES I to III 321-339 

CHAPTER XV 
Education and Cultube 

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND; GENERAL EDUCA- 
TION— Administrative set-up. New Trends, The Primary 
Education, Middle Schools, High and Higher Secondary 
Schools, Colleges, Teachers, Training College, Bikaner, Shri 
Sanatan Dharm Ayurved College, Sarcar Patel Medical 
College, Bikaner, Veterinary College, Bikaner; TECHNI- 
CAL SCHOOLS— Bikaner, Polvtechnic Bikaner; SPECIAL 



vm 


INSTITUTrONS— Oriental Institutions-Shri Sardul 
.Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, Bikaner, Ganga Sanskrit 
Pathshala, Bikaner-, School for Blind; LITERACY 
AND EDUCATIONAL STANDRAD; EDUCATION 
OF GIRLS; ADULT EDUCATION; THE BHARAT 
SCOUTS AND GUIDES DISTRICT ASSOCIATION, 
BIKANER; NATIONAL CADET CORPS; CUL- 
TURE — Bikaner School of Painting, Literature; 
LIBRARIES AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS— Anup 
Sanskrit Library, The King Emperor George V Silver 
Jubilee Library, Shri Gun Prakash Sujjanalaya, Bikaner, 

Shri Abhaya Jain Granthalaya, Bikaner, Shri Ram 
Krishna Kutir, Bikaner, Gandhi Shanti Pratishthan, 
Bikaner, Sadul, Rajasthani Research Institute, Bikaner, 
Rajasthan Gyanpith, Bikaner, Hindi Vishwa Bharti 
Shodh Pratishthan, Bikaner, Shri Sangeet Bharti, Bikaner, 

Shri . Bhartiya Vidya Mandir, Bikaner, Mahila Mandal, 
Bikaner, Ganga Golden Jubilee Museum, Bikaner — 

Furgal (Silk Robe) 1596 A. D. of the Emperor Jahangir, 
Historical Mughal Farmans, Paintings, Terracottas, 
Saraswati Jain (ll-I2th cent. A.D.), Nartaki-Dancer 
(10- 1 1th cent. A. D.), Lacquered Work, Wood & Stone 
Carving™, Shankar Dev Nahata, Kala Bhawan, Bikaner, 
Botanical and Zoological Gardens; APPENDIX I 340-364 

CHAPTER XVI 

Medical akd Public Health Services 

EARLY HISTORY— Administrative Set-up; VITAL STAT- 
ISTICS— Causes of death. Longevity; COMMON DISE- 
ASES — Vaccination, Epidemics; HOSPITALS AND 
DISPENSARIES — Prince Bijai Singh Memorial Men’s 
Hospital, Bikaner, Prince Bijai Singh Memorial Women ’s 
Hospital, Bikaner, Ganga Golden Jubilee Tuberculosis 
Hospital, Bikaner, Police Line Hospital, Bikaner, Miliiary 
Hospital, Bikaner, District Jail Hospital, Bikaner, Railway 
Hospital, Bikaner, Northern Railway Hospital, Lalgarh, 
Government Hospital Gajncr, A. P. Hospital, Pagitl; 



IX 


PR1M\RY HEALTH CENTRES— Naukha, Kolayat, 
Naoasar, Kalu; MEDICAL DEPARTMENT-Medical 
and Health Personnel, Research Centres; INDIGENOUS 
SYSTEM OF MEDICINE; SANITATION; WATER 
SUPPLY; APPENDICES I to III 365-382 

CHAPTER XVII 
Other Social Services 

Labour Welfare; Organisational set-up, Prohibition, Social 
Welfare of Backward Classes and Tribes, Hostels & 
Boarding Houses, Mahila Sanskar Kendra, Princess 
Chand Kunwar Orphanage, Bikaner, Industrial and Pro- 
duction Centre, Other Measures, Trusts.and Charitable 
Endowments. 383-388 


CHAPTER XVIII 

PuELic Life akd Voluntary Social Service 
Organisations 

Representation in Parliament (Lok Sabha), Representation 
in Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha), Bye-Elections in 
1956, Bye-Elcctions in 1960; POLITICAL PARTIES— 
Congress Party, Praja Socialist Party, Communist Party, 
Bhartiya Jan Sangh, Ram Rajya Parishad, Swatantra Party; 

NEWS PAPERS AND PERIODICALS— Daily, Weeklies, 
Fortnightlics, Monthlies, Quarterlies, Others; VOLUN- 
TARY SOCIAL SERVICE ORGANISATIONS— Indian 
Red Cross Society, Bharat Sewuk SamaJ, Shri Bikaner 
Mahila Mandal, Mahila Jagriti Parishad, Bikaner, Rajas- 
than Mahila Parishad, Bikaner, Bharat Yuvak Srmaj, 

Harijan Sevak Sangh, Bikaner, Defence efforts; APPEND- 
ICES 1 and II 389-410 



X 


CHAPTER XIX 
Placbs oe Interest 

BTkaner City— Bika-ki-Tekri (Old Fort), Large fort, Lalgarh 
Palace. Ganga Niwas Public Park, Ganga Golden Jubilee 
Museum, Laxmi IQarain Temple, Bhandasar Temple, 

Dhuni Nath Temple, Zoo--, Deshnoke, Devi Kund, Gajner, 

Janglu, Koramdesar, Kolayat, Lnnkaransar, Mokam, 
Napasar, Naukha, Pugal; Seobari 41 1 — 422 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 

GLOSSARY 

INDEX 

ERRATA 

PLATES 


423—425 

426-428 

429—459 



CHAPTER I 


GENERAL 
INTRODUCTORY 
Origin of the name of the dislrict 

The district derives its name from its principal city ‘Bikaner’ wTiich 
perpetuates the memory of its founder Rao Bika (1438-1504 A. D.). 
Ner literally means a ‘settlement’ or a ‘habitation’. Tradition also 
says that Naira or Nera was the name of the owner of the site 
who parted with it on the condition that his name should be linked 
with Rao Bika, and hence the name ‘Bikaner’. 

Location, boundaries, area and population 

Lying in the north-western part of Rajasthan, it is located between 
27“! 1' and 29®03' north latitude and 7r54' and 74°12' east longitude. 
It is bounded on the north by Ganganagar district, on the west partly 
by Jaisalmer district and partly by Bahawalpur district (West 
Pakistan), on the east by the Churn and Ganganagar districts and 
on the south-east and south by Nagaur and Jodhpur districts. The 
total area of the district is 27,118 sq. kilometres according to the 
Central Statistical Organisation, Government of India, thus ranking 
third in area compared to other districts of Rajasthan, though with a 
population only of 4,44,515 souls it ranks as low as twenty second. 
The greatest distance between the extreme parallels is 207 km. (129 
miles) and the extreme meridians is 225 km, (140 miles). 

History of the district as an administrative unit 

Since the foundation of the erstwhile State of Bikaner (1488 A.D.), 
the seat of the Government had remained at Bikaner city, the 
principal town of the State, and at present it is the headquarters of 
the district For purposes of administration, the State was divided 
into two divisions before its merger with Rajasthan; namely the 
Sadar or Bikaner and Ganganagar. These two divisions were further 
sub-divided into six districts or Nizamats each in charge of a 
nazim viz., Bikaner, Ganganagar, Rajgarh, Raisinghnagar, Sajangarh 
and Saratgarh. Nizamat Bikaner .was also called Sadar because, 
besides tlie headquarters of the Nizamat, it was the capita! of the 
State and the seat of the Government. 



2 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


In 1947, Bikaner State was one of the first States to sign the 
instruments of accession to India, 'in 1949, "fhe State was merged in the 
State of Rajasthan and ceased to exist as a separate political unit, and 
the territory, comprised in the erstwhile State formed one of the five 
divisions of Rajasthan under a Divisional Comnissioner. It was further 
divided into three districts."' The erstwhile Bikaner A/Izawnf was consti- 
tuted into the present Bikaner district under the charge of a ColIectOB-> 
and District Magistrate. In 1954, 43 villages and three hamlets were 
transferred from "former Bap, tahsll of Jaisalmer district to Kolayat 
tahsili of this district. 

I ' 

The present district has two sub-divisions viz., Bikaner North and 
Bikaner South. These two siib-divisions are comjjrised' of two tahslls 
each; namely, Bikaner and Lankarartsai:, ' and Kolayat and Naukha 


respectively. The following table 
and population of each of them. 

gives the 

names, number of 

f 1 • - 

villages 

Sub-division ' Tahsll 


Villages 

P.opulation 

r 


(iHhabitod)' ■ ' 

' > . 

Bikaner North I. Bikaner 

5 

141 , 

2,51,7,81 

, 2. Lonkaransar 


, , HI 

53 , 961 ^ 

Bikaner South 1. Kolayat 

- 

)• 126 1 

47i998 

2. Naukha < • - 

•! 

. . 117 

90,769. 

2 4 

^ 6 ■ ' 

'525“ 

4,44,51 5 

1 1 


TOPOGRAPHY 


The map of Bikaner district has the appcarartcc of an irregulad 
polygon having ten sides. The major part of the district covers desolate 
and dreary regions which form part of the Great Indian Desert of 
Thar. The district can be classified into two natural divisions: (i) north 
and western desert, and (ii) south and eastern semi-desert. In greater 
part of the territory, the plain is undulating or interspersed with shift- 
ing sand hills, the slopes of which arc lightly furrowed by action of 
the wind. There are no hills, and no rivulets or streams of any signifi- 
cance, and jhe panorama it presents. is that of an expanse of sand 
relieved here and there by sand features and a few habitations. 


1. As per Goverament of Rajasthan Notification 
31.5.1954. 


No. F2(46)GA(A)/53 dated 







.Gppe^-al 


:3 


The general elevation of the district plain varks between," 154 ^tp 
.42? metres above the sea level sloping generally towards the north- 
west.. The sand-dqnes, range in height' from 6 to,^,30 metres, suggesting 
the ribbed appearance of a sea shpre. After the rains, the desolate desert 
turns into a vpst green, pasture-land for a short time in, t, he year. 

RIVER SYSTEM AND WATER RESOURCES 
Lakes, Rivers and Tanks 

With an average rainfall ranging from 12.70 cni. to 25,40 cm. 
(5" to 10") there is .practically, no surface rum-off and therefore, 
no river worth the name. There are, however, a few local nullahs in 
which the little run-off from the surface wherever it is hard finds its 
way. Some of the water in these nullahs is impounded in tanks for 
irrigation. The district can boast of only two^small fresh water lakelets 
forihed by the drainage of the rocky country in the south-west of the 
district. The first one at Gajner is located at a distance of 32 kilo- 
metres (20 miles) from Bikaner city. It is about 0.4 km. (quarter 
mile) long, and 183 or 274 metres (two or three hundred yards) across. 
The water of this lake is mostly utilised for drinking and bathing 
purposes but in the years of good rainfall wheat and mustard are also 
grown in the neighbouring areas. With its clear and still waters 
glistering under the burning sun, and one side framed as it were, by 
the imposing palaces and the attached gardens; and the other by 
wooded verdure, the lake looks like an inset mirror. It gives great 
relief to the weary travellers passing through the dreary desert, or to 
the citizens of Bikaner who oppressed by intense summer heat, resort 
to its bank for picnic and pleasure. 

• The second lakelet at Kolayat is somewhat smaller and is situa- 
ted at a distance of about 16 kilometres west of Gajner. Bathing in 
t|iis lake is considered to earn religious merit. Many people on that 
account visit it. Numerous neat bathing glmts have been built 
.around it shaded by peepal trees. It is a beautiful oasis amidst the 
vast expanse of arid desert. 

There is a salt lake in this district at Lankaransar about '80 
kilometres, north-east of the district headquarters. Salt is no longer 
being produced from lake waters as it is' of poor quality. There arc 
various other tanks in.the district notably at Gangasarowar-Mandal 
madb, Dadav, Kinia, Bhatia and Khudi. 



4 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Underground Water 

Underground water which is the main source for drinking and 
other purposes is generally found at a depth of about 90 to ,100 metres 
below the ground level. The discharge from the wells varies from 
18,200 litres per hour (4,000 gallons per hour) to 91,000 litres per 
hour (20,000 gallons per hour). 

GEOLOGY 

Geological formation 

The geological history of western Rajasthan, despite many 
discoveries in this field, is still hedged in obscurity. A good many 
Geologists, however, believe that during thejurassic, cretaceous and 
Eocene periods, the western portion of Rajasthan, including the 
Bikaner district was under the sea. Later in the geological period 
known as the Upper Tertiary, the sea receded and the area got uplifted 
into dry land. According to Dr. D.N. Wadia the long continued and 
extreme degree of aridity combined with the sand-drifting action of 
the south-west monsoon winds, which sweep through the region for 
several months of the year without precipitating any part of their 
contained moisture, resulted in its sand-blasted topography. A certain 
proportion of the desert sand is derived from the weathered debris of 
the rocky prominences of this tract, which are subject to the great 
diurnal as well as seasonal alterations of temperature characteristic 
of all arid regions. This leads to a mechanical disintegration of the 
rocks, producing an abundance of loose debris, which there is no 
chemical or organic action (humus) to convert into soil.' 

The district of Bikaner is, thus a vast sandy tract. Three of 
its four tahslls namely, Bikaner, Ltinkaransar and Naukha arc covered 
with sand. Rocks locally known as Magra are found in the south- 
western portion of the district, which is part of Kolayat tahsll. In 
other parts of the district sand-layer has been found while digging 
extensive and deep wells, upto a depth of 45 metres. In the harder 
the Magra area, various types of sand-stone, clay and lime-stone have 
been revealed at different levels. At a depth of 32 km. (20 miles) 
horizontal beds of various rocks belonging to the Eocene Age have 
been discovered which shows that this area was subjected to sedimen- 
tation of sand stones for a pretty long time. Similar sedimentary 

1. R.C. Majumdar : The History and Culture of Indian People, Vol. I, p. 86. 



General 


5 


formations of the same age have been found in the southrwestern 
Punjab (now a part of Pakistan) extending far into the Arabian sea. 
It is probable that a long gulf had once . covered the whole portion of 
this territory, and the same gradually receded towards the south and 
south-west. The geological formations of Epcene Age are well repre- 
sented in the neighbourhood of Bikaner city. The strata consists of 
thick white and buff limestones and shales. Lignite and beds of 
fuller’s earth occur in these formations. 

Minerals 

The minerals found in this district are mainly conlined to the 
small areas in the south. They are as follows: 

(1) Fullers’ Earth (Miiltani Mini) — Fullers’ earth is found in 
thick beds in the Magra (Kolayat) tahsll and in Palana (about 23 km. 
south of Bikaner). It is a well-known greasy clay used by the local 
people as soap and for dyeing clothes. It is also associated with sand- 
stone and lime-stone and is available in-large quantities. 

(2) Lignite— At Palana (about 23 km. south of Bikaner) tlje 
lignite deposits are scattered 'in an area, 4 km. long and nearly 1 km. 
broad. Its depth varies from^ ^2 meWs,to 67 metres from the surface 
and thickness from 1.2 melre^Mio 28.3 metres, 'll contains 8.20 per cent 
of moisture, 42,72 per cent of fixed 'carbon and - 9.80 per cent of ash. 
Geologically, this lignite belongs to the lower Eocene period. The 
lignite deposit is a boon to this desert region where cheap fuel sources 
arc not available. Tons of lignite were produced and used by the 
power house at Bikaner city during the previous regime of the erstwhile 
Slate and till recently. 

(3) Gypsum — It is of the best quality available in India and 
is found at Jamsar (about 24 km. in the north of Bikaner), at Lan- 
karansar (about 80 km.), at Dulmcra (about 68 km.), and at Dhlrera 
(about 62 km.). According to the survey conducted by the department 
of Mines and Geology, Government of India, the total deposits have 
been estimated at nearly 40.6 million metric tonnes (40 million tons). 
Gypsum is used by the cement industr}- to a very great extent. Some 
deposits of gypsum also occur at Jaimalsar (28'’?' 73^2'), Kanvni 
(28‘’9'-73‘’6'), Bharu (18 km. from Jaimalsar), Makrasar (19 km. from 
Jamsar), Dholera (9 km. from Jamsar). 

(4) White Clay — ^T he deposits of white clay (or fire clay) are 



6 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikan^ 


found within a radius of 11 km.'from Kolayat. The mines are'situateiS 
at Marh, Kotri Indaka Baia and Chandi (all in the Kolayat tahsll).'^ 

(5) Yellow Ochre— Its minds are located near the Jogira^ Talkt 
‘(6, km 'away from Marh village in 'the Kolayat tahsllj’hnd iri'Kismidd- 
sar area near Blkarter city. 

(6) Glass Sand— Glass sand of a good quality is available in 
the village Marh (Kolayat tahsll). 

(7) Sand Stone — The deposits of this mineral have been found 
at a distance of about 68 km. (42 miles) in the north-east of Bikaner 
in village Dulmera. Sand stone is used as a building material. . 

(8) Lime Stone — This mineral has been discovered in Naukha 
tahsil of the district near village Dawa-Silwa. The mines are located 23 
km. (14 miles) away from the Naukha'Tailway statioti, 

(9) Grit (Bq/ari)— This is fouhd in large deposits hear Ganga- 
shahar, Garsisar and Sheo-Bari, and all around the Bikaner city within 
a radius of II km. (7 miles). It is of considerable use in construction, 
especially where re-inforced'concrete'work is to be done. 

Seismicity of Bikaner 

Bikaner district in Rajasthan lies in an area where no earth quake 
of any significance has been located in the past. It_ has, however, 
experienced the fringe effects of the great earth quakes originajinp, ?itl|cr 
in the great Himalayan boundary fault zone, the Sulernan ran^e.pr t^e 
Rann of Kutch. According to the records of the National Observatories, 
Delhi, the following earthquakes were reported, to have been felt?m 
Bikaner district: 


S.No. Date Location Bchfatic^'' 


1 . 


2 . 


3. 


1819, June 16 Rann of Kutch 


1905, April 4 Kangra 


1931, August 27 Mach 

(Baluchistan) 


A great shock which caused 
devastation near its .place pf 
origin. Felt all over.^R^^- 
than and, adjoining, a,rpa^,^^ 

A great shock with its epi- 
centre on great Himalaypn 
boundary fault zone in 
Kangra was also felt all ov« 
Rajasthan, 

Felt at Bikaner, 


General 


7 '’ 


Besides, a'ifew shocks originating in the Hindukush ' ’mountains/* 
generally felt upto Delhi could also have been “felt in the district. 


There is no record of earth quakes having caused damage to 
stffihcfutes in this district in the past.' Aocording to records maximum 
seismic intensity! experienced at Bikaner was V on ' the Modified 
Mercajli Scaler 1.931 during the earth quakes 'Of-l 819 and 1905J ’ 


f*J 


-With such a spisn:|i,c status, provision of,, earth quake, factor in 
the design of ordinarj' , civil engineering structures need not be niade in 
the Bikaner district. Safety precautions normally , ^aken , are sufficient 
to .coun,teract the hkely earth quake effect in future. 


FtORA 

The vegetafip'n of Bikaner district falls under the broad natural 
division of tropical thorn forest. But due to extremely low rainfall and 
extremes of temperature, there is high evaporation and loss of moisture, 
converting the district into typical arid tract. 


Forests 


In such a tract, no forest worth the name can grow. In low lying 
areas of the district, however, where the moisture accumulates to some 
extent during rains, a few scattered stunted trees of Prosopis Spicigera 
( Kliejra) and Tecoma Uiidiflata (Rohira) are found, none taller than 6 
metres. Special efforts were made during the regime of the erstwhile 
Bikaner State, to preserve the existing forest wealth, wherever found, 
and to encourage planting of trees by private individuals by granting 
rewards and offering concessions. Cutting of green trees was prohibited 
and trees were also planted and preserved, at State expense. 


, For the first tirric Tn* 1910, the services of an officer of the Punjab 
Forest Depaftrhcht' were secured. iTe was to draw a scheme for 
plantation and growth of such hardy trees that could grow and 
flourish in this, sandy, tract... A regular forcst department was establish- 
ed in the year I9i?4.2. Officers were sent for training to important 
traimng-pentms in India^ ./bjurserics were set-up at Gangfmagar, Karan- 
pur, Raisinghnagar, Jetsar and Padampur wherein several lac of plants 


t. Fch by nearly cvcrj'onci'many awakened. Some dishes, windows, etc. broken; 
a few instances of cracked plaster; unstable objects overturned. Disturbance 
of trees, poles and other tall objects somctirncs noticed. Pendulum clocks ni.ay 
stop, 

2. RipoTi on iht AdirJtsisirau'oit of the Bikaner State, 1924-25, p, 7 1 . 



8 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


had been raised. Plants were distributed to the jagirdars and others 
to encourage plantation of trees in the area. The results, however, 
were not commensurate with the efforts put. 

After the merger of the State with Rajasthan, Bikaner and Jodh- 
pur divisions were combined to form a forest zone under a Divisional 
Forest Officer with headquarters at Jodhpur. A forest ranger is posted 
at Bikaner who looks after the activities of the department in the 
district. He is assisted by a Forester for Jobar Bir and a few Forest 
Guards and Cattle Guards. This small staff looks after the Jobar Bir, 
executes developmental works of the department, and also assists the 
various panchayats in growing trees and developing pastures. A 
working plan for the whole of the division has been drawn for the 
years 1960-61 to 1969-70. The plan envisages raising of experimental 
plantations on sand-dunes and along the roads in this district. 


Revenue from Forest Department 

Revenue accruing from the Forest department in the district 
during recent years is given below; 


Year 

Revenue (Rs.) 

1962-63 

9,510 

1963-64 

5,397 

1964-65 

10,349 

1965-66 

7,667 


Protected and Private Forests 

As there are no forests worth the name in the district, the 
importance of the few patches of Protected forests and Private forests, 
therefore, is all the more significant in this typically arid zone. The 
following are the important patches of forests in the district. 


1. 

Jobar Bir 

8,861 hectares 

(Forest Department) 

2, 

BtchbwSl Bir 

405 hectares 

(Forest Department) 

3. 

BlchUwml Area 

9,712 hectares 

(Central Arid Zone Research 
Institute) 

4. 

Uilmmsar 

188 hectares 

(Central Arid Zone Research 
Institute) 

5. 

Gajner Preserve 

24 sq. km. 

(The Maharajah’s Private 
Preserve). 




General 


9 


Besides, there are a few groves of trees preserved by some of the 
temples, as growing and nursing of trees was regarded as a religious 
duty. Cutting of such trees tentamounts to committing a sin and they 
are thus afforded natural protection. Locally these clusters are called 
Oraus and those of Deshnoke and Koramdesar temples are renowned 
in this respect. 

There are two forest nurseries in the district : (i) Forest nursery, 
public park (Bikaner), which is being managed by the Forest depart- 
ment of the Government of Rajasthan and (ii) Forest nursery, Sheo- 
Bari (near Bikaner) managed by Central Arid Zone Research Institute. 

Research Institute — Besides, the two nurseries mentioned above, 
there are two Research Centres also, one located at Bichhwal and the 
other at Johar-Bir, The former is run by Central Arid Zone Research 
Institute for afforestation agronomy and pasture development, while 
the latter by the Forest department. Government of Rajasthan for the 
purpose of pasture-development. 

The other shrubs that are found in protected places are as 
follows: 

1. Acacia acquemontii (BhooBawli) 

2. Acacia Senegal ( Kiimat) 

3. Aerva tomentosa (Bui) (Booi-Crotalaria Burhia) 

4. Calligoniim polygomides (Phog) 

5. Calotropis procera (ak) 

6. Capparis aphylla (Karil or Kair) Acacia Catechu {Khair) 

7. Cordia rothii (Goondi) 

8. Maytenus emarginatus (Kankero) 

9. Lcptadenia spartium ( Khimp) 

10. Salvadora-oleoides (Jai-pilu) 

11. Salvadora-persica (Chhoto pilu) 

12. Tamarix ariiatlaia (Farash) 

13. Withania somnifera (AsgandJ 

14. Ziziplnis jujuba (Ber) 

15. Ziziphus nummuiaria (Jhar Ber) 

The important grasses that are found growing in the district are 
the following : 

U Aristida species (Lampla) 

2, Ccnchnis cathariictts (Bhariit) 

3. Cenchrus ciliaris (Dhanian) 



10 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— "Bifkaabr 


4. ' Ceiwhrus setigents (M6dia Dhaman) 

5. Daciylocieniuiu scimllciim (Ganthil) 

6. DesmOstacliya bipinnala ‘ ( Dab) 

7. EleilSine fldgUifera (Nara)' 

8. Lashirus seindicus (Sewan) ' 

9. Panium aniidoiale (Ghamod) 

10. Panicum turgidum (Murat) 

11. Saccharum Spontaneum (Kans)^,^ 

Tlrere are no particular vegetalii^e" divisiotis in the district. The 
vegetation Tn the eastern and southern part (N^ukha tahsil) is compara- 
tively thicker and taller with greater, preponderance ,of Kliejri, Rohira 
Ka/ikera and Miinja grass; whereas the drier par^s/m Lunkaransar and 
kolayat tahsTls have a few scattered trees of Khejri and , practically 
none of l?o/i/ra, /^mikera and no Afioi/a grass. Since therp i^.eKtcnsive 
agriculture in Naukha tahsil,^ there is less ground-coyer „vyhei;eas on 
account of meagre rain, in the north-western sides, there is .le?s.,of 
agriculture and better ground-cover, mostly of grasses and low bushes. 
This drier part of the district has^good pastures; 'practically, oT nutri- 
tive grasses viz., Seinvaii, Dhaman and Ganthil on which the ^ Rathi 
cows, one of the best milch ca^ttle in the cpuntry, and ,thc Jarsalmeri 
and breeds of sheep feed. 

" FAUNA 

Atsimals — A s there arc no wild ■)forcsts or hills, the-^districl 
does not abound in any special type oT' wild animals. The ‘fauna found 
here is of common variety such as,’ "Black Bilok-Indian antelope 
(Antilope cervicapara), chinkara (Gazella benetti), fox (Vvlpe^ benga- 
lensis), jackal (Canis aureus), mangoosc (Herpestes edWardsi), porcupine 
(Hystrix indica), stripped squirrel (Funambuluspennhntl),'(m\d' boar 
(Si« indiciis) and wolf (Canis lupus) 

Chinkaras and black bucks, exist in.attundancc as. their; killing 
is looked with disfavour and frowned upon by local • inhabitants 
especially in villages inhabited by Bishnois.' In the neighbourhood of 
Gajncr, wild boars, spotted deer, sambar, blue bull, hares and jackals 
roam about in herds. They are preserved and said to do great 
mischief. Gajncr (32 km. from Bikaner city), Jn/wr 5/r (10 km. from 
the district headquarters), Vallabh garden and Biclihml abound in 
Chinkaras (spotted deer and sambar have been introduced in 
Gajncr). 



General 


II 


Reptiles~A large number of snakes are found in the district 
haying their different names and sizes. Poisonous snakes, like cobra, 
the’krait and the viper, are sometimes seen but the viper, ipcally. known 
as exists in .abundance. An interesting, though a gruesome funfir 
tion is associated with another .type of snake known .locally sSyPaif^fi 
and found in drier parts of the dis^trict. It is believed that, ,this ,^nake 
introduces poison in the body through breathing and not by biting. 
How far this popular belief is based on truth has, however, npt , yet 
been investigated. Mortality rate due to^spake bite is not known. 

Birds— Birds commonly found in , pis arid district may pQ 
listed as:' 1. ICing Vulture, 2. White Vulture, 3. House-Crow, 4. Jungle- 
Crow, 5. King-Crow, 6. the White-checked Bulbul, 7. the Red-vented 
Bulbul, 8. the pouse-Sparrow, 9.. Owl, 10. Kite, 11. Rock-Pigeon, 
12. Sand-grouse,; 13, Imperial Sandrgrouse (migratory), 14. Grey Patri- 
dge, 15. Ducks (common teal, pochard, etc.) in Gajner tank, 16. Pea 
fowl, 17. Snipes, 18. Snippet, 19. Grey Shrike, 20. Seven-sisters, 21. the 
lesser Bustard (migratory), 22. the Indian Bustard, 23. the Lapwing, 
24. the Starling, and 25. Grey Dove. 

Of these special mention may be made of the great Indian 
bustard (chovistis mgriceps). It is one of the biggest birds in India with 
a black cap and whitish neck weighing upto 18.14 kg. (40 lbs). This 
beautiful bustard usually has its abode in grassy plains or in standing 
crops. It generally stmts in flocks consisting of two to eight or more. 
The most marked characteristic of the species is its habit of suddenly 
jumping off the ground into the air above the grass. Sometimes it flies 
with a peculiar wheeling flight with quick wing beats, but does not 
usually rise very high In the air due to its bulk. Its feed consists chiefly 
of grass-hoppers, but other insects, grains, seeds and tender shoots are 
also welcome to its gaping stomach. The main breeding season is from 
August to October. No nest is made, and eggs two to five in number 
arc deposited on the ground in some unfrequented path in a grassy 
field. The egg is oval in shape but is slightly depressed at the two ends. 
The shell is stout and smooth, closely pitted with minute pores, and 
usually lias a good deal of gloss. Its meat is finely flavoured throughout 
the cold months, but it is tough and often coarse at other limes of the 
year. Because of the quantity of meat it contains, this bird is much 
sought fo,- and a lot of poaching goes on even though the bird has been 
declared as a ‘protected game’ all the year round under the Rajasthan 
Animals and Birds Protection Act, 1951 and rules framed there under. 



12 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Game Sanctnries 

Except for the two private preserves of the Maharaja of Bikaner 
viz., Gajner and Vallabh gardens there are no game sanctnries in the 
district. All the game within the forests of the Johar Bir , Bichhwvl 
and Udramser, however, are protected under the Rajasthan Forest Act. 
The preserve at Gajner about 38 sq. km. in area is situated at a 
distance of about 32 km. from Bikaner, with an artificial lake and a 
beautiful palace of the Maharaja on its bank. The preserve abounds 
in various types of ducks, sand-grouse, the imperial sand-grouse, chin- 
karas, black bucks, wild boar, hare, fox and blue bull (all the local 
species), besides spotted deer (cheeial) and sambaf that have been 
introduced and have multiplied there. 

The second preserve at Vallabh garden is small in size covering 
an area of about 12 sq. km. It is situated close to the town of Bikaner 
and abounds in chinkaras, grey patridge, sand-grouse and hares. As it 
is acc'es^iSle’ road all the year around and grazing is permitted in it, 
it is-fSst losing, its sanctity as a game sanctuary and may soon be 
depleted of all the game. 

CLIMATE 

Tlib district has a dry climate with large variations of tempera- 
ture, and^cantV rainfall. The winter lasts from November to March 
and iS*folTo,we3 by summer from April to June. The rainy season begins 
in July and ends by Mid-September. The weather is mild and pleasant 
during September and October. Hot winds continue blowing in summer 
during the day sweeping away the old and creating new sand-dunes. 
The heat is intolerable in the sun and people while away their time in 
underground cellars. With the setting of the sun, the sands lose their 
temperature swiftly, and nights become cool and pleasant to bestow 
refreshing repose to the shattered nerves. The winters are equally severe, 
the temperature sometimes touching the freezing point during the 
night. G. S. Ojha has made a mention of an unfortunate historical 
incident in which General Elphinstone while going to Kabul passed 
through this desert area in the month of November, 1808 (a.d.). He 
lost forty men who were not accustomed to, or not prepared to face, 
severe sandy winter of Bikaner. 

Rainfall 

Records of rainfall in the district are available for six stations 
for periods ranging from nineteen to eighty years. Appendices I and 11 



General 


13 


give the details of the rainfall at these stations and for the district 
as a whole. The, average annual rainfall in the district is 259.6 mm. 
(10.22"). The average rainfall in general increases as we go from 
the north-west towards the south-east. For the north-western areas of 
the district no rainfall data are available and the rainfall is much less 
than in the south-eastern half of the district. About 76 per cent of the 
annual rainfall is received from the south-west monsoon. 

Variation in rainfall from year to year is considerable. As will 
appear from appendix II in forty two years out of fifty, this variation 
ranged from 100 to 400 mm. (3.94" to 15.75"). In the fifty years begin- 
ning from 1901 to 1950, the highest annual rainfall in the district, 
amounting to 293 per cent of the average was recorded in 1917. The 
succeeding year 1918 witnessed the lowest rainfall of 24 per cent of the 
average. Similar variations in rainfall from year to year are also 
noticeable in the north-western areas of the district. In sixteen years, 
the rainfall in this area was less than 80 per cent of its^anhual normal 
rainfall of the district. In other parts of the district there have been 
only three occasions when two consecutive years had less than 80 per 
cent of the normal average. At certain places rainfall was less than 80 
per cent of the normal in four or even five consecutive years.^ 

On an average, there are sixteen rainy days (ia:^ days,.with rain 
of 2.5 mm. or more) in a year. This number varies from thirteen 
at Lonkaransar to nineteen at Bikaner. August is the rainiest 
month of the year. The highest rainfall in 24 hours which occurred at 
any station in the district, was 265.9 mm. (10.47") at Paliina on 
August 7, 1933. 

Temperature 

There is a meteorological observatory’ at Bikaner and the records 
of this station may be taken to be representative of the climatological 
conditions in the district. Temperature rises rapidly after March. June 
is the hottest month with the mean daily maximum temperature at 
41.5''c (106.7'f) and the mean daily minimum temperature at 29.3°c 
(84.7'i-). The summer months are extremely hot with scorching dust 
laden winds, the day temperature sometimes going upto about 49"c 
(120'r). With the advance of south-west monsoon by about the middle 
of July, temperature decreases down a little, but the- oppressiveness of 
the weather continues due to increased humidity. The highest tempera- 
ture recorded at Bikaner on 2Sth May, 1914 was 49.4*c (12rf). 



14 


Rajasthafl District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


After the later half of September when monsoon withdraws, the 
day temperature goes up a little but the night temperature is low. From 
November, the drop in both day and night temperatures is very- large 
particularly in the winter months. The drop in temperature after nighty 
fall is rather sudden and trying. January is the coldest month when the 
mean daily minimum temperature is 5.Tc (41.3?f) and the mean daily 
maximum temperature is 22.rc (71.8°F). During the winter season, 
cold waves affect the district in the wake of passing western disturbances 
and the minimum temperature sometimes drops to 2 or 3°c below 
freezing point. Frosts are fairly frequent. The lowest temperature of 
-4.0'c (24.8 °f) was recorded on January 26, 1964. 

Humidity 

Except during the brief rainy season, humidity in the air is low 
and even during the rainy period, air is dry in between the rains. The 
summer months arc the driest, especially in the afternoons of April and 
May when relative humidity is of the order of 15 to 20 per cent. 

Cloudiness 

Even during the rains, it is only on a few days that the skies are 
overcast or heavily clouded. They are cither clear or lightly clouded 
during the rest of the year, except that during the winter, in association 
with western disturbances, cloudy skies prevail for short spells of a day 
or two. 

Winds 

From May to September moderate south-west winds' blow, but in 
the rest of the year they are generally light. From May to October 
mostly south-west winds blow. During the winter season (November to 
March) winds are generally light in the morning^ (directions between 
cast and south being more common), but in the afternoons ilic^‘ become 
heavy mainly from north-west. In April, the morning winds are’gehe- 
rally south-eastern and western while in the' afternoons they blow 
mostly from directions between south-west and north-west. 

Special weather phenomena 

Some of the depressions which originate in the Bay of Bengal in 
the south-west monsoon season, move in a westerly direction reaching 
the district during their last stages of journey and cause widespread rain 



General 


15 


before' dissipating'. An occasional post-monsoon storm or depression 
also affects the district. Sand and dust-storms and thunder-storms occur 
in the summer season. Thunder-storms occur in the south-west during 
the monsoon season also. In the wake of western disturbances, 
occasional fog occurs in winter. 

Appendices m, iv and v give the temperature and humidity, 
mean wind speed and frequency of special weather phenomena respec- 
tively for Bikaner. 



Normals and extremes of Rainfall 


16 Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 




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* Based on ail available data upto 1965, Years given in brackets. 


General 


17 


Appendix II 


Frequency of Annual Rainfall in Bikaner District 
(Data 1901-1950) 


Range in mm. 

No. of years 

Range in mm. 

No. of years 

1-100 

2 

401-500 

4 

101-200 

14 

501-600 

1 

201-300 

18 

601-700 

0 

301-400 

10 

701-800 

1 


Appendix III 


Normals of Temperature & Relative Humidity in Bikaner 


2 

O 

a 

Mean daily 

maximum 

temperature 

Mean daily 

minimum 

temperature 

Highest maximum 
ever recorded 

Lowest minimum 
ever recorded 

Relative 

humidity 

•08.30 *17.30 


"C Date 

”C Date 

% % 


Jan. 

22.1 

5.2 

31.1 

1952 

Jan. 

23 

-4,0 

1964 

Jan, 

26 

67 

37 

Feb. 

26.0 

8.2 

37.2 

1953 

Feb. 

28 

-2,2 

1950 

Feb. 

11 

56 

29 

March 

31.8 

14.7 

42.8 

1924 

Mar. 

25 

-0.6 

1898 

Mar. 

4 

46 

24 

April 

37.8 

21.0 

47.2 

1925 

Apr. 

24 

8.3 

1953 

Apr. 

1 

30 

16 

May 

39.4 

27.6 

49.4 

1914 

May 

28 

16.7 

1930 

May 

20 

34 

18 

June 

41.5 

29.3 

48.9 

1897 

June 

10 

17.8 

1888 

June 

4 

50 

29 

July 

38.4 

28.1 

47.8 

1963 

July 

7 

20.6 

1931 

July 

5 

67 

46 

Aug. 

36.1 

26.7 

43.3 

1889 

Aug. 

13 

21.1 

1889 

Aug. 

27 

72 

50 

Sep. 

36.7 

25.2 

43.9 

1915 

Sep. 

11 

19.1 

1924 

Sep. 

30 

68 

41 

Oct. 

35.5 

18.8 

42.2 

1951 

Oct. 

5 

7.6 

1964 

Oct. 

30 

49 

26 

Nov. 

30.4 

lO.l 

37.2 

1943 

Nov. 

2 

0.6 

1937 

Nov. 

30 

47 ■ 

27 

Dec. 

24.7 

5.6 

33.3 

1963 

Dec. 

12 

2.8 

1950 

Dec. 

28 

57 

34 

Annual 

33.4 

19.2 









54 

31 


Hours I.S.T. 








18 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


Appendix TV 

Mean Wind Speed in km/hr 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sep. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec 

Annual 

3.4 

4.0 

5.6 

6.4 

9.2 

12.1 

11.5 

9.8 

8.5 

4.7 

2.6 


B 


Appendix V 

Special Weather Phenomena in Bikaner 



Thunder 0.2 0.6 0.0 0.9 1.2 3.0 2.0 1.1 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.0 9.8 

Hail 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 

Dust-storm 0.3 1.2 1.7 2.0 3.0 5.0 2.0 1.3 0.6 0.6 0.0 0.2 17.9 

Squall 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 

Fog 2.0 1.1 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 o’o 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 3.9 

> » 





CHAPTER II 


HISTORY 

PRE-HISTORY 

As we have seen in the previous chapter, the Great Indian 
Desert (also called Thar) of which Bikaner district forms a part, is 
believed to have been the bed of a sea, in the pre-historic periods 
termed by geologists as Jurassic, Cretaceous and Eocene. No date can 
be assigned as to when it was converted into a dry land. It is surmised 
that it happened probably sometime in the upper Tertiary. Many 
centuries after the marsh had completely dried up, some vegetation 
began to spring up resulting in clusters of shrubs and trees. Many 
more years rolled by before some habitation was possible in this region, 
but when and how it happened is not known. The spread of desert 
in this region is ascribed to comparatively a much later period of 
history, between 4000 to 1000 B.c. Local tradition regards the holy 
tank at Kol'ayat as old as the creation itself. 

PROTO-HISTORY 

The early hymns of Rigveda make a frequent mention of three 
rivers of the Vedic age; namely, Sarasvati, Drishadvati and Shatadru. 
Of these Sarasvati was a river par-excellence (Naditama) , the banks of 
which reverberated with the chants of Vedic hymns sung during the 
performance of many a Yajms. The location of the river is mentioned 
in between* Sutlej and Yamuna and it is identified with modern 
Ghaggar. It constituted, in the Vedic age, a large river-system, where- 
in flowed Drishadvati (now identified with , Chitang) and Shatadru 
(modern Sutlej) which rolled on into the ocean. This sacred river, 
alongwith its tributaries flowed into the northern part of the erstwhile 
Bikaner State, which during those days was a fertile valley. In course 
of time this river-system dried up and the dried up bed is clearly 
traceable in a westerly direction in Bikaner division till it reaches 
Hanumiingarh which was known as Bhatner. 

The valley of Sarasvati and the Drishadvati is very rich in 
archreological finds, which are of great chronological and cultural value. 
These finds show us glimpses of several millennia of Indian history 
right from the Harappa period (c. 2300 B.c. to 1750 B.c. as per radio- 
carbon dates) to comparatively recent timcsi. 

1. Bancrjce N.R., The Iron Age in India, Delhi {1965), pp. 14,96,223,233,240. 



20 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Dr. L.P. Tessitory, who had explored the dried up bed of Hakra 
(recognised as ancient Sarasvati) in 1917-1919, found that the mounds, 
known locally ther or theri were bare of all vegetation and covered 
with pieces of broken pottery. He regarded them as Buddhist funeral 
places of the ancient Yaudheya tribe. Very interesting relics and even 
complete block of red-burnt clay were detached by Dr. Tessitory from 
house walls in the villages of Badopal and Rangmahal. He considered 
these terracotta sculptures as an off-shoot of the Buddhist art of 
Gandhara. But later explorations, done by Sir Aurel Stein in the year 
1941, in the dried up bed of Hakra, have brought to light a number 
of pre-historic sites in the region of the erstwhile Bikaner State and 
particularly, the erstwhile Bahawalpur Statei now in Pakistan. Sir Stein 
is of the view that the area was the seat of a great civilisation now 
shrouded in mystery, due to its burial under the sand. Sir Stein and 
Ghcsh had found numerous mounds strewn with pot-sherds, large and 
well-built bricks and actual remains of kilns. 

Archaeologically these pottery remains, dug out in the region can 
be assigned to at least three stagesS of civilisation due to their variety 
and vividness. The first type of pottery is identical with, or similar 
to that found at Harappa and Mohanjodaro, and is often painted. 
The second type is a grey-ware painted with black designs and belongs 
to a later period. The third type is painted black-on-red. All these 
types were not found at a single site, but lay scattered under different 
iheris. As far as we are concerned all these cultures flourished out side 
the present limits of the district; but the fact 'that the remains of 
Harappa culture and later Vedic culture were found side by side in this 
valley suggests the possibility that the two cultures might have come 
in close contact in this region. 

In 1946, Herman Goetz made further studies of the mounds in 
the region and opined, “it seems much more probable that they are the 
last remnants of crude mud-houses and forts such as are constructed 
in this part of India upto the present day. When abandoned or 
destroyed they slowly disintegrated into these mounds, a process which 
can be observed even now in the ruins of Hanumangarh (Bhatner)”.3 

1. The History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol. 1, George Allen & Unwin 
Ltd.. London (1957), p. 73. 

2. Bulletin of the National Institute of Sciences of India, September 1952, p.47. 

3. Goetz Herman, The An and Archilecttire of Bikaner State, Oxford (1950), p. 25. 



History 


21 


Dr. Goetz holds that these remains cannot be ascribid to that of 
Mohanjodaro canon, but to a later type developed from it. 

The weight of opinions, favouring ascribing these remains to 
post-Harappan period ranging between circa 1500 B.c. to 600 b.c, is 
greater. The painted grey ware occurring in this region, has helped 
the archeologists in ascertaining the chronology of similar remains 
found at other places of excavations like Hastinapur, Ujjain and 
Kosambi (Kosam village near Allahabad). From this similarity it is 
assumed that this type of ware is associated with the Aryans!, the black 
and red ware is thought to be of Dra vidian origins. Dr. BanerjeeS is 
of the opinion that “the users of the de-luxe painted grey ware ceramic, 
who have been provisionally identified with the Aryans and who imbi- 
bed and adapted several other ceramic traditions then extant in the 
country, including a plain variety of the wide spread black and red 
ware, were responsible for the introduction of the Iron Age in India 
about 1000 B.c. in the northern plains, and may have transmitted it 
by degrees to south India as well as through the megalithic folks i 
little later”. 

These archaeological finds and the cultural history of the region 
leads us to assume that in the hoary past the people inhabiting this 
district were perhaps not dissimilar in their ways of life to their neigh- 
bours at the border. 


ANCIENT HISTORY 

In the Mahabharata there are frequent references to Kuru- 
Jangalah and Madreya Jangalah. We may infer, from the old 
geographical references that Bikaner district formed part of Jangal 
territory. Unfortunately nothing much has been mentioned in the 
Afahabharata about the civilisation extant in this region. Nothing is 
known whether it came under the suzerainty of the various imperial 
powers that follov/ed namely, the Maurj'as, Iho Greeks, the Kushanas, 
the Guptas, or the Pratiharas. We give below brief account of some 
of the tribes that seem to have held sway over this territory in the 
remote past. 

J. Bancrjcc N.R.. op. cif., p. 14. 

2. Subba Rao B., Pcrsonaliiy of India 095S), pp. 117-125. 

3. Banerjce N.R., op- cit-, p. 233. 



22 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


The Yaudheyas 

The untamable and warlike people known as the Yaudheyas 
are described in iht A'ihtadhyayi ol ?a.niTa ayiidh-jivi-Kshatriyas or 
depending upon arms for their livelihood. The heart of the Yaudheya 
territory may have been the eastern Punjab, but they dominated over 
the adjoining tracts of the Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.! If they can 
be identified with the Johiyas who inhabited the Johiyawar territory, 
then it is probable that the northern portion of the erstwhile Bikaner 
State remained under their rule. 

The Gurjara-Pratiharas 

It is held by several scholars that the Gurjaras first settled in the 
Punjab and then moved to northern portion of the Bikaner State and 
at last settled in Marwar. There they founded the Pratihara dynasty.2 
It cannot be ascertained, in the absence of further researches, as to 
how long they lived or stayed in this region but it is certain that they 
acquired and consolidated a vast kingdom. 

The Chahamanas and the Bhatis 

The Praliharas were followed by Chahamanas (Chauhans), who 
settled themselves in a more promising part of the territory, east of the 
Thar desert. They founded their kingdom around Shakambhari 
(Sambliar). In the meantime, behind the Chahamanas were advancing 
Bhatis, another tribe in the Thar desert, from the north-west 
of the territory of the erstwhile Bikaner State.3 They were defeated 
by the Pratihara King Siluka. They founded the kingdom of 
Derawar, the capital of which was shifted to Lodorva and ultimately, 
to Jaisalmer. This new kingdom was much larger than the erstwhile 
Jaisaimer State and extended^ from Bhatner (Hanumangarh in Ganga- 
nagar district now) and Bhatinda up to the vicinity of Gujarat. 

MEDIEVAL PERIOD 

Until the second half of the 10th century Jangaldesa formeds a 
neglected frontier province of the empire of Kannauj. The 
later Pratihara rulers were not strong enough to look after such 
a poor country. About 973 a.d. Vigraharaja Chauhan II threw off the 

t. The lUslory and Culture of the Indian People, t'ol. II, Bombay (1960), p. 166. 

2. The History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol. HI, Bombay (1962), pp. 61-65. 

3. Goetz Herman, op. c//., p. 28. 

4. ibid., p. 29. 

5. ibid , pp. 30-31. 



History 


23 


suzerainty of the last Pratiharas. In the meantime the kingdom of 
Ghazni was founded and its rulers followed the aggressive policy 
of, the Umayyads and early Abbasids, of encroaching on the “infidel 
lands”. Thus the Thar desert became a theatre of war from time 
to time. May be that it remained a neutral zone through which 
trade between India and West passed, because several old trade routes 
lay in this area of the desert. Besides this, the armies or bands of 
tribes also passed through this way. 

We know now that due to the important routes lying through 
this area, many types of people came, stayed and passed through this 
region. Some of them might have established themselves here. After 
the advent of the Pratihara dynasty, many new principalities emerged. 
Different Rajput clans came into prominence viz. Chalukyas (Solankis), 
Chaharaanas (Chauhans), Parmars, Kachhawahas and others. But it 
cannot be ascertained as to who ruled in this part of the territory 
during those days. Towns and villages sprang up studded with tempi's, 
artificial lakes were constructed in the desert areas to convert it into an 
oasis. They fortified their hillridges to safeguard their hearth and home. 

The different tribes who inhabited the territory occupied by the 
erstwhile Bikaner State during medieval ages were the Jats, Johiyas, 
Bhatis, Mohils, Sankhalas etc. They lived as serai-autonomous 
tribes-cspccially the Jats, who formed the seven different clans amongst 
themselves (1) Punia, (2) Godara, (3) Saran, (4) Kaswa, (5) Beniwal, 
(6) Sihag, and (7) Sohua, but Tod enumerates only six Jat clans i.e , 
Punia, Godara, Saran, Asaich, Beniwal and Johiya though this last 
clan is by some termed a ramification of the Yadu-Bhati Rajputs. 
They formed cantons and each canton bore the name of the comrhunity 
or clan, and was further divided into districts. These people led 
pastoral life, their wealth being their cattle, and they used to quarrel 
among themselves. 

The Chauhans probably had this area or a portion of it under 
their sway during their heyday 'which is evident from the stone-inscrip- 
tions engraved on several cenotaphs. Some coins of the Chauhans have 
also been found and G.H. Ojha^- records that he had discovered a copper 
coin of Ajayadeva Chauhan in the vicinity of Hanumangarh (then 
Bhatncr, now in Ganganagar district) and on this basis, it can only be 
assumed that the Chauhans had some kind of influence in this area. 

1. OJha, G.H., Tkf History of fliijput&na, Vol. V, Part I, Ajmer (1939). p. 70. 



24 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Towards the south-east and east of the Bikaner district were 
settled in those days, the Rajputs known as Mohils and the area inha- 
bited by them was called Mohilvati. These Mohils have been regarded 
as one of the branches of the Chauhans.* Their leader was called a 
Rana. This has been recorded by Nensi in his Kliyata. Later, these 
Eanas of Mohilvati had developed a feud with the Rathors of Jodhpur. 
Rao Jodha ithe founder of Jodhpur) had attacked and killed 
Ajit Singh (Mohil). Many battles were fought and the Mohils were 
rendered weak due to these battles and other internecine feuds. Weak 
Mohils were attacked by the Jodhpur army and their territory within 
the Jodhpur boundary sacked and confiscated. But the Mohils did not 
sit idle. They approached Sultan Bahlol Lodi and with the aid and 
co-operation of the Muslim General, Saranga K.han, they regained their 
lost possessions from the Rathors of Jodhpur.’ 

Another important Rajput clan which was inhabiting this tract, 
was the Sankhla (Paraniara). They were occupying a portion around 
Janglu before the advent of Rao Bika (son of Rao Jodha and the 
founder of Bikaner). The area to the west and north-west of the erstwhile 
Bikaner State was under the possession of the Bhatis who had the 
strong principality of Pugal. with whom later on, Bika had to enter 
into a blood-relationship. Bika had to contend against all these tribes 
in order to establish himself on a permanent footing. 

The dynastic history of the rulers of the erstwhile Bikaner State 
begins with the heroic exploits of Rao Bika, son of Rao Jodha, the 
ruler of Marwar. He was born^ in 1438 a.d. Rao Jodha had 
seventeen sons born of six Ranis. An interesting talc is told of how 
Rao Bika founded a kingdom and perpetuated his name for ever. It is 
said that Rao Bika one day entered the durbar late and took his seat 
beside his uncle, Rao Kandhal with whom he started talking in 
whispers. Seeing this, Rao Jodha jestingly asked, “what was this secret 
talk between the uncle and the nephew-were they considering conquer- 
ing new territory ?” Kandhal took it as a challenge and replied that 
this would also be accomplished with his blessings. It so happened 

J . Ojha, G.H., The History of Rajpiilanp. Vol. V, Part T, Ajmer (1939), p. 70. 

2. i6W.,p.7I. 

3. ibid., p. 90. From another account, the d.atc is H40 a.d. while P.W. Powlett in 
his Gattettecr of the Bikaner State (1874) gives as 1439 A.D. For the subsequent 
rulers also, the dates of birth, death etc. given by dificrent writers arc at 
variance with each other. 



Historv 


25 


that at the durbar was present one Napo, a Sankhla Rajput who, inti- 
mated that some Sankhla Rajputs had abandoned a part of Janglu 
territory lying to the north of Jodhpur as they were hard pressed by 
Bloach incursions. He suggested its occupation. The suggestion was 
welcomed and Jodha urged his son to launch on this expedition. An 
expeditionary force was accordingly organised comprising 100 horse and 
500 foot. Accompanying! Bika were his uncles Kandhal, Rupa, Man- 
dan, Mandala and Nathu, his brothers Joga and Bida, Napo the 
Sankhla, the master of the horse (Sahni) and a number of Mutsaddis 
(writers). According to Powleti, Bika was provided both with a civil 
and military staff 

The tract which now forms the Bikaner city was perhaps aban- 
doned and its occupation would present no problem but towards its 
north-west was located a powerful Bhati kingdom; towards its north-east, 
the Jats had their small settlements. Hisar was the headquarters of 
the Governor of the Delhi Sultan. On other sides were scattered small 
chieftainships weak in offensive, but well entrenched in their desert 
, fortresses to withstand aggression. 

Bika marched via Mandauwar, to Deshnoke where there lived a 
famous Charan woman Karniji, believed to be endowed with super- 
natural powers. She exercised considerable influence over the neigh- 
bouring rajas especially Shekha, the Bhati Rao of Pogal. Bika 
paid his respects to her who gave her prophetic blessings in the follow- 
ing words “Your power and pelf will be higher than your father's and 
many a chief will touch your feet.” After this, Bika moved to Chan- 
dasar and then to Koramdesar where the idol of Bhairun was installed 
on the bank of a talao by him. There he declared himself as the raja. 
Reaching the deserted tract of Janglu he took possession of 84 villages 
left by the Sankhlas and started strengthening his army and extending 
his domination. It is said that on the advice of Karniji, he allied him- 
self with Shekha Bhati, the Rao of Pagal by marrying the latter’s 
daughter. This alliance gave a foothold to Bika in the Bhati territory. 
In 1478 A.D. Bika wanted to construct a fort at Koramdesar which 
was objected to by Rao Shekha. Rao Bika paid no heed to his 
protestations which led to an estrangement with the Bhatis. Under the 
leadership of Kalikaran Kehrot, the son of the Rawal Kehar of 

Ojha, G.H., The History of RiJputSna, Vol. V, Pt. I, Ajmer (1939), p. 91. 



26 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Jaisalmer, the dissatisfied Bhatis mustered a strong force and a fierce 
battle took place in which Bika won the day, but the Bhatis continued 
their harassing tactics with the result that the Rao gave up his plan to 
build the fort at Koramdesar and in consultation with Napo Sankh'a, 
who was believed to be great observer of omens, chose another site. 
Thus were lard rrr 14S5 ^.o., the foundations of the fort around 
which, three years later, in G. 1545 (1488 a.d.) the construction of 
the city of Bikaner was undertaken. 

With the establishment of a permanent capital by Bika, the 
neighbouring tribes begaii to feel that a new star had arisen in the 
political firmament of the area. Some of them especially the Godara 
Jats acknowledged his sovereignty. The allegiance of the Godaras 
brought Bikaji into conflict with the Sarans, another tribe of the same 
race who approached the powerful Chief of Sewani to help them. 
Fight soon ensued between the two Chiefs resulting in an all-out 
victory for Bika. 

As has been stated earlier, the country of the Vtohils had been 
conquered by Jodha and was put under the charge of Bida, brother of 
Bika. But soon troubles arose. The Mohil chief and Sarang Khan, 
the subedar of Hisar, combined against him. Bida had offended his 
father. Finding himself alone and helpless, he asked his brother to 
render necessary help. He took refuge with his brother who after rais- 
ing strong army of 8000 men, marched against the enemy. Sarang 
Khan had to retire in haste to his headquarters after seeing an app- 
roaching defeat at the hands of Kandhal. The Mohil country was 
restored to Bida but he held it as a feudatory of his brother. Dissatis- 
fied Sarang Khan, however, in order to wipe out the blot of the retreat 
collected a large force and attacked the Rathor chief Kandhal who 
had created a havoc in the Hisar territory. The latter fought gallantly 
but fell in action. On hearing this sad news of the demise of his dear 
uncle, who had been like a second father to him, Bika took an oath 
to eat bread only after he had avenged the death of Kandhal. He 
sought help from his father, Jodha, who sent timely help. The com- 
bined armies of the Rathors met the enemy at the village of Jhans or 
Jhansal. Sarang Khan was killed and his army was put to flight. 

Bika was asked by his father not to claim succession to his 
estate but to remain content with what he had won, Bika, however. 



Hi'tory 


27 


wanted to possess the heirlooms and the insignia of royalty brought 
from Kannauj, in lieu of his foregoing the claim for his father’s patri- 
mony. It is said that Jodha agreed that these would be sent to 
Bikaner. But after Jodha’s death when Bika demanded them 
from his successor Rao Suja, the latter showed his reluctance; 
Bika had to take recourse to arms and invaded Jodhpur which was 
taken and given up to plunder. Suja took refuge in the fort which 
was besieged. His mother, then, intervened and came to see Bika, who 
agreed to raise the siege only if the heirlooms and the royal insignia 
were handed over to him. The famous siege of Jodhpur was thus 
raised and Bika brought the coveted articles in triumph. 

Bika’s younger brother. Bar Singh, the administrator of Merta, 
used to plunder the adjoining areas of Ajmer and Sambhar. The Sube- 
dar of Ajmer, Mallu Khan, captured him for plundering his villages. 
The combined forces of Duda, Suja and Bika advanced and the Subedar 
released Bar Singh without putting any fight against the approaching 
army. 

Bika in order to prevent further inroads on his territory by the 
ihakur of Khandela, Rirmal, had to measure swords with him. The 
thakur could not withstand the attack, and fled, leaving the town at 
the mercy of Bika’s troops who ransacked it getting much spoil. The 
last expedition led by Rao Bika was against Rewari in which he 
successfully occupied a considerable portion of the territory which 
belonged to the Sultan of Delhi. Rirmal the thakur of Khandela, 
approached the Sultan for help to push back Bika’s forces from Rewari. 
The Sultan of Delhi sent 4,000 Imperial troops under Nawab Hindal 
to oust him from the Imperial territory. This joint army attacked 
Bika who fought with rare courage and valour and inflicted a crushing 
defeat on the enemy killing both the commanders-Hindal and Rirmal. 
This was the last of Bika’s military exploits after which he ruled peace- 
fully till his death and without any molestation from neighbouring 
chiefs. At the time of his death which took place in 1504 a.d, his 
rule is said to have extended over 3,000 villages. 

Rao Lunkaran 

The second ruler, Mara (Naruji) was borni in 1469 a.d. and 
succeeded his father in 1504 a.d. But he died childless and was 
succeeded by his brother Lunkaran (born in 1470 a.d.) in the year 
1505 A.D. His first expedition was against the chieftains who had 

1. Another source gives this date as 146S A.D See Ojha, G.H., op. cit , p. 111. 



28 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


been deprived of their lands by Bika and after his death they rose in 
revolt to wrest the same from his successor. Lunkaran marched against 
Man Singh Chauhan of Dadrewa (in Rajgarh tahsil of Churu district) 
in 1509 A.D. and defeated him after a siege lasting seven months. In 
those days Fateh pur was held by the Kayamkhanis. Daulat Khan 
was its ruler at this time who had a feud with Rangkhan. Taking 
advantage of this feud, Lunkaran invaded Fatehpur in 1512, and de- 
feated them. He annexed 120 villages of their territory^. Later on, 
he attacked Chayaiwara territory situated near Hisar and Sirsa and 
after defeating Chayal Rajputs annexed a large portion of their 
territory. He married a daughter of Rana Rai Mai of Mewar in 
S.1570 (1514 A.D. ). 

The other event of importance during his rule, was his war with 
Jaisalmer in which Rawal Jet Singh? was taken prisoner and his capi- 
tal Jaisalmer was plundered. Later the Rawal was released and peace 
was concluded. The Rawal’s daughters were married to Lunkaran’s 
sons. Sometime later Lunkaran was killed fighting bravely alongwi<h 
his three sons against the overwhelming forces of the Nawab of Nar- 
naul when his own supporters deserted his banner. 

Rao Jet Singh 

Jet Singh (born in 1489 A.D. or v.s. 1546) was the eldest son 
of Lunkaran. Learning of the death of his father in battle due to 
treachery in S. 1583 (1526 a.d,), he applied himself energetically to 
the task of punishing those who had deserted his father. He expelled 
Kalyan Mal^ son of Thakur Udai Karan Bidawat as a punishment for 
his treachery. He then chastised the Johiyas. The principal Johiya, 
Tihun Pal, fled towards Lahore, He then sent an army to attack 
Dronpur where upon Kalyanmal, the son of Udai Karan fled and took 
refuge with the Khan of Nagaur. Jet Singh entrusted Sanga the grand- 
son of Bida with the su7.erainty over Dronpur. 

Another event of importance worth mentioning in the reign of 
Jet Singh was the help he rendered to his nephew Sanga against his 
step-brother Ratan Singh the ruler of Amber. The chieftains of Amber 
taking advantage of their ruler's addiction to drinking were gradually 
appropriating crown lands and chaotic conditions prevailed in the 

1. Ojha, G.H., op, cil , p. 113. 

2. In some chronicles, the name of the Rawal is given as Devi Das. 

3. Powlctt gives this name as Udai Karan instead of Kalyanma'. 



History 


29 


realm. Jet Singh sent an impressive army of 15,000 men led by Sar- 
dars of repute with Sanga, who captured a large territory but con- 
sidered it wise to found a new principality at Sanganer. The array of 
Bikaner returned without any engagement Jet Singh also rendered 
military aid in person to Ganga the Rao of Jodhpur, who wanted to 
remove his uncle, Shekha, a claimant to the Jodhpur Gadi. Jet Singh 
sent 6,000 soldiers for Ganga’s help. Shekha took help from the Khan 
ofNagaur. A bitter fight ensued. The Khan of Nagaur, however, 
withdrew his forces suspecting some secret understanding between 
Ganga and Shekha. Shekha was accordingly defeated. 

In 15341 a.d. Kamran, son of Babur, came down lo Bhatner 
(Hanumangarh) with a large army. He took the place and marched 
upon Bikaner. There was considerable panic in the town at the 
approach of the invading array. Jet Singh retreated to a safer place 
and attacked Kamran’s forces suddenly at night. The MusaJmans fled 
panic-striken. 

A few years later Jet Singh had to face^he fierce, attack-of Mal- 
deo, chief of Jodhpur, son of Ganga. There are different versions of 
the fight that ensued. The result, however, was' that Jet Singh was 

■s , > 

killed in the battle, his fort was captured and, half of his territory was 
annexed by Maldeo. The family of^Jet Singh had been escprted to 
Sirsa bereft of their capital and thwr forc. 

Rao Kalyan Singh 

The fortunes of the Bikaner dynasty, as Powlett remarks, had 
never before or since touched such a low ebb when Kalyan Singh the 
eldest son of Jet Singh occupied the Gadi. After establishing himself at 
Sirsa, Kalyan Singh started making endeavours to wrest his patrimony. 

It was, however, more the political change at Delhi that helped 
Kalyan Singh in the achievement of his objective than his military 
might. His brother Bhira Raj who had left for Delhi to serve in the 
Imperial army under Humayun was able to gain the favour of Sher 
Shah who later wrested the Mughal throne from Humayun. It was 
again the turn of fortune which induced Maldeo first to offer help to 
Humayun against Sher Shah, and later send an army against him, 
thereby incurring the hostility of both. Sher Shah, who was on the 
look out for an opportunity to crush Maldeo and thereby nip in the 

t. From another account, the date is I53S A D. Sec Ojna, op cit., p. 1 31. 



30 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


bud any danger of Rajput confederacy against him readily acceded to 
the request of Nag Raj the Vazier and Kalyan Singh to march against 
Jodhpur to help him restore his kingdom. The influence of Bhim Raj 
also worked in his favour. A huge expeditionary force was organised 
which set out towards Jodhpur in January 1544. Rao Kalyan Singh 
also marched with his forces from Sirsa and joined the Imperial army 
on the way. The two armies stood face to face for about a month. ' 
By a simple strategy Sher Shah was able to sow seeds of discord in the 
rival army with the result that Maldeo losing faith in his Sardars, fell 
back closely followed by Sher Shah’s army. Near Samel both the forces 
clashed and the Muslim army emerged victorious Sher Shah captured 
Jodhpur in April 1544. It is stated that Nagraj pursuaded Sher Shah 
to anoint Kalyan Singh with his own hands. The Rao was at liberty 
to return to his own capital but before doing so he conferred the title 
of ‘Restorer of Lost Land’ (Gai Bhum Ka Bahru) on his brother, Bhim 
Raj as gratitude for the service rendered by the later. The re-occu- 
pation of the capital posed no problem as it had already been vacated 
by the forces of Maldeo of Jodhpur. Shortly, after, Thakur Singh 
brother of Rao Kalyan Singh, was able to capture Bhatner fort from 
the Chayals by a clever stratagem. 

Kalyan Singh after the recovery of Bikaner sent a force to assist 
Jaimal, son of Biramdeo, ruler of Merta who bad rendered him in- 
valuable help in the restoration of Bikaner, against Maldeo who had 
recovered Jodhpur by then, and was attempting to occupy Merta. The 
combined armies of Bikaner and Merta forced Maldeo to flee leaving , 
Merta intact in the hands of Jaimal. 

Tabkat-i-Akbari mentions that after a rupture with Akbar, the 
denigrated Prime-Minister Bairam Khan, stayed at Bikaner for some 
time as a protege of Kalyan Singh. 

Some dacoits plundered the Imperial treasury at Machali village 
in Bhatner pargana. Under orders of Akbar, the Subedar of Hisar 
invaded Bhatner then in occupation of Thakursi and after a long siege 
it was overrun. Thakursi, the brother of Kalyan Singh, alongwith 
his followers was killed after a de.spcrate battle. His son, Bagh Singh, 
after staying in Bikaner for sometime went to Delhi and entered the 
service of Emperor Akbar. There he pleased the Emperor by exhibition of 
his extraordinary strength and prowess on several occasions so much so 
that the Emperor desired him to ask for any favour. Bagh Singh prayed 



History 


31 


for the return of Bhatner fort which was gladly acceded to. Thus 
Bhatner became re-attached to Bikaner. 

In 1570 A.D. Akbar the. Mughal emperor went on a holy visit 
to Ajmer to pay homage to the shrine of Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti. 
Thence he proceeded to Nagaur where Rao Kalyan Singh, alongwith 
his son Rai Singh, waited on him {1570 a. d.). The loyalty and 
sincerity of both the father and the son was so transparent that the 
Emperor married Kalyan Singh’s daughter^. His son Rai Singh re- 
mained in attendance and later on received high promotions from the 
Emperor. Kalyan Singh dieds in 1571 or according to G.H. Ojha in 
1574 A.D. leaving behind ten sons^. ‘ 

Raja Rai Singh 

Rai Singh, the eldest of Rao Kalyan Singh’s sons was born in 
1541 A.D. He ascended the throne after the death of his father. He 
had, as stated already entered the Imperial Service, to seek Akbar’s 
favbur of maintaining his kingdom. .The Khan of Nagaur was an 
enemy of Rai Singh and Akbar was also displeased with him. Rai 
Singh was employed therefore for leading an expedition against the 
Khan. and the latter .was defeated. 

Rai Singh who accompanied the Emperor on his expedition 
against Gujarat displayed great valour. In the long and hard conquest 
which preceded the conquest of Gujarat, Bikaner forces suffered heavily 
losing in battle thirty-three Thakurs and officials of hote^. It is said 
that Rai Singh killed Mirza Muhammad Hussain of Gujarats. His 
brother Ram Singh had also distinguished himself in this campaign 

1. Erskine, o/j. ciV.. p. 317. But this event is not alluded to in the Khyats, while 

Firishtaih his Tarikah-i-FirUita (translated by Briggs) mentions it on pp. 234 
and 260. ... . ■ 

2. Erskinc, op. cif., p. 317. Dr. G.H. Ojha in History of RSjputZna, Vol. V. parti 
(on p. 156), does not accept this date, accepted by Powlett in The Gazetteer of 
the Bikaner State (p. 22) and holds that as the Chhatri of Kalyan Singh, erected 
after his death, records the date of his demise as Magh Sud 2, 1630 (24lh Januaiy. 
1574). Powlclt’s acceptance is wrong. But in the book House of Btkaner on page 
209 the genealogical tabic gives this very date i.c. 1571 A.D. This has upset the 
chronology of certain events occurred during the period. 

3. Tod, in his Annals and Antiquities of Rdjasth&n, on p. 1132 mentions that Kalyan 
Singh had three sons. But Powlett and Dr. Ojha mention ten sons. 

4. Powlett, op. cit , p. 22. 

5. Tod, and Antiquities of Rajasthan, p. 1135. 



32 Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 

and was granted a mansab. Rai Singh obtained a grant of 52 para- 
ganast yielding a revenue of 4,02,06,274 dams (about ten lacs of rupees 
if the dam be considered a fortieth part of a rupee). Powletta is of the 
opinion that the grants were probably made as much on account of 
Rai Singh’s matrimonial connections with Akbar as on account of his 
military services. 

Rai Singh was next ordered by the emperor to punish Chandra 
Sen, son of Maldeo of lodhpur, and an expeditionary Mughal force 
was sent against him. Sojat and Siryari were taken and Siwana was 
besieged. Chandra Sen fled from Siwana fort, which, however, could 
not be taken by the Imperial forces and Rai Singh was recalled by the 
emperor. Later, Shahbajkhan was despatched to Siwana who was 
successful in capturing that fort. 

The Emperor ordered Rai Singh to go to Sirohi with a force to 
subdue Surtan Deora who had displeased the emperor. Rai Singh mar- 
ched to Mount Abu and invested the fort at Achalgarh which Surtan 
was occupying. He captured the Deora and sent him as a prisoner to 
the Imperial Court at Delhi. 

Rai Singh is mentioned as one of those who were sent to Kabul 
about 1582 a.d. Two years later he served in Bengal. Then, he and 
Ismail Kuli Khan, one of the successful generals of Akbar, successfully 
led an expedition against the Baluchis in v.s. 1642 (1585 A.D.) and 
returned bringing with them the chief men and leaders of the tribe. He 
was next employed in the Deccan where he was a Subahdar of Burhan- 
purfrom v.s. 1642 to v.s. 1649 (1585 to 1592 AD.). When he was 
here, he planned and caused his minister, Karam Chand Bachawat to 
begin the construction of the present fine fort of Bikaner. Its founda- 
tion was laid jnl589A.D, and the work was finished3 in 1594 a.d. 
In 1586 his daughter was married to Prince Salim* (afterwards the 
Emperor Jahangir), their son Parwez being one of those who un- 
successfully strove for the empire with Shah Jahan. 

After serving in Sind with Khan Khana Mirza Abdur Rahim 
and in the Deccan with Prince Daniyal, he was made Governor of Surat 

1. Powlcti, op. cii , p. 23. 

2. ibid., p. 23. 

3. The exact date has been given by Dr. Ojha after full calculations in his book 
77/c History of Rs.jput&na, Vol. V, part I, p. 379. 

4. But this evem is not mentioned In the A'Ayo/j, Firishta mentioned it In Tarlkh-i- 
Flrlshta. translated by Briggs, pp. 234 and 260. 



History 


33 


about 1596. It is said that Rai Singh had enraged Akbar by not 
handing over one person named Teja Bagor who had insulted and 
manhandled Nasir Khan, a father-in-law of Akbar, despite the 
Emperor’s clear orders. Consequently by the imperial orders Bhatner 
was taken from Rai Singh and given to his son Dalpat Singh.i 


Rai Singh was ordered in v.s. 1660 (1603 a.d.) fo accompany 
Prince Salim to the Mewar expedition against Maharana Ainar Singh. 
The expedition, however, did not take place as Prince Salim did not 
want to go to Mewar2. 

Akbar fell seriously ill in September 1605. Rai Singh was called 
to reach the capital post haste by a nishan, issued by Prince Salim on 
11th Oct. 1605. This is stated to be due to the fact that Raja Man 
Singh Kachhawaha and Khan Azam who were all-in-all at the court at 
that time, were manoeuvring to instal Khusrau on the throne as he was 
the nephew of the Kachhawaha Chief and the son-in-law of the Khan 3 
Rai Singh was considered by Prince Salim as the person on whose help 
and loyalty he could implicitly rely. About a month later Akbar died 
on 15th October,/1605 and Prince Salim ascended the Mughal throne as 
Emperor Jahangir. Rai Singh was a mansabdar of 4000 but Jahangir 
raised his mansab to 5000 on his accesion. When he set out towards 
the Punjab in pursuit of Khusrau, Jahangir put the Raja in charge of 
the travelling harem. Rai Singh, accompanied the harem for a few 
stages but left them on the way without permission and proceeded to his 
capital. On the Emperor’s return from Kabul, he in 1608 (14th January, 
1608). presented himself at court with a faiitah round his neck, 
to show his willingness to suffer punishment for his lapses and delin- 
quencies but was again pardoncdA Subsequently, he was reappointed 


Powlett (op.c/f., p. 27) and Dr. G.H.Ojha(op.c/f., p. 184in foot-note No. 4) 
describe this event on the basis of Dayaldas ki Khyata, Vol. 2, p. 32. Akbar, in 
his Forman of 22nd Isfandarmuz, 40 (Feb. 1595 A.D.) issued to Rai Singh has 
alluded to Teja (Tijia). See A Descriptive List of Formans, Mansiturs and 
Nishans, Directorate of Archives, Government of Rajasthan, Bikaner (1962), 
p. 4. 

.2. Dr. .Ojha (ap.cf/.. p. 18S-S9) mentioned this fact on the basis of Akbo’-namah, 
translated by Beveridge, p. 1233-34. 

2. Dr. Ojha (op.cit., p. 189-90); Munshi Devi Prasad's tr, Jahangirnama, p. 16. 

•t. Erskine K.D., op.cit., p. 319. 



34 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


to the Subah of Burhanpur which he governedi successfully for several 
years. He died at that place in 1612. Rai Singh had four sonsS . 

Maharaja Dalpat Singh 

Dalpat Singh, who succeeded Rai Singh^ in v.s. 1668 (1612 
A.D) was born in v.s. 1621 (1565 a. d.). Soon after his accession 
he paid visit to the imperial court to do homage to the Emperor,'^ who 
conferred on him the title of Rai and invested him with robe of honour . 
He is said to have incurred the Imperial displeasure by refusing to com- 
ply with orders to proceed to Thatta to assist Mirza Rustam^. 

Dalpat Singh antagonised his own people and this ultimately led 

t. In the Dayaldas ki Khyai, it is recorded that seeing Rai Singh feeling great 
agony in his last time, his son Sur Singh, who was also with him there, asked as 
to what was the cause of the great pain, upon hearing which Rai Singh gave as 
his last instructions (Powlett, op.cit., p. 28) that Karam Chand his Minister, who 
had planned to dethrone him in favour of his son Dalpat Singh, should be 
punished alongwith other conspirators, severely for the misdeeds. The Khyat 
further mentions that having exacted a promise from Sur Singh that his wishes 
would be attended to, Rai Singh expired in v. s. 1668 (1612 a.d.) Ojha, op.cit. 
p. 196. 

2. Powlett, op.cit., p. 28. 

3. Tod in his Annals and Antiquities of Rijasth&n on page 1135 mentions that 
Rai Singh was succeeded by his only sen, Karan in S. 1688 (a.d. 1632), But 
according to Erskinc Western Rajputana State Residency &. Bikaner Agency 
Gazciiccr - III A. p. 319-20 and III B, page 83) and Dr. G. H. Ojha (History of 
Rijpntina. Vol. V, Part I. pp. 206-211) Dalpat Singh and Sur Singh were the two 
Rajas between Rai Singh and Karan Singh. 

4 Dr. G.H. Ojha (op.cit ,p 206) on the authority of Tnznk-i-Jahangiti (translated 
by Rodt'crs) and Jahangitnama (tr. Munshi Devi Prasad) writes that Rai Singh 
wished that he should be succeeded by Sur Singh, his son from Bhatiyani Rani 
Ganga; but as he died while in the South, Dalpat Singh became the Raja of 
Bikaner, Dr. Ojha, further adds that Dalpat Singh went to do homage to the 
Emperor and was granted the Kkitah of Rai. Sur Singh, who was present at the 
time in the court, told that his father had wished to make him the Raja instead 
o'' Dalpat Singh. The Emperor was enraged at this and ’ told Sur Singh that 
his father wanted to make him (Sur Singh) a Raja, while ho (Jahangir) gave 
that honour to Dalpat Singh. Dalpat Singh was recognised as Raja by the 
Emperor. 

5. inJaUangirnama (Tr. Munshi Devi Prasad) is recorded that Jahangir, after 
raising the tnansab of Dalpat Singh from 1500 to 2000, ordered him to accompany 
Mirza Rustam, an Amir, who was appointed the Imperial Officer to administer 
the region around Thatta in Sindh. But Dalpat Singh went to Bikaner direct 
mstcad of going to Thatta. 



History 


35 


to his doom. He estranged the Bhatis by an unsuccessful attempt to 
erect a fort in Chudehar near Anupgarh. His brother Sur Singh held 
Phalodi with 84 villages. He resumed them all with the exception of 
Phalodi on the advice of his Musahib Purohit Man Mahesh. When 
Sur Singh visited the Purohit in this connection, the Purohit insulted 
him by keeping him waiting and ultimately curtly refusing to reconsider 
the matter. Sur Singh, however, did not revolt there but sent an agent 
to Delhi and after remaining two months at Bikaner sought permission 
to take his mother on a pilgrimage of Sauron Ghat on the Ganga. 
This was readily granted and he met his brother-in-law Raja Man 
Singh of Amber at Sanganer. While at Sauron, Sur Singh received 
fannan summoning him to the Imperial Court at Delhi, procured 
according to Powlett, no doubt by his agent. The Emperor granted 
him Bikaner and sent a force under Nawab Zabdin Khan (Ziauddin 
Khan) to install him as the ruleri. Dalpat Singh defeated the aimy at 
Chhapar. What the Nawab, however, could not achieve by force of 
arms was accomplished by intrigue. So great was the unpopularity of 
Dalpat Singh, that all of his nobles except Thakursi the Baid, an 
bid servant of the State and at that time governor of Bhatner, deserted 
him to join Sur Singh’s banner. Surrounded by his treacherous Sardars, 
Dalpat Singh advanced to battle seated on an elephant with the Thakur 
of Churu who acting as his attendant tied his arms from behind in 
an act of abject treachery, and made him over to the enemy. He was 
first conveyed to Hisar and thereafter sent to Ajmer and imprisoned 
there, guarded by 100 men. Thakur Hathi Singh Champawat of 
Marwar, who happened to pass through Ajmer, was approached by 
Dalpat Singh’s agent for necessary help in securing his' master’s release. 
The Thaknr’s party comprising 400 men attacked and killed the guards 
and released him, but they were soon surrounded by the Subedar of 
Ajmer with a strong force of 4000 men^ and Avere killed to the last man. 

This version is given by the local chroniclers, but the Muslim 
sources give different version according to which, though Sur Singh 
had displeased the Emperor by the bold manner in which be had pre- 
ferred his claim before him, yet Dalpat Singh had also annoyed the 
Emperor by returning to Bikaner without permission, and refusing to 
accompany Rustam Khan to Thalta as stated before. In 1613 a.d., 
the Emperor received the news of the defeat of Dalpat Smgh. whose 

1. Powlett . op. dt., p, 29. 

2. OJh.A, G.H., op. cjf., pp. 210-U. - 



36 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


army had then started creating trouble in the Hisar area. Hashim, the 
faiijchr of that Sarkar caught Dalpat Singh and sent him fettered to the 
court, wheie he was executed as a warning to otherst. 

Sur Singh 

Sur Singh, born in 1594, succeeded his brother in 1613 A.D., 
under the above mentioned circumstances. He is said to have retained 
the imperial favour during the whole of Jahangir’s reign. He was 
associated with many important missions during this period. On one 
occasion he was ordered to join the Imperial forces to suppress Prince 
Khurram’s revolt (1624 a.d.j. He was honoured by Jahangir for his 
loyalty by presenting him with a horse and a Khilat^. He was appoin- 
ted to serve at Burhanpur in Deccan in 1626 A.D. Hagaur pargana 
alongwith other villages and the fort of Maroth, were given to him in 
Jagir by the Emperor in 1627 a.d. He was sent by Shahjahan on an 
expedition to Kabul in 1628 alongwith others. He was again deputed 
to join Imperial army to crush the rebellion of Jhujhar Singh of 
Orchha. Under Khwaja Hasan he was sent to capture Khanejahan 
Lodi, a rebel mansabdar, 

Sur Singh’s fair name is besmeared by his revengeful disposition. 
In fulfilment of the promise made by him to his father on the latter’s 
death bed, he induced the sons of the late minister Dewan Karam 
Chaod to leave Delhi and come to Bikaner. They were appointed 
Dewans apparently to lull them into security and then within two mon- 
ths of their arrival were surrounded in their houses. All of them fell 
fighting except one who was then at Udaipur. Sur Singh was not the 
person to forget or forgive the insult offered to him by Purohit Man 
Mahesh and Barhat Chauth, in his brother’s time. He confiscated their 
jagirs. He also got murdered Saran Bhartha (Jat) who had rebelled 
against his father. Sur Singh died while serving in the Deccan in 
1631 A.D. 

Yet another incident of Sur Singh’s time deserves mention. His 
niece was married to Rawal Bhim of Jaisalmer. After the Rawal’s 
death, she implored Sur Singh to come immediately to her place, fully 
equipped with forces in order to save her son’s life, which was threatened 
by the Bhatis. Before Sur Singh could reach Jaisalmer, he received the 

1. Lrskinc, o/j.c/7., p. 320. Also sec A Descriptive List of Formans, Manshurs and 

Nisbans, op. cit., p. 24 which mentions the defeat of Dalpat. 

2. Ojha G.H., £>p. ci/., p. 224. 



History 


37 


news of the murder of the son of his niece. He then swore that no 
Bikaner Chief’s daughter would ever go to Jaisalmer in matrimony, an 
oath which was observed by his successors! too. 

Karan Singh 

Sur Singh was succeeded by his eldest son, Karan Singh in 1631 
who was born in S, 1673 (1616 a.d.)2. He had held a inansab of 2000 
and the governorship of Daulatabad during his father’s life time. He 
proceeded as usual to Delhi to do homage, but does not seem to have 
mare much impression there, as the district of Nagaur was taken from 
him a few years later and granted to Amar Singh, a relative of Raja of 
Jodhpur. Karan Singh was associated with a few campaigns e.g. 
against Ahmadnagar in 1632 a. d., and later against the’ Parende Fort 
and others 

The grant of Nagaur to Amar Singh of Jodhpur caused bad blood 
between him and Karan Singh, especially because he took possession of 
village Jakhaniyan also, which had belonged to Bikaner. Karan Singh 
with the sanction of the Emperok, succeeded in ousting him from 
Jakhaniyan. The matter being thus settled, peace was maintained in 
the area as both were detained in Delhi. 

In 1652 A.D. Karan Singh’s mansab was increased and after 
some time, he was sent to the Deccan to take possession of Jaoris 
pargana (under Aurangabad Subah) which was granted to him. 

Sudarshan, the Rao of Pagal, rebelled and after a siege lasting 
a month, Pagal was taken by Karan Singh. It had been a place of 
note and importance as it lay between the city of Bikaner and Multan. 
The Bhatis had acquired it from the Panwars. At that time it had 
200 villages and in Karan Singh’s time this number had increased to 
561. Now the descendants of Shekha, Bika’s father-in-law, claimed 
division of the estate. It was accordingly divided amongst the descen- 
dants of the three sons of Shekha. The eldest son’s descendant, 
obtained Pagal and 252 villages. The two descendants of the second 

1 . ErsV.inc, op.c/f., p. 320. 

2. Ojha G.H. op.cit , p. 229; House of Bikaner, p. 209. But Powletl mentions 
S. 1663 (1605 A.D.) as the year of Karan Singh’s birth which appears to be 
incorrect as in S. 1663 his father Sur Siegh was 12 years of age, and procreation 
at such ogc appears iinprabable. 

3. Pov.'lett; (op. aV,, p. 32) gives this date as 1701 V.S. or 1644 A.D., presumably 
on the basis of the Dayatdas-ki-Kkyat. 



38 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — BTkaner 


son obtained Blkampur with 84 villages and the other Varsalpur with 
41 villages respectively. The descendant of the third son received 
Raimalwali with 184 villages. 

In the struggle for succession among the sons of Shah Jahan for 
the imperial throne, Karan Singh sided with Aurangzeb and two of his 
gallant sons, Kesari Singh and Padam Singh, participated in the 
principal battles. It is said that they led the imperial van in more than 
one fight. In the last desperate fight with Dara, they particularly dis- 
tinguished themselves, in appreciation of which the Emperor with his 
own handkerchief, brushed off the dust from their persons as they stood 
before him hot from the battle^. 

An incident occurred in Raja Karan Singh’s time which is well 
known. The Rajput chiefs had joined the imperial army, ostensibly 
for a campaign beyond the Indus, but by the time they had reached 
Attock, Karan Singh discovered, with the assistance of friendly saiyads 
in his service, that the emperor Aurangzeb intended to convert 
all the Hindus by force after they had crossed the river. They, there- 
fore, took counsel regarding the course to be pursued and it was agreed 
to adopt a course of action in which the Musalmans would insist on 
their right of precedence as regards crossing of the river, which would 
result in their reaching the other bank first, leaving the Rajputs on 
this side of the river. Accordingly the Rajas sent their liarkaras 
(messengers) to take possession of the boats, and as had been foreseen, 
the Musalmans resented this move, as an impertinerrt act. They drove 
away the liarkaras and declared that they would use the boats first 
iWhen the boats, containing the Muslim portion of the array had 
crossed the river, news arrived of the death of the mother of the ruler 
of Amber. On this pretext all the Rajas delayed their crossing for 
twelve days, during which period the next step to be taken was an>i- 
ously discussed. It was evident to them that, if they were to leave 
the means of recrossing the river in the hands of the Emperor, the sec- 
tion of the Muslim army would immediately attack them (Rajput 
chiefs) in their rear in the event of their turning homewards, and conse- 
quently they would not escape without severe loss. Comprehending 
the gravity of the situation they came in a body, to Karan Singh and 
pointed out that, since his territories were less susceptible to invasion, 

1. Erskinc, K.D., og.ciV , p. 320. G.H. Ojha, however writes on the basis of i he 
Persian sources that Karan Singh remained neutral during the struggle for the 
sueccssion to the Mughal empire tOjha. op.dl., p. 243) 



History 


39 


he could, with comparatively little danger to himself, save their reli- 
gion, and bear the brunt of the imperial displeasure by destroying the 
boats. Karan Singh agreed to do so on the condition that they would 
all, for one day, greet him by proclaiming Jai Jangaldhar Badshali 
meaning ‘victory to the king of the desert’. To this the Rajput rulers 
agreed, and the Bikaneris then set to work to destroy the boats in the 
presence of the ahadi (imperial messenger). The guilt of leading the 
league having thus been laid upon the shoulders of Karan Singh, the 
other Rajas and their followers joined in the task. All the boats were 
soon rendered useless and the Rajputs set olf confidently on their 
way home. 

• Aurangzeb returned to Delhi boiling with rage at the imperti- 
nence of the Bikaner ruler, whom he summoned to his presence. The 
call was obeyed, and the Raja’s two most distinguished sons, Kesari 
Singh and Padam Singh, accompanied him. The Emperor had resol- 
ved to have Karan Singh murdered in the Durbar; the plott had 
matured and the assassins were present, but all was frustrated by the 
formidable appearance of the famous brothers as they sat beside their 
father. A sign was made to the assassins not to act, and they were only 
too glad to obey it; and as the Bikaner party was leaving, Aurangzeb 
praised the ruler’s gallant sons specially alluding to the conduct of 
Kesari Singh in the last great battle with Dara. 

Karan Singh was sent to Deccan for service. While in Deccan 
he served the Emperor faithfully. He died there in 1669, a year after 
his arrival in Aurangabad. 

Maharaja Anup Singh 

Karan Singh’s eldest son Anup Singh succeeded him to the throne 
inv.s. 1726 (1669 a.d.). While yet a prince he had been granted a 
riwtisab of 2000 Zat and 1500 Sawars by the Emperor Aurangzeb and 
also right lo succeed to the Bikaner gadi^. For his meritorious services 

t* Erskinc, op. c//., p. 321-322. It is said that Baotnali Das, an illegitimate son 
of Karan Singh approached the Emperor with the request that if the Emperor 
could make him Raja of Bikaner, he was ready to embrace Islam. It is said, that 
Aurangzeb agreed to it and he assured Banmalt Das that his father’s gadi would 
be given to him, and hence this plot to assassinate Karan Singh. Ojha, op.cii., 

■ pp. 247-248. 

2. Ojha, p;).C4f., pp. 253-54, The account given by the Powictt, how'cvcr, difiers - 
from it, Powlctt, cp.dt., p. 3$. ' , , 



40 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


in the Deccan, the title of Maharaja was conferred upon him by the 
Emperor He distinguished! himself in the capture of Golconda in ihe 
year 1687 a.d. He was deputed to Adoni as governor in the Bellary 
district, a name still well known in Bikaner as connected with the glory 
of its fighting men. 

An important event in the Bikaner State occurred whilst the 
Maharaja was at Adoni. The Bhati Thakurs ofKharbara and Raimal- 
wali (now in Ganganagar district) rose in rebellion. They held the fort 
ofChudher where they were joined by Johiyas. They proved to be 
formidable for some time but were frustrated in their purpose by an 
energetic official of the State, Mukund Rai, and the fort was dismant- 
led. A new and a larger fort named Anopgarh was constructed in 
1678 A.D. The Maharaja at Adoni was heartily pleased wiih this 
success and handsome rewards were conferred on Mukund Rai and his 
principal associates. 

The jagir of Kharbara was granted to one Bhagchand Bhati who 
was loyal to the State. The area was often attacked by the Johiyas. 
Seeing this the Thakur of Mahajan requested the ruler that if Kharbara 
was granted to him, he would extend the boundary of the State upto 
the banks of Sutlej. After obtaining the desired grant, the Mahajan 
Thakur attacked the Johiyas The latter were also asi,isted by the 
descendants of Bhagchand Bhati. The Thakur was killed and his heir 
was carried away by them but released him later as he was a minor. 
But within a year or two the chief of Johiyas at Hisar attacked Sirsa, 
and that /rorgflna was lost temporarily to Bikaner. One Hayat Khan 
Bhatti who had charge of Bhatner on behalf of the Bikaner State; joined 

the Johiyas and declared himself independent. Bhatner was, for a tiivn’, 
thus lost to Bikaner. 

It is said that Bunmali Das, an illegitimate son of Karan Singh, 
had been intriguingS at the Mughal Court to obtain Bikaner. He 
succeeded in getting half the Mansab of Bikaner through the good 
offices of Sycd Hasan Ali, an important dignitary at the Court. He 

t. Ojha, vp.clt., p, 271. 

2. Ojha, G.H., op. cit., p. 263. However, in the davali of Banmalidas in the village 
Changoi the memorial inscription gives the date of his death as Samvat 1734 or 
1589 Soka but the figure 3 is defaced and can be read as 2 also which gives the 
corresponding Saha dale correctly. It is, therefore, possible that the event took 
place m the closing years of the reign of Karan Singh when Anup Singh was only 
a prince. The matter needs further investigation. 



History 


came to Bikaner with an army. It is said that Anup Singh entertained 
him lavishly, but Banmali Das who had been converted to Islam killed 
goats and sheep near the sacred temple of Laxmi Narain, showing 
little respect for Hindu sentiments. The request to refrain from such a 
sacrilege went unheeded. Anup Singh resorted to a stratagem to do 
away with this new danger. He entrusted his father-in-law Lakshmi 
. Das with the task of removing Banmali Das from the scene, deputing 
Bika Bhimrajot of Rajpura to help him. Both -of them approached 
Banmali Das as rebels against Anup Singh and succeeded in gaining 
his confidence. Lakshmi Das was able to prevail upon Banmali Das 
to marry a girl brought by him. This girl was a slave-girl and on the 
nuptial night, she offered him wine mixed with poison, as was already 
planned. Banmali Das died consequently and it was given out that he 
had died natural death. All information to the contrary was suppressed 
by bribery. Thus was warded off the Emperor’s displeasure. 

Maharaja Anup Singh died at Adoni in the Deccan in v.s. 
1755 (1698 AD..). Besides being a soldier of high courage and for- 
tune, he was a great scholar of Sanskrit and the regional language. 
He patronised learning and was himself an author of some books in 
Sanskrit. When Aurangzeb invaded Deccan, Anup Singh collected 
Sanskrit manuscripts and established a library in Bikaner. The library 
is now known as the Anup Sanskrit Library where rare manuscripts and 
books arc preserved. 

Swarup Singh 

Maharaja Anup Singh’s eldest son Swarup Singh succeeded him' 
in 1698 A.D. at the age of nine while at Adoni in the Deccan. From' 
the beginning, he had been at Aurangabad and Burhanpur. He escor- 
ted the children of the Maratha leader Ram Raja to the imperial court 
on 10th July, 1699 A.D. He fell a victim to an attack of small pox 
and died in 1700 A.D. This short period of his reign is marked for the 
intrigues at the capital, where the ruling power was exercised by his 
mother, a xSisodia princess. 

Sujan Singh 

The next ruler of Bikaner was Sujan Singh a brother of Swarup 
Singh who came to the throne at the early age of ten in vs. 1757 
(1700 a. D.). Aurangzeb who was in the Deccan at the time called 
him there and he remained there in the imperial service for about ten 
years. Aurangzeb died in 1707 a.d. After his death chaotic conditions 



42 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


prevailed in Delhi. Sujan Singh stayed back in the Deccan and taking 
advantage of his absence from Bikaner, Maharaja Ajit Singh of Jodhpur 
invaded Bikaner. Bikaner city was occupied but ultimately due to stiff 
resistance offered by the Bikaner forces Ajit Singh thought it better to 

withdraw his troops who had suffered heavily from heat and scarcity of 
wateri. 


In 1719 A.D. nduhammad Shah ascended the throne of Delhi. 
Maharaja Sujan Singh had returned to Bikaner after about ten 
years service in the Deccan. The Royal messengers came to summon 
im to Delhi but due to uncertain and fluctuating situation at the 
mperial capital he did not think it prudent to go there personally. He 

however sent a force to serve the Emperor. ' ' 


• Singh at the same time proceeded to Dnngarpu'r and was 
marrie there, and on his way back, he spent a month at Udaipur as 

he guest of the Maharana Sangram Singh il, 

p., said that Ajit Singh of iodhpur whose ' attempt to seize 

< 5 > foiled earlier planned to seize the persoh of Sujan 

bmgh while the latter was at Nal. He sent presents avowedly bn the 
casjon o the birth of the second son to Siijan Singh but instructed 

tilT It is said that Sujan Singh got a 

Th^ 1 ^’'Sence about the intrigue and returned to the fort from Nal. 
The Jodhpur ruler’s designs were frustrated. 

^ (1730 A.D.) the Maharaja proceeded to Nohar 

Johiv^c district) to punish the insurgent Bhatis and 

thekevsofthpfnT* submitted without any opposition, surrendered 
20 000 ^ ° Hhatner and presented to him a tribute of Rs. 


In V. s. 1790 (1733 a.d.) the ruler of Nagaur Bakhat Singh 

the younger brother of Maharaja Abhay Singh of Jodhpur, invaded’ 

^ that some of the Thakurs of Bikaner State 

had been taken mto confidence by the Maharaja of Jodhpur. The lovaTs ! 
found out that some of them in co-operation with olher ' people Were frvinc to 

resolved to withdraw his troops. situation, Ajit Singh 



History 


43 


Bikaner with a strong force. Prince Zoraw^i' Singh, the eldest son of 
Sujan bingh was then at Nohar with his force He marched towa'rds 
the capital joined the troops sePt by Sujan Singh and re- 

pulsed Bakhat Singh. When this news reached Jodhpur, Abhay Singh 
himself joined his brother with a huge ar^Jy. The combined forces 
again surrounded the fort but it was so well defended and the Bikaner 
force put such' a stiff resistance, that Abhay Singh could not make any 
progress". 'When provisions and water be^^^^e scarce Abhay Singh 
approached the Rana of Udaipur to intercede* Consequently a rapport 
was -made and the Jodhpur armyi was permitted to return to Jodhpur 
unmolested by Bikaner forces. Again an att^cnpt was made by Bakhat 
Singh in 1734 to seize the fort but again svithout success. Maharaja 

ha-b.a.4 

settle a quarr el between theThakurs of Bhadra and Bhukarka. He left 
two sons, Zorawar Singh and Abhay Singh. 

Maharaja Zora'war Singh 

Sujan Singh was succeeded2-'.in.'A..i?. .b'y-.-his,. eldest son 
Zorawar Singh. He began his careef.by 'expeliing^some -Jodhpur troops 
who had occupied some border'/Zitanos of Bikaner. Then he.put down 
the disorder prevalent in his State. Sangr^m Singh, the Xhakurof 
Churu who adopted an'attitudfcv^l^ diseffection , and disloyality, was 
expelled and another Thakuf^put iiThisTpi^^cT^. Thereupon- Sangram 
Singh \yent to Jodhpur and' squght~jnotection which Zorawar Singh did 
not like and therefore; restored San^rhm 'SiPgh to his estate. Sangram 
Singh returned directly from Jodhpur to his estate without .paying any 
homage to the Bikaner ruler, thus reopeniPg the breach. Ultimately 
Sangram Singh was removed from his Jagir. and he openly, rebelled 
against the Bikaner ruler by seeking protectip" ^t Jodhpur court. 

In v.s. 1796 (1739 a.d.) the Jodhppr army again attacked the 
Bikaner territory with 10,000 men. The ruler of Bikaner had made 
adequate preparations to meet the invaders. Meanwhile overtures -were 
in progress between Bakhat Singh of Nligaur and Zorawar Singh. 
Bakhat Singh ofNagaur sent assurances to the Maharaja of Bikaner 

1. DifTcrent version is given of this episode by the Jodhpur Chroniclers. Ojha, G.H., 
on.cii., p. 303. 

2. Ojha, G.H., op.o'/., p. 307. Powlctt (op.c/f., p. '*4) gives this date as 1735 a.d. 
Likewise the d.'Ucof dvaihcf this ruler also differs and Powlett gives this as 
1745 A.o, 



44 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


of his timely help against the ruler of Jodhpur with whom his relations 
were now estranged. In order to prove his sincerity in helping Bikaner, 
Bakliat Singh invaded Merta and wiested it from Jodhpur. Maharaja 
Zorawar Singh was now assured of Bakhat Singh s help, who invaded 
Jodhpur in order to compel the latter to come to terms with Bikaner. A 
contingent of 8000 men under Bakhtawar Singh Mehta was sent from 
Bikaner to assist Bakhat Singh for the purpose. Perturbed by these 
developments the Jodhpur ruler Abhay Singh came to terms with Bakhat 
Singh who on certain terms of compensation, agreed to withdraw. Bakhat 
Singh sent back the Bikaner contingent with all honour. 

Another important event during the reign was the capture of 
Bhatner which seems to have changed hands very frequently and 
which was held at this time by the Johiyas. Bhim Singh, Thakur of 
Mahajan, obtained permission to wrest it from them. This task was 
successfully accomplished by him in 1740 both by deceit and force of 
arms and besides the fort, he also got a huge treasure. He. evidently 
wished to appropriate both the fort and the treasure, so the ruler of 
Bikaner sent a force against him under Hasan Khan Bhatti who invested 
the fort, and as all the public bad turned against the Thakur he was 
easily driven out. 

' Abhay Singh the ruler of Jodhpur had felt greatly mortified at 
his failure to conquer Bikaner as stated above. Seizing the 'opportunity 
of allying himself with the disaffected Thakurs, Bhim Singh of Mahajan, 
Sangram Singh of Churu and Lai Singh of Bhadra, he invaded Bikaner. 
He reached Deshnoke with a very large force in 1740 a.d. Worshipping 
at the temple of Karniji he wanted the Cbarans to address him as like 
the Maharaja of Bikaner, but they refused. Then Jodhpur forces 
marched against Bikaner and planted their tents in the vicinity of the 
Laxminarayan temple near the old fort at Bikaner and opened several 
fronts around the city. The city was thrown open for plunder and 
property about a lac was looted. The fort remained encircled creating 
a stalemate. Help was sought secretly from Bakhat Singh of Nagaur 
by Zorawar Singh and through him from the Jaipur ruler. Abhay Singh 
had to raise the seige and he hurried off to look after his own territory 
because at the urgent request of Zorawar Singh, Jodhpur had been 
invaded by Sawai Jai Singh of Jaipur, who marched with his large 
force. Abhay Singh, wanted the Maharana of- Udaipur to intercede 
between him and the Bikaner ruler but the plan did not materialise. 
Consequently in hot haste, Maharaja Abhay Singh retreated from 



H istory 


45 


Bikaner as Jai Singh of Jaipur had been advancing fast. In the end, 
Abhay Singh was forced to pay twenty-one Jakhi of rupees (in cash and 
kind) to Jaipur Maharaja, as peshkash. 

Zorawar Singh’s last exploit was wresting of Hisar from Imperial 
troops, which he acconaplished in collaboration with Rao Gujarmal of 
Rewari. He died at Antippur on 15th May, 1746 a.d. after four days| 
illnesl It was suspected that he had been poisoned. 

Maharaja Gaj Singh 

Zorawar Singh had died childless, and the claimants to the gadi 
were his cousins Gaj Singh and Amar Singh, both sons of Anand Singh. 
Eventually Gaj Singh^ was selected as ruler of Bikaner and was 
enthroned^ in 1746 a.d., while the disappointed Amar Singh went to 
Jodhpur where he associated himself with other mal-contents from 
Bikaner. Maharaja Abhay Singh of Jodhpur was at Ajmer at that 
time. Finding the situation favourable for his designs, he organised a 
large force to invade Bikaner in association with Amar Singh and other 
discontented sirdars. After harassing the people on the way, the army 
encamped in the neighbourhood of Bikaner. The Bikaner troops had 
anticipated such a move from Jodhpur and were ready to face them. No 
decisive battle, however, was fought and the two armies stood facing 
each other for months. ’ At length Jodhpur proposed a division of 
Bikaner territory as the only way of terminating hostilities. This 
proposal was curtly turned down by Gaj Singh saying^, “We will not 
give up a needle’s width of territory, and tomorrow sword in hand, we 
will further discuss the question of peace”. A fierce battle was fought 
in which Gaj Singh himself played a valiant part and all his nobles, 
fought bravely, resulting in the defeat of Jodhpur troops. This battle 
took place in v.s. 1804 (1747 a.d.). 

On hearing the defeat of his troops Maharaja Abhay Singh was 
greatly enraged and sent another force which was repulsed at Didwana 
by the Bikaner troops. 

Maharaja Gaj Singh had to march to Sambhar with his troops 
to aid Bakhat Singh (of Nagaur) who was engaged, again, in a struggle 

1. Another nccount gives this sum as twenty lakh. 

2 Powlett e/V., rp. and Erskine (o/?. ci’r., p, 323) mention Gaj Singh as 
elder to Amar Singh; but Dr. G.H. Ojha (op. ctV., pp. 322-323 and 359) has 
mentioned him as younger to Amar Singh. 

3. Other sources give this dale as 1745 A.D, 

4. Ojha, G.H., op.c//., p. 324. 



46 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers-t-Blkaner 


with his brother Abhay Singh of Jodhpur, who had solicited help from 
the Maralhas to oust him from his possession. Bakhat Singh received 
Gaj Singh, with great honour. Before any action could take place 
between the rival forces reconciliation was effected between the two 
brothers by Malhar Rao Holkari, through the intervention of Maharaja 
Ishwari Singh of Jaipur though it did not end their deep-seated antipathy 
towards each other. Then Gaj Singh returned to Bikaner. In the 
following year, Gaj Singh attacked the Bhatis of Bikampur and 
subjugated it and peace was concluded. But as the terms of peace we:re 
not honoured, the place was again invested and the Thakur was slain 
and plhce occupied. But it was soon recovered by the Rawal of Jaisalmer 
and amalgamated in his territory. During this period the Maharaja’s 
father, Anand Singh, died. 

When Gaj Singh was at Garabadesar, Bhim Singh, the dissatis- 
fied Thakur of Mahajan was brought to do homage to Gaj Singh by 
some other Thakurs of note. He was at once forgiven and the Maharaja 
accepted a nazar of an elephant from him. 

Maharaja Abhay Singh of Jodhpur died in 1749 and was 
succeeded by his son, ^ Bam' Singh. Ram Singh could rule only for two 
years,'Whcn his uncle, Bakhat’ Singh (of Nagaur) defeated him in a 
sanguinary battle hear Merta in 1750 with the aid of Maharaja Gaj 
Singh. Aftfer the death of Ishwari Singh the ruler of Jaipur, Ram Singh 
was bereft of his'rriain ally and on ll'th Hovember, 1750, Gaj Singh and 
Bakhat Singli at the instance of discontented sirdars of Jodhpur defeated 
Jodhpur'forccs at Ludasar tank. Ram Singh counter-attacked 'them 
at Sojat but was defeated. After staying for sometime at ’Jodhpur he 
again ’ea'nie to Merta. Gaj Singh and Bakhat Singh having conic to 
kn’oW of ibis at 'once attacked Jodhpur which for' four ’ pahars was this 
time given to plunder; and those in charge of the fort surrendered 
it to them. BakhafSingh occupied the Qadi of Jodhpur and Gaj Singh 
to Bikaner. Soon afterwards ,he had again' to enter Jodhpur 
territory to assist his ally against Ram Singh who had been able to secure 
the support of the Marathas. The invading force, however, retreated 
without fighting and Gaj Singh came home. ‘Bakhat Singh died in 1752 
to the great grief of Gaj Singh who recognised at once Bijay Singh his 
son as the successor of his ally, and rendered him all help. Soon after 
his accession to Jodhpur Gadi Bijay Singh was faced with the danger 

1. Dayaldas kl Khyat, Vol. It, pp. 71-72, quoted by G.H. Ojha, op. cit., on p. 327. 



History 


47 


of an onslaught by combined forces of Marathas under Appa Sahib 
Sindhia, and Ram Singh who was making every endeavour to cai’pture 
Jodhpur. As usual the Nagaur Chief (now of Jodhpur also) would 
lean heavily on his trusted ally the Maharaja of Bikaner, w'hom he 
would not allow to go even though Hisar was overrun by his 
foes. The armies of Bijay Singh and his allies were very much 
outnumbered by those of their enemies. The two armies clashed at 
Gangarada, and as a result of the first assault the invaders were pushed 
back seven Kos to village Chorasan, where the main battle was fought. 
Numbers prevailed over sheer bravery, and Gaj Singh, Bijay Singh and 
their allies were defeated. Jodhpur and Nagaur were besieged simulta- 
neously by Ram Singh and the Marathas. Bijay Singh solicited 
intercession of the Rana of Udaipur, who sent Jet Singh 
Chundawat of Salumbar for the purpose, but nothing came out of 
these efforts except that during these negotiations Jai Appa Sindhia 
was murdered by two Rajputs at the instance of Bijay Singh. 
Exasperated at the foul murder of their chief the Marathas. attacked 
the Rajput forces wherein Jet Singh was killed. Though Maharaja 
Madho Singh of Jaipur had also sent a force to help Bikaner but this 
was not allowed to proceed by the Marathas. When the siege continued 
for 14 months, Bijay Singh left the fort and went towards Bikaner. 
Gaj Singh showed him all respect and hospitality, and both he and his 
host went to Jaipur to solicit aid from Madho Singh of Jaipur, who 
played a double game, that is, tried to w'in over Gaj Singh on the side of 
Ram Singh by an offer of 84 villages including Phalpdi which Ajit Singh 
had snatched from Bikaner. The ruler of Bikaner was so steadfast in 
his loyally to a friend in trouble that he spurned this offer with 
contempt. When they felt no hope of getting any succour from Jaipur, 
they returned and while at Reni they came to know that the Marathas 
had agreed to raise the siege. 

, In 1752, Gaj Singh went to Jaisalmer to marry the daughter of 
Rawal Akhai liaj. 

When the Maharaja was away from Bikaner in aid of Bakhat 
Singh, disturbances arose in ' the realm, and Tara Singh, brother of 
Gaj Singh was sent to Rcni to subdue LaJ Singh of Bhildra who had 
taken to plundering. . Tara Singh was killed, but the Maharaja still 
remained with Bakhat Singh even though Reni was occupied. A camel 
corps, however, was at once sent off to Reni, but it made no impression. 
Later Gaj Singh himself went to Reni in person and expelled the Bhadra 
Chief without any difficulty. 



48 


Rajasthan ' District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


In the year 1752 a,d. the paragana of Hisar,l being uncontroll- 
able by Delhi, was assigned by Emperor Ahmad Shah to Gaj 
Singh, on whose behalf it was occupied by Mehta Bakhtawar Singh 
and who was soon sent to Delhi to aid the Emperor against the 
rebellious wazir Mansoor Ali Khan. The emperor was pleased with 
this timely help and granted a mansab to Gaj Singh of 7000 zat and 
5000 horse in 1753 a.d. On this very occasion, his eldest son Gaj Singh 
was granted a mansab of 4000 zat and 2000 horse and Mehta 
Bakhtawar Singh was created a Rao with a mansab of 4000 zat and 
1000 horse. Kliillats were also bestowed upon other Bikaner officers. 

Gaj Singh was granted the privilege of coining money by 
the Emperor Alamgir II, and the mint worked till the reign of Maharaja 
Dungar Singh (1872-87) whereafter the Regency Council (1887-1898) 
established by the British Government of India closed it during the 
minority of Maharaja Ganga Singh (1887-1943). Instead, a new 
silver coin, minted in the British mints in India was made current in 
the State. 

The year 1755-56 a.d. was known as the year of great famine in 
the history of Bikaner. The ruler was in Jaipur but under his orders 
adequate arrangements were made for mitigating the distress. Employ- 
ment was offered to a number of persons when construction works 
were started. 

In v.s. 1828 (a.d. 1772 February) Gaj Singh visited the famous 
temple of Nathdwara (in Udaipur district). While he was there, he 
was requested by the Maharana of Mewar to settle the dispute between 
Mewar and Jodhpur regarding the territory of Godwar, which the 
Maharana thought was being illegally occupied by the Jodhpur force. 
But no settlement however could be effected. 

In v.s. 1830 (1773 a.d.) the Bhattis again revolted but 
yielded when a force was sent against them and paid Rs. 40,000 with a 
promise fo pay annual triDutc. The heir apparent Raj Singh, and a 
certain disgruntled Thakurs of the State who were secretly encouraged 
by the Diwan Rao Mehta Bakhtawar Singh, rose into rebellion. But 
one by one, all the conspirators deserted the rebellious prince except 
the Thakur of Churu, with whom he lived at Deshnoke, under 
the sanctuary of Karniji for five years (1775-1780 a.d.). Then the 

1. Ojha. G.H., o;?. c/7 , p. 334. According to A Descriptive List of Formans, 
Manshurs <5 Nishans lop.dt., p. lOl) it was assigacd by Shah Alam. 



History 


49. 


prince took shelter in Jodhpur where he was received cordially by 
Bijay Singh the ruler of Jodhpur. At the request of Gaj Singh, Bijay 
Singh advised the rebellious prince Raj Singh, to go to Bikaner along- 
with a small contingent of Rajputs. Raj Singh reached Bikaner and was 
although apparently accorded reception, was arrested by his brothers,, 
at the instance of the Maharaja. The Jodhpur attendants threa- 
tened to fight but in the meantime, they got instructions from Jodhpur 
to abstain from doing so, as the father could do whatever he liked with, 
his son. Then Maharaja also fell ill and sent for Raj Singh and sum-, 
moning other State officials made over the reins of the throne to him, 
formally. Raj Singh was also enjoined not to punish his brothers. 
Gaj Singh died in 1787 A.D., and no Rani burnt herself on the pyre. 
Tod writes,! “Raja Gaj had some celebrity from the number of his 
offspring, having had sixty-one children, though all but six were the 
‘sons of love’.” 

Maharaja Raj Singh 

Raj Singh ascended the gadi in the year 1787 after his father’s 
death. It is said that because of his illness he could not shoulder the 
bier of his father beyond the gate of the fort.'^J Due, to his illness he 
left the affairs of the State in the hands of his minister. His health 
began to deteriorate and feeling his end near, he recognised his brother 
Surat Singh, who had not taken any part against him as his 
successor or atleast guardian of his son Pratap Singh. There are 
different versions as to the cause of Maharaja Raj Singh’s death. Tod3 
says that he was given a dose of poison by his step-mother (the mother 
of bis younger brother Surat Singh). It is worth mentioning that a 
man, Sangram Singh Mandlawat^ burnt himself on his pyre. 

Maharaja Pratap Singh 

Pratap Singh was then' about six years old. He survived his 
father but a short time, and though Khyat ascribes the death to small 
poxJ>. there is little doubt that he was murdered by his uncle Surat Singh.' 
According to Tod, the boy was an infant and about a year later was. 
found strangled. It is said, that Surat Singh had done it with his own 
hands,' he having failed to persuade the Mahajan Chieftain to do it 

1. Tod, ap.dt., p. 1137. But Ojha {op.eU., p. 358) records 18 sons. 

2.. Powlctt, o/j.ctf., p. 65. 

3. Tod, op.cit., p. 1138. 

4. Ojha, G.H., op.df., p. 364. 

5. ihid. 

6. Tod, op.a7., p.' 1139. 



50 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


MODERN PERIOD 


Maharaja Surat Singh 

Surat Singh, son of Gaj Singh, born in 1765 a.d., thus succee- 
ded as Maharaja of Bikaner in 1787. In 1790-91 A.D. he exacted' Rs. 
95,000 from the Thakur of Churu who was in revolt and Rs. 20,000 
from the Bhatti Khan Bahadur of Rajpur. Bijay Singh, ruler of 
Jodhpur, had received Surat Singh’s brother cordially when he had 
sought asylum with him. Surat Singh now effected a reconciliation 
with the ruler of Jodhpur.* In v.s. 1855 (1798 a.d.) an envoy came from 
Jaipur to Bikaner State and friendly relations were'established between 
the two States; A Bikaner official was also sent to pay coiriplimehts ’ 
to the Jaipur ruler and who settled some minor boundary disputes. In 
v.s. 1856 (1799 a.d.) the Maharaja founded a new town, Snratgarh 
(in Ganganagar district). The Bhattis of Bhatner then rose against the 
State, thereupon the ruler sent a force of 2000 men to subdue them but 
they were supported by Zabita Khan with 7000 men. Supplies and 
reinforcements were obtained without loss of time and the Bhattis were 
attacked again, and were defeated with great loss at Bigor.near Dabli, 
where the ruler built a fort called Fatebgarh. George Thomas, the.Irish 
military adventurer allied hiihself with the Bhattis and aided by some 
Thakurs seized this fort. But later on, it was recovered by a sudden 
assault led by Rawat Bahadur Singh arid others on behalf of the 
Maharaja and the gairisori surrendered. 

In v.s. 1858 (1801 A.D.) the State was engaged in a v^ar to 
obtain a chain of forts in the desert on the Multan-Delhi route of 
which the fort of Annpgarh was a link. One Khuda Bakhsha Daud- 
putra who had been expelled from his estate (Mojgarh) byBahawal 
Khan of Bahawalpur approached the Maharaja for aid. Accordingly a 
large army was sent and several forts such as Balar (renamed Siogarh), 
Phulra, Mirgarh, Maroth and Mojgarh were. captured by the forces of 
Bikaner. 

Mojgarh was then conferred upon Khuda Bakhsha. The army 
proceeded thence to Bahawalpur. By this time, however, Khuda 
Bakhsha had reconciled with;Bahawal. Khan who.agreed to leave him 
in possession of half of his territory, and persuaded him to sever 

1. Ojha, G.H. (op.cit., p. 365) on the authority otJodUpur-ki-Khyat explains in the 
foot note that Surat Singh bad to pay three lakhs of rupees to Bijay Singh of 
Jodhpur to win him over. 



History 


51 


relations with the ‘land seizing Rathprs’. Khuda Bakhsha did so and 
paid a sum of rupees two lakhs to the Bikaner force for faujkharch. 

In y.s, 1859 (a.d. 1802 November) ,the fort of. Khangarh 
which, was said to possess a hidden treasury was captured, it. is said, 
through a stratagem by a Bikaner force under Rai Singh of Mainasar 
and Ajit Singh of Sela but they could not find the treasure. 

A force led by Amar Chand Surana was sent against the trouble- 
some Bhattis in 1804 a.d. After a protracted siege, the fort of 
Bhatrier was shrrendered to him by Zabita Khan, the Bhatti Chief. As 
the fort was surrendered on Tuesday, a day sacred to God Hanumao, 
the place was renamed as Hanumangarh. 

In v.s. 1863 (A.D. 1807) Maharaja Surat Singh allied himself 
with Maharaja Jagat Singh of Jaipur to support the claim.of Dhbnkal 
Singh to, Jodhpur gadi against Man Singh. Though both the sides had 
offered him (Surat Singh) the 84 villages ofPhalodi pargana, yet, he 
preferred to side with Jaipur and. sent an army of 8000 men which 
captured Phalodi. Surat Sjngh joined the main force of Jaipur with 
his troops, at Palsana. The combined forcK encamped at lylithri. 
Man Singh also with an army of 80,000 troops reached village Gingoli 
to confront them. After fruitless negotiations for thirteen days a 
clash took place near Kucharaan in which the Jodhpur forces were 
routed and, Man Singh had to retreat tp his capital. The victorious 
army pursued him, and after giving the city to plunder, the fort was 
besieged. For seven monffis the fort was subjected to heavy bombard- 
ment. Man Singh finding further resistance of no a.vail, sent his 
principal sirdars, for negotiations. The negotiations failed as the 
Jodhpur sirdars refused to place the State under Jaipur during the 
minority of Dhonkal Singh. A suggestion was.made to Surat Singh 
that if the Jodhpur sirdars were murdered there would be no hurdle 
in the way of Dhonkal Singh to rule over Jodhpur. He, however, 
bluntly refused to resort to such a mean conduct as he had already 
promised and given a word for their safety. The siege was raised 
without any ostensible reason though its immediate cause was perhaps 
the illness of Maharaja Surat Singh which compelled him to leave the 
scene though he kept his forces there. Both the armies returned to their 
respective capitals when it became difficult to bear their e.xpcnses. 

, In the meanwhile Man Singh seized the opportunity of winning 
over Amir Khan Pinduri from Shekhawali. He, at the request of Man 



52 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Singh, invested Nagaur and put to sword the rebellious sirdars of 
that place. 

In the following year Man Singh sent a force under Inder Raj 
against Bikaner. Inder Raj was repulsed at Phalodi by the two Bikaner 
officers deputed there. The Jodhpur forces were resisted and their pro- 
gress checked.i But ultimately the Bikaner troops retreated in order with 
their artillery and other material intact. The Jodhpur army followed 
them and remained in Gajner for two months. Though small skirmishes 
took place now and then, it created no effect. Inder Raj was replaced 
by a new commander Kalyan Mai Lodha on his complaint that the 
former was colluding with Bikaner. Lodha ordered his main force to 
march on Bikaner without himself leading them. So no enthusiasm 
was shown at his move. In the meanwhile Amarchand Surana^ came 
to Gajner with 4000 horse and the two armies clashed. Jodhpur had 
the worst of the day as their commander Kalyan Mai was captured, 
though he was later released. He returned with ignominy to Jodhpur 
and was replaced by Inder Raj again. The siege dragged on and both 
sides seemed to have been fed up. Surat Singh started negotiations 
resulting in a peace treaty under which he made over six forts to Jodhpur 
and paid an indemnity of Rs. 300,000 or as some say two lacs. 

It was while the Jodhpur army was half-heartedly besieging the 
fort that Mr. Elphinstone passed through Bikaner on his way to Kabul, 
The Maharaja treated him with great respect and requested for the 
protection of the British Government, but this request could not be 
granted as it was opposed to the policy then being followed by the 
Britishers.3 

Between a.d. 1809 and 1814 Surat Singh engaged himself in 
punishing refractory chiefs. In these operations his minister, Amarchand, 
look a prominent part. The last of these’ operations was the suppression 
of the Thakur of Chum, who died when his town was under a siege. 
Amar Chand was suitably awarded in rcbognition of his outstanding 
services. He was, however, soon charged f6r intriguing with Amir Khan 

t. Tod, however, mcmions that Bikaner army was defeated but Ojha's (op.el/; 
p. 386) version is just contrary to it. . . 

2. Ojha mentions that Inder Raj, expressing bis gratefulness to Surat Singb for 
saving his life during the negotiations at Jodhpur earlier, intimated Mm (he vow 

. taken by Kalyan Mai Lodha to capture Bikaner, 

3. Erskinc, op.c//., p. 325. 



History 


53 


against the State. “Though the charge was false, and Amar Chand 
was really a devoted servant of his chief, and though the Kheiri Raja 
interceded for him an^ he was ready to pay n 'fine of Rs. 3,00,000, his 
enemies prevailed,- and he was put to death”.i 

In v.s,; 16 /z KA.u. 1815) Thakur Prithvi Singh -of Churu and- 
'other ousted nobels’ again, raised their heads, ravaged the country and 
defied the State. Troops were sent from Bikaner to subdue them.' 
Operations against them were in progress when Amir Khan invaded 
Bikaner and advanced as far as Ghhapar, but soon went back. The 
discontented Thakurs alongwith the Pindaris, however, continued 
their raids and, many of them forcibly recaptured their estates. ^ 

These circumstances forced the Maharaja to ask for British aid 
by sending a vakil, Ojha Kashi Nath to Delhi, who negotiated a treaty 
with the British Resident, Mr. Charles Metcalf on 9th March, 1818. 
It provided that Surat Singh and his successors were bound to act in! 
“subordinateco-operation” and the 'British Government agreed to’ 
protect his territories and, on application, reduce his rebellious subjects 
to obedience (Appendix I).' Shortly afterwards on the request of th6 
ruler to suppress the refractory nobles of the State, the British troops 
under the command of General Amold,^ entered Bikaner and captured 
altogether twelve forts and made them over i:o the State. • Bhadra tahsil 
remained occupied by the. British troops taken from .the Sikhs of 
Patiala and was handed over to the State only when the expenses of the 
expeditionary force were paid to them. 

’ * j *> t ' ' ? 

At this time the Bikaner State and the British Government- ex- 
changed correspondence regarding the villages of Tibi which the Bikaner 
State claimed as its own, as part of Bhatner. It also claimed forty 
villages of the Beniwal pargana adjoining Bhadra. Later, Mn -Edward 
Trevelyan was deputed by the British Government to settle' the dispute 
and his decision on both the claims ofBikancr was unfavourable to the 
State. In S. 1884 (1827. a.d.) when the Governor General Lord 
Amherst came to Meerut a grand Durbar was held there and Mehta 
Abir Chand Vakil of the Bikaner State was sent to the Durbar as 
representative of the ruler and .a great Nazar from Bikaner was 
presented and a Kbillat received. Surat Singh died in 1828 a.d. • 

1. PowlcU, op. c/r., p, 69. ' 

2. But in his Gazctiffr of the Bikar.er State (p. 70) Powlett gives his name as 
General Alncr. 



54 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Maharaja Ratan Singh 

Ratan Singh, the eldest son of Maharaja Surat Singh succeeded 
him in 1828, Soon after, he sent his troops to Jaisalmer as the Bhatis 
from that State had carried off a number of camels belonging to the 
Bikaner State and the forces of both the States indulged in stray 
skirmishes As this action of the ruler was in violation of the treaty 
signed by him with the British Government, the latter intervened and 
through the mediation of the Maharana of Udaipur, the dispute was 
settled. In 1830, some of the Thakurs began to give trouble to the 
Maharaja who applied for British help to reduce them, but it was not 
needed. 


Inv,s. 1888 (1831 A,D,) the village of Alwana was renamed 
Sardargarh after ruler’s son Sardar Singh and , a fort was built there. 
That very year, the Emperor of Delhi, Akbar II sent a Khillat to the 
Maharaja through one Jwalaprasad. Though Mughal Empire ,was 
now a mere phantom the Maharaja continued to show respect for .the 
emperor and received the Khillat^ consisting of hprses, nqgaras etc. 
and the title of Narendra Sawai but according to the Admimstration 
Report of the State (1893-94) the title was Narendra Shiromani. 

During the next four or five years, dacoity became rampant in 
the State especially on the border area. Some of the Thakurs were 
actually conniving at it and adopted highway robbery as their 
profession. The energies of the State were directed mostly towards 
the suppression of the recalcitrant sirdars. A special force called the 
Shekhawati Brigade was organised one part of which solely consisted 
of Bidawats i.c., descendants of Bida, the brother of Bika the founder 
of Bikaner State. The Bikaner State contributed Rs. 22,000 annually 
towards its cost. As a result of the operations undertaken by this 
brigade the situation improved and the Maharaja was able to exercise 

more effeciive control over his chieftains. 

r- - - . . ■ 

; In v.s. .1892 (1836 a.d.)' after erecting a memorial of his 
father at^Devi Kund and repairing those of his ancestors, the Maharaja 
set out on a pilgrimage to Gaya with 6000 followers. At Gaya, .the 
Maharaja made his followers s\vear never to commits infanticide. In 


1 . 

2 . 


Powlctt., np.cit., p. 72 and Ojha, op.cit., Pt. II, pp. 419-20. 

This was an evil custom - prevalent nmonB the Rajputs who were compelled to 
give a rich dowry at the time of the daughters’ marriages. Conscoucntly thev 
were forced to bargain. Their indebtedness was oltcn very high. Hence in 
°/r '".‘5’ ‘■<=i'C'’‘=‘hemselvcsfrom this state of affairs, they pieferred to kill their 
iniaut daughters. Ojha, 431, 



History 


55 


1840 the Maharana of Udaipur married the daughter of the Maharaja 
of Bikaner; In V.S.. 1899 (1842 a.d.) a boundary dispute between 
Lbhasana of Bikaner and Khiali of Jaipur was finally settled by Major 
Forster; who set up boundary pillars. The dispute had caused great 
trouble. 

■ Ratan Singh supplied two hundred camels for the Kabul expedi- 
tion for which he was thanked by the Governor-General of India, who 
happened to be in Delhi at that time. The Maharaja assisted the 
British- Government' in both the Sikh campaigns, receiving on the first 
occasion two guns in recognition of the services of his contingent; In’ 
1844 the ruler agreed to a reduced scale of duties on goods in transit 
through his -territory, viz,,' a rate of ' eight annas instead ofas-ihany' 
rupees per camel Toad. 

In -v.s. 1902 (1845 a.d.) a dispute, with Jodhpur regarding^ 
boundary near Sajangarh (in .Churu district) was settled. An investigation 
into the Bahawalpur and Bikaner boundary dispute was undertaken, by 
Captain Jackson and Cunningham. The outbreak of the Sikh War 
interrupted the enquiry. However, a final decision. was arrived at in 
1849 A.D. and the tri-junction of Bahawalpur, Bikaner and Jaisalmer 
was also determined. 

Maharaja Ratan Singh died in 1851 a.d. During his rule, only 
two years (1836 and 1837) were prosperous while two others (1834 and 
1849) \vere of acute farhine, the rest being average ones. His reign 
witnessed further strengthening of ties with the British as would be 
indicated by their help in suppressing, the. recalcitrant Thak'urs and 
the, prevalent disorders in the State. He on his part helped the British 
in their hard-fought campaign against the Sikhs. 

Mahamja Sardar Singh 

Saidar Singh, born in 1818, became the ruler of Bikaner in 1851. 
He found his State burdened with a heavy debt of about- Rs. lacs, 
caused partly by the necessity of maintaining a large array in order to 
subdue the turbulent nobles and protect the frontiers from Bahawalpur, 
Jaisalmer, Jodhpur and Shekhawati from robbers and dacoits, and 
partly by Jong drawn scarcity as witnessed because in the long rule of 
his father, there were only two years of plenty. 

The reign of Maharaja Sardar Singh, however, is known for a , 
number of reforms. The insolvency procedure was made more strict as 



56 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner. 


the Mahajans took money from the poor, people as deposits, and then 
declared themselves insolvent. Nov/ unless the indigenous banker could, 
clear of his debts, he was not permitted to leave his place of residence, 
to use coloured Parcha or to give any feast in connection with 
mourning rituals. The Maharaja checked the tendency to extravagance, 
on occasions of marriage and mourning. He issued a proclamation 
prohibiting sati as desired by the Governor-General Lord William 
Bentinck. 

It was during his reign that the uprising ,of 1857 took place and, 
the Maharaja, though pre-occupied with his own difBculties, yet in, 
order to discharge his obligations under the treaty ,of 1818 “of treating 
the enemies of the British Government as his own”, marched with his 
troops to the northern border of the State, and joined ,the British, 
forces in the Punjab where Sirsa, Hisar and Hansi had fallen to the 
rebels. He was perhaps the only prince among the rulers of Rajputana 
who personally led his forces consisting of regular and well disciplined 
infantry, cavalry and a large auxiliary camel force. Sardar Sirigh had' 
rendered good services by sheltering Europeans ahd co-operating with 
the British against the rebels of Hansi and' Hisar.and, as a reward on’ 
the recommendation of Brigadier-General G. S. P. Lawrence, received' 
in 1861 a grant of the Tibi tract, consisting of 41 villages of Sirsa'' 
District in the Punjab, while the privilege of adoption was guaranteed 
to him and his successors in the following year (Appendix II & HI). His 
services to the British during the uprising were praised by Her Majesty 
Queen Victoria herself. 

t . « . 1 

Ih'May 1868 the headquarters of the Assistant to the Governor-' 
General’s^Agent were located at Sojangarh (now in Churu district), near 
the tri-junction of Jaipur, Jodhpur and Bikaner. The immediate object 
of his appointment was to check dacoity, which was very rife on the 
borders of those States, but he was also entrusted with the political 
charge of Bikaner, The first officer who occupied this post was Captain 
Powlett. H4 however, failed to bring about any improvement in the 
administration. At the end of 1870 he was relieved by Captain 
Burton. 

Shortly after Powlett had taken charge of his office many 
Thakurs presented a complaint against the . State. Their main 
grievances were : (i) the seizure of some of their villages, (ii) the 
exactions levied ' from them under the name of nazrana, and (iii) the 



History 


57 


direct collection from their villages of certain miscellaneous cesses. An 
enquiry was held by Powlett and in 1870 a decision was taken (a) that 
all villages which formed part of estates held under valid grants at the 
time of ■ Sardar Singh’s succession, but which had been subsequently 
resumed, were to be restored, while the Maharaja was to be at liberty 
to deal as he liked with his own grants; and (b) that rekh or cash 
payment made by the Thakurs in commutation of services should be 
fixed at Rs. 200 per horseman annually for a period of ten years, after 
which the amount was to be reconsidered by a panchayat. This sum 
of Rs. 200 was to include everything except nazrana or fee on succession 
to an estate. This decision was accepted by all the Jagirdars except 
that of Mahajan, who left Bikaner and went to Ladnu in Marwar. 

Other important events of Sardar Singh’s reign were the Extradi- 
tion Treaty of 1869 (subsequently modified in 1887) given in Appendices 
ly & V; the abolition of the privilege of sanctuary for crime in 1870, 
and the establishment of an Administrative Council and regular civil, 
criminal and revenue courts at Bikanertityi 

ft f 'if.' — 

Sardar Singh ruled fd^lfwentvyears*' and ‘during this period, 
there'were no less than q^feen^changesr In' the fricumbents of the 
ministry; some of whom h'eVd •oiicp-' only days'^ This was so 

because of their inability t6\corniilj^with the demands "for money made 
by the Maharaja. From 185Vi863 and agarn',.Tor^aashort time in 1865, 
the administration was carried'taB—.with'^ ability , and integrity, by 
Ram Lai Dwarkani, but as usually m such cases, his enemies prevailed 
against him and he was removed on both the occasions. His 
successors held olfice for a short time and roost of them concerned 
themselves with only filling their pockets as fast as they could. The 
affairs of the State were heading towards utmost confusion and large 
debt was incurred. The exactions of the ruler in his anxiety to increase 
the revenue gave rise to much discontentnient. An outsider, Wilayat 
Hussain, who was a magistrate in the British dominions was made the 
Dewan but he was faced with several famines in the State. When lie 
failed to meet the financial needs of the State his services were 
terminated. Pandit Manphool was made the Dewan in 1869. He tried 
to tone up the administration with the help of the British officers but 
could not cut much ice under the circumstances. 

Sardar Singh died suddenly on the 16th May 1872, without any 
issue and without deciding the question of his succession. There were 



58 


Rajasthan District Ga^.etteers— Bikaner 


two aspirants in the near cognate relations, Dungar Singh and Jaswant 
Singh, and ultimately the British Government approved Dungar 
Singh as the rightful successor and heir to the late Itdaharaja. 

Maharaja Dnngar Singh 

Dungar Singh, a descendant of Chhatar Singh, one of Maharaja 
Surat Singh’s brothers, was born in 1854. He ascepded the gadi in 
1872. As he was only eighteen years of age at that time, the 
State continued to be managed by a council hea^ied by Captain 
Burton. A few months earlier Captain Bradford pad been deputed 
especially to visit and report on Bikaner. He had recommended a 
council for administration. Captain Burton was now appointed president 
of this council. On attaining majority, Dungar SiPgh was invested 
with full powers by the Agent to the Governor-Generai io s magnificent 
Durbar on 22nd January, 1873. 

Maladministration and the discontent of the Thakurs had not, 
however, ceased. In 1883, an attempt to raise the was opposed 
by the nobles who rose in open rebellion against the Maharaja. One 
British Officer .was deputed to enquire into and effect a settlement of 
their differences. The Thakurs, how'ever, refused to come to any 
amicable settlement and it was not until a small British force, from 
Nasirabad had marched a considerable distance towards Bikaner, that 
the majority of them surrendered to the Political AgePt unconditionally. 
The Bidawats still held together but their leaders eventually gave in, 
and their forts were dismantled. A Political Agent was permanently 
located at Bikaner later in 1884, and the differences between 
the Chief and his nobles were gradually adjusted. 

During this Maharaja’s reign, the topographical survey of the 
State was carried out between 1875 and 1880; an agreement with the 
British Government in India was made in 1879 regarding the local 
manufacture of salt etc. The Maharaja supplied caiPels for the Kabul 
expedition in 1879. The enumeration of population was done in 1881. 
The summary settlement of the Khalsa villages was completed by P.J. 
Fagan in 1884-85. Dispensaries, post offices and schools at various 
places were established. 

During his reign of 15 years, the State revenue was almost 
trebled. When he came to the gadi, the revenue of thC State was Rs. 5.32 
lacs, but when he died (1887) the revenue had risen to over 16 lacs 
of rupees. 



History 


59 


Dungar Singh was the first ruler who tried to modernise Bikaner. 
He was very eager to extend to his people, the benefit's of canal 
irrigation and railway communication. A proposal for a broadga'uge 
railway connecting Sindh with Delhi via Jaisalmer and Bikaner was 
actually considered. In 1886, he installed electric power in Bikaner 
when the use of electricity was not very common in India, and scarcely 
had been introdnced in any other State. This will show that Maharaja 
Ganga Singh, his successor, was correct in paying him tribute in these 
words,- “His high sense of duty, his genuine sympathy arid solicitude 
for his people, and his sagacity arid perspicacity laid the foundations 
for those developments of which we are today gathering the fruits”. 
The Maharaja was also a great builder and Sohan Burj^ Sunehri Burj, 
Chini Brirj, Ganpati Niwas, Sardar Niwas and many temples still bear 
an eloquent testimony to his love of construction of buildings. 

The Maharaja died without any issue on 19th August, 1887, 
having adopted his younger brother Ganga Singh, shortly before his 
death. 

Maharaja Ganga Singh 

Ganga Singh who was born in 1880, was formally installed 
on the gadi on 31st August, 1887, after- bis adoption had been 
confirmed by the British Government. He had studied at the Mayo 
College, Ajmer, from 1889 to 1894- and was invested with full powers 
on 16th December 1898. 

During his minority, the' State was administered by a council 
presided over by the Political Agent, arid inany everits of iiripbrtance 
occurred in these eleven years. Among them may be rrientibried (i) the 
toristruction of the railway from'lhe Jodhpur border to Bikaner city 
(1889-91) and its extc'nsibn to" Dulmera, completed by 1898; (ii) the 
raising of a camel corps as part of Bikaner forces (1889-93); (iii) the 
establishment of a regular Public Works Department in 1891; (iv) relief 
during tlie' famines of 1891-92, and 1896-97; (v) the conversion of the 
local currency (1893-94), vide appendix VI; (vi) the introduction of the 
land revenue settlement (1894-95); (vii) the discovery of a coal mine at 
Palana in 1896; (viii) the construction of the Ghaggar canals (1896-97); 
and (ix) a sound husbandry of the State’s resources. 

Within a year of the Maharaja’s attaining full powers, the State 
was visited by one of the severest faming in which tbe Maharaja 
personally look the most active' part in organising relief operations and 



60 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


in making them a complete success. For the indefatigable energy 
and skill, with which he conducted them and for his personal 
activity he was awarded the Kaisar-i-Hind medal of the fir§t class, in 
1900. In June 1900, he was created an honorary Major in the 
Indian Army, and in August of the same year he went to China in 
command of his Imperial Service Regiment, receiving on his return the 
China medal and the K.C.I.E. In 1902 he visited England to attend 
the coronation of King Edward VII and was honoured with the 
appointment of honorary A.D.C. to the Prince of Wales, In 1903-04 
his Camel Corps distinguished itself in Somaliland. In June 1904, 
he received the K.C.S.I., in January 1907 the G.C.I.E. and in December 
1911 the G.C.S.I. He rendered active military service in the first 
World War in France and Egypt and was honoured with medals and 
other distinctions. In 1917 he took part as a representative of the 
Ruling Princes of India at the sessions of the Imperial War Cabinet 
and Conference held in England. In 1918-19, he took part in the 
Peace Conference where he was one of the signatories to the Treaty of 
Versailles, 

At the invitation of the Viceroy the Maharaja represented the 
Ruling Princes of India at the Assembly of the League of Nations held 
at Geneva in September 1924.- He was honoured as a Freeman of 
the Cities of London, Edinburg, Manchester and Bristol. An Honorary 
degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by the University of Cambridge, 
Edinburgh and Banaras. He was also invited by the University of Oxford 
to receive its D.C.L, degree, but was unable to do so in person owing to 
his other pressing engagements. He was a Chancellor of the Banaras 
Hindu University, After the inauguration of the Chamber of Princes 
in February 1921, he was elected the first Chancellor of the Chamber 
and remained as such for some years. He was also a prominent member 
of the Indian Round Table Conferences held in London, in 1930 and 
1931. In September, 1939, he placed his personal services and the 
entire resources of the State at the command of the British Indian 
Government in the Second World War. He went on active service to 
the Middle East Front in October 1941. 

In the beginning of his reign, in 1905 the Maharaja had come 
in conflict with some of his turbulent Thakurs. Some were harbouring 
thieves, others resorting to pillage and plunder of their neighbours, 
some had sought to set at naught the authority of the State by exacting 
unlawful imposts on the peaceful population and encroaching on the 



History 


61 


lands of the State. These elements wallowed in the belief that the 
relations between the Maharaja and the Political Agent were strained, 
and that it was an opportune time to conspire against him. They were 
led to assume that if sufficient strength could be mustered the Political 
Agent would unhesitatingly intervene, and that the intervention would 
be in their favour. It is said that rich merchants and leaders of some 
religious sects were also asked to join. The Maharaja’s warning to 
the Jagirdars to abstain from disloyal activities had no effect. He 
thereafter instituted a summaryi enquiry into the activities of some of 
them. They also drew up a list of 36 complaints, which were enquired 
into. Most of the small and inconsequential rebellious sirdars were 
pardoned but their leaders were tried for their seditious activities by a 
Tribunal consisting of Maharaj Bhairun Singh and two A grade 
sirdars etc, The tribunal sat for one month and twenty-three days. The 
report of the tribunal mentioned that the sirdars wanted “to create 
a serious disturbance by making other Sardars and subjects hostile to 
the State by whatever means possible,” and “the Commission has no 
hesitation in saying that the charge of sedition is clearly proved 
against the Sardars.”^ The Maharaja decided to confiscate only half 
of the estate of the Thakur of Ajitpura and a village each from estates 
of Bidusar and Gopalpura. The offending nobles, then, approached 
the Political Agent who turned deaf ears to them. The Agent to the 
Governor General was also satisfied with the action taken by the 
Maharaja, The Viceroy also upheld the Maharrya’s decision. 

Maharaja Ganga Singh’s long rule of 56 years witnessed the 
emergence of Bikaner State from a small petty principality into one of 
the premier princely States of India. The present Bikaner Division 
owes its prosperity, entirely to his efforts. He started first by inaugura- 
ting reforms in the old system of administration. The office of the 
Devvan Was abolished in 1902 and proper Secretariat system was created. 
This enabled the ruler to guide the administrative machinery personally, 
and thanks to his superabundance of energy, he was able to do il so 
well in spite of his pre-occupations in other fields of activities briefly 
mentioned above. He established the Bikaner Representative Assembly 
in 1913 consisting of 35 members. In September 1917 it was named as 
Legislative Assembly with a membership of 45 and was invested with 
the powers of legislation, deliberation and interpellation on the model 

J . Ranikknr, K.M., IJis Highness the Maharaja of Btkaner, 1937, p. 78-79. 

2. ibht.p 84 



62 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


of the Central Assembly in British India constituted under the Motley 
Minto Reforms, with special safeguards in the hands of the riiler. The 
laws passed by this assembly covered a wide field. He also established 
District Boards and made improvement in the Local Self-Government 
institutions. The Police Department was reorganised. In order to 
improve the revenue administration of the State he tried to settle the 
land revenue on a permanent basis, and a British officer was engaged 
for the purpose. Measures were taken to improve and increase the rabi 
cultivation in those parts of the State which’ were well suited for it. 
Many schools were opened and a modern hospital fully equipped and 
manned by renowned surgeons and physicians chosen with care, was 
set-up. 


A benevolent and an enlightened ruler of the calibre of Maharaja 
Ganga Singh was naturally interested'in irrigation as a' means of pros- 
perity in the arid tract on the north-west of the State. With this end 
in view he approached the British Government in India with the scheme 
of digging a canal to bring water from the river Sutlej. It was on the 
4th September 1920, fifteen years after the scheme had been accepted in 
principle, that the momentous agreement' was signed' between the 
Punjab, Bahawalpur and Bikaner to give' a- practical shape to the 
project. The work- of construction of loop-line, 157 miles in length 
was completed alongwith the establishment- of schools, mandis, hospitals 
and police stations, by the autumn of 1927. On 26th October of the 
same year. Lord Irwin; the thcn Viceroy,- came to open the canal which 
perpetuates the name of the Maharaja. The Gang Canal, which takes 
the^place of pride amongst a number of ameliorative measures initiated 
by tile Maharaja for promoting the well-being. of liis subjects, converted 
^ very, big area of the State from desert into the lush green 
ahd fertile fields. More than 500 new villages have come into existence 
since the opening of the Canal and the region vies with any other 
in India in agricultural prosperity. 

Another important achievement of the Maharaja was the 
extension of railway lines in the State, thus providing a net work of 
modern means of communication. The total length of the railway 
tracks in 1898 was about 136 km. This had increased to 1413 K-m. 
in 1943 when the Maharaja died. He also established a High Court of 
Judicature and introduced separation of the Judiciary from the executive 
at the top. ' 



History 


63 


In, his reign, Hindi v/as reintroduced as the State language 
(Which was to replace Urdu introduced as the official language by the 
Council of Regency during the minority of the Maharaja. The Govern- 
ment High School' in Bikaner city was upgraded to a College and the 
post of Director of Education was created. The Maharaja established 
a Zenana, Hospital and a number of dispensaries at various places. He 
built-up a sound financial infrastructure of the State exploiting to the 
full, all sources of income. 

The Maharaja celebrated the Silver Jubilee (1912) and the 
.Golden. Jubilee (1937) of his reign. He was a devoted father, a fine 
sportsman, a master of the art of shooting-having bagged no less than 
.160 tigers. He had a special taste for architecture, which was reflected 
in the many beautiful buildings and fine roads and parks to be seen in 
and around Bikaner. It was his fidelity to old friends which impelled 
him to gather them round in Bikaner on every important occasion. 

Besides the Viceroys who visited this State, many political officers 
of the Government of India, and other friends froih European countries 
enjoyed his lavish and luxurious hospitality at Bikaner. On the 
occasioii of the Versailles Peace Conference the Maharaja had invited 
M. Clemenceau to visit Bikaner. This famous statesman of France 
while, visiting India on his return tour from the Far East in 1922, also 
came to Bikaner. 

Ganga Singh died in 1943 at the age of 63 years. 

Maharaja Sadni Singh 

Ganga Singh was succeeded by his son Sadul Singh. Even at an 
age of sixteen as a prince, he was given opportunity of gaining insight 
into the administration of the State departments under different miriisters 
by his sagacious father. In 1918, he had been to Europe with him when 
he went to attend the Versailles Peace Conference. Later in 1920 bevvas 
appointed as Chief Minister and President of the Council which office 
he occupied with distinction up to 1925, when he resigned. Thus he had 
acquired practical training in and experience of administration when he 
became the ruler. 

Soon after his accession, he • abolished the traditional and 
customary capital levies on Neota (on the occasion of a wedding in the 
Ruling Family) and Takht . Nashim ki Bhack (on the occasion of 
accession of the ruler). At that time political developments v,'ere fast 



64 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


taking shape in the country. The Cripps Mission had failed but new 
proposals were afoot to meet the demands for Independence. As a 
result of the proposals of Cabinet Mission, the British had agreed to 
withdraw from India, and an interim Government was to be set up 
under the leadership of the late Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru. A constituent 
asssembly was to be summoned to draw up a t onstitution for free 
India, The States were also invited to send their representatives to this 
constituent assembly and K.M. Panikkar who was then the Prime 
Minister of Bikaner State, participated in its deliberations as its 
representative. 

During this period, some steps were taken by the Maharaja to 
meet the demands of the Prajamandal for establishment of responsible 
Government in the State. The membership of the Legislative Assembly 
was raised to 51, of which 29 were to be elected members and the rest, 
nominated. 

The Maharaja also declared that a Constitution Act would be 
promulgated providing for the establishment of full Responsible 
Government in the State. Two committees were appointed-one as the 
Constitution Cojnmittee and the other as Franchise and Constituencies 
Committee-which were directed to submit their reports before March 1, 
1947. The scheme envisaged establishment of a responsible Government 
not later than November, 1947. A political conference was held in 
Raisinghnagar in June-July 1946. Some political disturbances, 
however, occurred in the State, and a few minor accidents were also 
reported from the capital in early July, 1946. However, a new Govern- 
ment, representing the people, the nobles and other interests, was 
1 constituted in 1947. This government, however, could not make such 
head way, and in the fluid situation that bad developed, the Maharaja 
continued to rule till the end of March 1949 when the State merged 
(30.3.1949) into the United State of Greater Rajasthan. 

Political Awakening in Bikaner 

The seeds of political life in Bikaner had been sown by Maharaja 
Ganga Singh when he created a Representative Assembly as early as 
1913, it was later re-named as Legislative Assembly with an initial 
membership of 45 members, both nominated and elected, and it was 
invested with the powers, like the Legislative Assembly at Delhi, of 
legislation, deliberation and interpellation with special safeguards 
reserved for the ruler. With the passage of lime, and as a result of 



History 


65 


more liberal political institutions having been established in British 
India, the limited functions of the Assembly could not meet the aspira- 
tions of the freedom loving people of the State. After the emergence of 
Mahatma Gandhi on the political scene of India, his Satyagrah 
movement and call for wearing Kbadi unleashed a political springtide, 
which besides enveloping the British provinces also spread in the 
princely States. In 1921, some of the students at Bikaner wished to 
attend the function organised for the reception given in the honour of 
Prince of Wales wearing Gandhi caps. They were of course not allowed 
to do so. This was, however, a clear indication of the way the political 
wind was blowing in the State. 

The political awakening found its first institutional expression 
in the establishment of a society known as Sadvidya Pracbarini Sabha 
with the sole aim of explaining to people the reactionary and undemo- 
cratic policies followed by the State. This Sadvidya (right education) 
was imparted by presenting such stage plays and other recreational 
activities as would enlighten the audience about the evil effects of 
government policies on the people of the State. This was the first 
symbol of an eloquent but directly silent protest against the autocratic 
rule. The society later took upon its shoulders the responsibility of 
popularising Swadeshi movement in the State. 

The then Bikaner State took great care in not allowing any of 
the political workers of either the British provinces, or of the 
neighbouring or other princely States, to enter its territory. One of 
them, however, succeeded in entering the State. He worked for 9 days 
among the Harijans, and enrolled some members of the Indian National 
Congress. He was, however, apprehended at the Railway Station and 
externed from the State. Around 1927-28 a prominent vakil of Bikaner 
invited one of the prominent poHp'cal leaders of Sikar and the Treasurer 
of the AH India Congress Committee to preside over the annual function 
of the Ratangarh Brahmacharyashram but the authorities did not permit 
his entry in the State. 

In the year 1930-31, publication of a pamphlcti depicting 
adversely the financial conditions of the newly started Bikaner Stale 
Savings Bank created a flutter in the official dove-cots of Bikaner. 
Another pamphlet showing in lurid lights the state of affairs in Bikaner 

1. Bisvi'as, C., Slkar.cr~thc land of the ^farwaris, p. SS. 



66 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


was circulated by State Peoples Conference in London among the 
members of the British Parliament. Maharaja Ganga Singh, who was 
in London to attend the Round Table Conference and who was very 
much upset at these publications, had to expedite his return to his 
State. After his arrival persons, suspected to be the authors of the 
pamphlets, were arrested.^ In 1932, an Act, known as Public Safety Act 
was passed. It proscribed any agitation among labourers, prohibited 
the entry of any book or newspaper containing matter liable to create 
dis-affection against the ruler or his Government, and made it 
obligatory to apply for permission to hold any public meeting. The 
District Magistrate was empowered to declare any meeting illegal if it 
contravened any of the provisions of the said Act. 

Bikaner Conspiracy Case (1932) 

Several articles criticising the Bikaner Administration for taking 
such stringent measures to curb political agitation had appeared in 
periodicals like the Riyasat and Princely India published from Delhi. A 
meeting was held at Churu in January, 1932 where speeches vehemently 
criticising the State Administration for its repressive policies were deli- 
vered.Thereafter some persons were arrested tobe prosecuted for sedition. 
When the trial began, a meeting^ consisting of prominent persons from 
Rajasthan living in Bombay was helds on 23rd September 1933. It was 
decided to form Bikaner Political Case Committee with the object of 
conducting a wide spread campaign in British India against the prosecu- 
tion, ill treatment and denial of justice to political workers in Bikaner. 
Bikaner Day was organised on 17th December, 1933 at many places to 
protest against these prosecutions. Pandit Jai Narain Vyas, an eminent 
political worker of Rajasthan set up a defence committee for this 
purpose and great publicity was given to the proceedings of the case 
through press and platform. While in Bombay, the ruler called some 
influential persons to apprise them of .the situation, but the trial conti- 
nued and judgement was delivered in January, 1934, and the accused 
were sentenced to terms of imprisonment ranging from six months to 
three years. 

1. Biswas, C., op.clt., p. 88. 

2. Panikkar, K.M., op.clt., pp. 353-56. 

3. File No. 60 of 1933, State Archives at Bikaner, It is in the form of a cutting 
from news papers. The news was published in the paper TJie National Call dated 
27.8.1933. Ahoscc Swami Gopaldasjt ka Vyakatllva avam Kratitva, ttagar Shri 
Churu, p. 226. 



History 


67 


In 1935, some cntliusiastic workers of Bikaner residing in 
Calcutta set up there an organisation known as Bikaner Rajya Praja 
Mandat. In the following year Praja Mandat was established in Bikaner 
itselfi but it could not pursue its activities due to the strict attitude 
adopted by the State authorities to curb them. In 1942, another band 
of workers made an attempt to start Praja Parishad It was also 
smothered to lifelessness on the 7th day of its birth under the provisions 
of Public Safety Act.^ One of the workers was exiled from the State 
and others were imprisoned. One Akhil Bharatiya Charan ShS/jo running 
a Ktiadi Bhandar, was closed by the orders of the State and its workers 
were expelled from the State.^ 

After Maharaja Sadul Singh’s accession to the throne, he pursued 
a less repressive policy and some political workers were released from 
jail. The new Maharaja visualised the political trends in the country 
and attempted to introduce some reforms in the administrative system. 
Changes were also made in his personnels occupying the key- positions in 
the State Administration, though surprisingly enough, even collection 
for Kasturba memorial fund in 1944 was prohibited upon and the 
subscribers were warned.^ 

In the Jagir villages, the condition of the farmers was becoming 
intolerable. The jagirdars practised all kinds of tyrannies over them. 
Tlw peasants tried to approach the Maharaja of Bikaner for redress of 
their grievances but in vain. They had, therefore, to approach the 
Praja Parishad to espouse their cause. It was for the first time, in the 
history of Bikaner that kisans^ both men and women, paraded the 
streets of thecity, flying tiicoloured flags and shouting national slogans. 
Many persons xs’erc arrested on. 6th June, 1945, including the President 
of Praja Parishad and many of its members. Tlic news of the arrest of 
these people spread like wild fire throughout the Bikaner State, and as 
a consequence, the ■kisans of DodhwakhuTa (Churu district) also joined 
the agitation. Repressive measures whs'c also taken against tlic people 
of Raisinglmagar (Ganganagar dislTict) tlw poSce resorted to 

firing (1946) resulting in one dcath,^ 

1. Bi$\v2s,C:.,op.icjr.,p. SS. 

Z, ibi^, 

5. li-SvTBcr Jtc/ra 7«n 3iajni!ic Viktts Evoai JJaHwT, Rsm X'-a«i 

<t, Biswas C., o.'j.’cir., P, -89, 

5. a'iU., j>. sn. ' 



68 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers—Blkaner 


In the second half of the year 1946, a number of 
organisations of political complexion such as Praja Sevak Sangh, 
Muslim League, Jat Sahha had come into existence. The year 1946 
thus ushered in a new era in the political life of Bikaner, by the 
creation of a new political ferment. The Maharaja influenced by 
the political developments taking place in British India, issued a pro- 
clamation on 31st August, 1946, setting up a body for drafting a 
constitution for introducing a responsible government in the State. 
The constitution making body invited important individuals, insti- 
tutions and organisations in the State, to give their suggestions for the 
purpose. The Maharaja showed his willingness to send a representa- 
tive to take part in the Constituent Assembly of India. In the mean- 
time, Pandit Jawahar Lai Nehru, had formed the Interim Government 
for the country and the British Government had declared their intention 
to leave India, 

Another important development took place in 1947 when the 
Maharaja decided to set up a popular government consisting of the 
members of the Praja Parishad alongwith equal number of members 
from the nobility and other sections of the people. Thus a ministry 
was formed with four of its members belonging to the Praja Parishad. 
This ministry could not work successfully for a long period as it sought 
to combine both feudal and popular elements. 

In the meantime, the political developments in the country were 
taking place rapidly. Sardar Patel’s policy of intergrating the princely 
States to form a State of Rajasthan was beginning to take shape. The 
Maharaja accordingly agreed to merge his State into the United 
State of Greater Rajasthan, which was inaugurated on 30th March, 
1949. The centuries old dynastic rule of the Rathors thus came to an 
end. The genealogical table of the rulers of Bikaner State is given in 
Appendix vii. 



History 


69 


Appendix I 

‘Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between the British 
Government in India and Maharaja Surat Singh 
of Bikaneer, dated 9th March, 1818’. 

Treaty between the Honourable the English East India 
Company and Maharajah Soorat Sing Bahadoor the Rajah of 
Bikaneer, concluded by Mr. Charles Theophilus Metcalfe on the part 
of the Honourarle Company, in virtue of full powers granted by His 
Excellency the Most Noble the Marquis of Hastings, K.G., 
Governor-General &c., &c., and by Oujha Kashee Nautt, on the 
part of Raj Rajheesur Maharajah Sroomun Sree Soorut Sing 
Bahadoor, accordine to full powers given by the Rajah,-1818. 

Article 1 

There shall be perpetual friendship, alliance, and unity of 
interests between the Honourable Company and Maharajah Soorut Sing 
and his heirs and successors, and the friends and enemies of one party 
shall be the friends and enemies of both parties. 

Article 2 

The British Government engages to protect the principality and 
territory of Bikaneer. 


Article 3 

Maharajah Soorut Sing and his heirs and successors will act in 
subordinate co-operation with the British Government and acknowledge 
its supremacy, and will not have any connection with any other Chiefs 
or States. 


Article 4 

The Maharajah and his heirs and successors will not enter into 
negotiation with any Chief or State without the knowledge and sanction 
of the British Government': but the usual amicable correspondence with 
friends and relations shall continue. 

Article 5 

The Maharajah and his heirs and successors will not commit 
aggressions on any one; if by accident any dispute arise with any one the 
settlement of it shall be submitted to the arbitration and award of the 
British Government. 



70 


Rajasthao I5istrict Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Article 6 

Whereas certain persons of the principality of Bikaneer have 
adopted the evil courses of highway robbers and banditti, and have 
plundered the property of many, to the great molestation of the peaceable 
Subjects of both of the contracting parties, the Maharajah engages 
to cause to be restored the property plundered from inhabitants of the 
British territories upto this time, and for the future entirely to suppress 
the robbers and plunderers in his principality. If the Maharajah be 
hot able to effect their suppression assistance shall be afforded on his 
application by the British Government, in which case the Maharajah 
will pay all the expenses of force employed; or, in the event of his not 
finding means to pay those expenses, he will in lieu cede parts of his 
territory to the British Government, which, after the payment of those 
expenses, shall be restored. 


Article 7 

‘The British Government, on the application of the Maharajah, 
will reduce to subjection the tatikoors and other inhabitants of his 
principality who have revolted and thrown oif his authority. In this 
tase the Maharajah will pay all the expenses of the force employed; or, 
in the event of not having the means, will, instead, cede parts of his 
territory to the British Government, which shall be restored after the 
payment of those expenses. 


Article 8 

The Maharajah of Bikaheer will furnish troops at the requisition 
of the British Government, according to his means. 

Article 9 

The Maharajah and his heirs and successors shall be absolute 
mlcrs of their country, and the British jurisdiction shall not be intro- 
duced into that principality. 


Article 10 

As it is the wish and intention of the British Government that 
the roads of Bikaneer and Bhutnecr be rendered passable and safe for 
the transit of trade to and from the countries of Cabul and iChorasaun, 
Ac., the Maharajah engages effectually to accomplish that object 
Within his own dominions, so as that merchants shall pass with 
protection and safety and meet With no impediment; and with respect 
to custom duties the established rates shall not be exceeded. 



History 


71 


Article U 

This Treaty of eleven Articles having been concluded and signed 
and sealed by Mr. Charles Theophilus Metcalfe and Oujha Kasfaee 
Nautt, the ratihcations by His Excellency the Most Noble the 
Governor-General and Raj Rajheesur Maharajah Sroomun SreeSoorat 
Sing Bahadoor, shall be exchanged within twenty days from the 
present date. 

£)oiie <a1 Delhi, this '9th day of March, A,Df 1818. 

C.T. Metcalfs 
Oujha Kashee Nautt 
Hastings. 


This Trcaiyt was ratified by His Excellency the Governor- 
General, in Camp near Patrassa Ghaut on the Gogra, on the 2lst of 
March ISIS. 


J. Adam 

Secretary to tbs Governor-Generai 


1, AhcJuscn, C.tJ., .rf Cc'Ucciw); of Trearies, Dogagetmtiis mid Sanads, Vol IH 
(1952).pp.2SS-$a. 



72 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Appendix II 

Translation! of a Sonnud granting certain villages to 
Maharajah Sirdar Singh Bahadoor of Bikaneer, 
dated 11th Aprill 861. 

Whereas it appears from a report of the Governor-General’s 
Agent in Rajpootana that during the rebellion Maharajah Sirdar Singh 
Bahadoor of Bikaneer, with a feeling of loyalty and devotion to the 
British Government came out in person, spent money, protected lives 
of certain Europeans, and rendered other good services to government; 
and whereas these circumstances being highly satisfactory to govern- 
ment, the said Maharajah obtained thanks and aKbillutof distinction; 
the government is now pleased to confer on him in perpetuity the 
villages specified in a separate schedule*, situated in the district of Sirsa, 
yielding an annual revenue of fourteen thousand two hundred and 
ninety-one Rupees, and which are hereby incorporated with his former 
territory, subject to the same conditions as are observed with respect 
to the latter; the grant will take effect from 1st May 1861. 

•Names of villages with their annual jumma granted to the Maharajah of 
Bikaneer in reward for his services 


No. Names of villages Annual jumma, Remarks 

1861-62 




Rs. 

J. 

Saboora 

300 

2. 

Manuck Tcbcc 

177 

3. 

Kara Khara 

490 

4. 

Goodca Khara 

406 

5. 

Kampoora 

137 

6. 

Solawally 

234 

7. 

Muller Khara 

451 

8. 

Bascchur 

500 

9. 

Gihvalla 

410 

10, 

Saharun . 

350 

11. 

Koolchundc 

250 

12 

Soorawally 

948 

13. 

Chundoorwally 

200 

14. 

Peer Kamreca 

740 

1. 

Ailchison, C.U.* A Collection of Treo 
{mi), pp. 190-9K 


This village has progressive jumma 
rising to Rupees 590 in 1865-66. 

Has progressive jumma rising to 
Rupees 235 in 1865-66. 


Eiigagements and Sanads, Vol. Ill, 



History 


73 


No. -Names of villages Annual jumma. Remarks 

1861-62 


15. 

Punneevvally oorf jugranee 

207 



16. 

Kunnance 

451 



17. 

Mugrance 

534 



18. 

Masance 

346 



19. 

Tebee Barajeka 

889 



20. 

Rutta Khara 

199 






Has progressive jumma — 

21. 

Ralhee Khara 

16 

Rising to Rupees 

235 in 1865-66 

22. 

Ki'shenpoora 

120 

-do. 

300 in 1870-71 

23. 

Salairagur 

17 

-do. 

130 in -do- 

•24. 

Gharoe 

210 

-do. 

340 in 1865-66 

25. 

Silwalla Khurd 

194 

-do. 

266 in -do- 

26. 

Bairwalla Kullan 

280 



27. 

Silwalla Kullan 

241 

-do. 

366 in -do- 

■28. 

Tulwara Kullan 

757 



29. 

Jalalabad 

176 

-do. 

276 in -do- 

30, 

Moharvvalla 

482 

-do- 

554 in -do- 

31. 

Mascctawally 

223 

-do. 

261 in -do-- 

32. 

Ramsara 

258 

-do. 

308 in -do- 

33. 

Dublec Khurd 

394 

o 

t 

454 in -do- 

34. 

Ramnugger 

200 



35. 

Dublec Kullan 

730 

-do. 

780 in -do- 

36. 

Mirzawally 

351 

-do. 

423 in -do- 

37. 

Chaoowally 

310 

-do. 

360 in -do- 

38. 

Bhooranpoora 

174 

-do. 

225 in -do- 

39. 

Khairawally 

181 

-do. 

231 in -do- 

40. 

Shcwdanpoora 

473 



41. 

Khundanca 

285 

1 




TOTAL RUPEES 

14,291 




74 


Rajasthan District Gazettecrs-rBikancr 


Appendix III 


Adoption Sunnud^ granted to the Ruler of Bikaner-1862, 


Her Majesty being desirous that the Governments of the several 
Princes and Chiefs of India who now govern their own territories 
should be perpetuated, and that the representation and dignity of their 
Houses should be continued; I hereby, in fulfilment of this desire, 
convey to you the assurance that, on failure of natural heirs, the 
adoption by yourself and future Rulers of your State of a successor 
according to Hindoo law and to the customs of your race will be 
recognised and confirmed. 

Be assured that nothing shall disturb the engagement thus made 
to you, so long as your House is loyal to the Crown and faithful to 
the conditions of the Treaties, Grants or Engagements which record 
its obligations to the British Government. 


Dated 11th March 1862 


Canning. 


1. Aitchision, C.U., /I Collecihn of Treaties, Engagements and Sanads, Vpl 111 
(1932), pp. 35-36. ' 



History 


75 


Appendix IV 

Extradition Treaty between the British Government and 
His Highness Sirdar Sing, Maharajah of Bikaneer, his heirs and 
successors, executed on the one part by Lieutenant-Colonel Richard 
Harte Kbatinge, c.s.i. and v.c., Governor-General’s Agent for 
the States of Raipootana, in virtue of the full powers vested in him 
by His Excellency the Right Hon’ble Sir John Laird Mair Law- 
rence Baronet, g.c.b., and g.c.s.l. Viceroy and Governor- 
General of /INDIA, and on his own part by Maharajah Sirdar Sing 
aforesaid, — 1869. 

Article 1. 

That any person, whether a British or Foreign subject, committ- 
ing a heinous offence in British territory, and seeking shelter within the 
limits of the Bikaneer State, shall be apprehended and delivered up by 
the latter Government to the former on requisition in the usual manner. 

Article 2. 

That any person, being a subject of Bikaneer, committing a 
heinous offence within the limits of the Bikaneer State, and seeking 
asylum in British territory will be apprehended and delivered up by the 
latter Government to the former on requisition in the usual manner. 

Article 3. 

That any person, otlier than a Bikaneer subject, committing a 
heinous offence within the limits of the Bikaneer State, and seeking 
asylum in British territory, will be apprehended, and the case investi- 
gated by such Court as the British Government may direct. As a general 
rule, such cases will be tried by the Court of the Political Officer in 
whom the political supervision of the Bikaneer State may at the time be 
vested. 


Article 4. 

That in no case shall either Government be bound to surrender 
any person accused of a heinous offence, except on requisition duly 
made by, or by the authority of, the Government within whose 
territories the offence shall be charged to have been committed and also 
upon such evidence of criminality as, according to the laws of the 
country in which the person accused shall be found, would justify his 
apprehension and sustain the charge if the offence had been there 
committed. 



76 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


Article 5. 

That the following offences be deemed as coming within the 


category of heinous offences : 

1st — Murder 

2nd— Attempt to murder 

3rd— Culpable homicide 
under aggravating 
circumstances 

4th — ^Thuggee 

5th — Poisoning 

6th — Rape 

7th— Causing grievous hurt 


10th— Dacoitee 
11th— Robbery 
12th— Burglary 

13 th— Cattle-theft 

14 th — Arson 

15th— Forgery 

16th— Counterfeiting coin 
or uttering base coin 

17th— Criminal breach of 
trust 


8th— Child-stealing 18th— Criminal misappro- 

priation of property 

9th — Selling females 19th — Abetting the above 

offences 

Article 6 

The expense of any apprehension, detention, or surrender, made 
in virtue of the foregoing stipulations, shall be borne and defrayed by 
the Government malting the requisition. 


Article 7 

The above Treaty shall continue in force until cither of the high 
contracting parties shall give notice to the other of its wish to 
terminate it. 


Article 8 

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to affect any Treaty 
now existing between the high contracting parties, except so far as any 
Treaty may be repugnant thereto. 



History 


77 


Pone at Bikaneer this third day of February in the year one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine. 


Percy W. Powlext, 
Asstt, Agent, Govr.-Genl, 

Signature and seal of the 
Maharajah of Bikaneer 

R. H. Keatinge, 
Govr.-Genl.’s Agent. 

Mayo 


This treaty! ^as ratified by His Excellency the Viceroy and 
Governor-General of India at Simla on the 15th June 1869, 

W. S, Seton-Karr, 
Secy, to the Govt, of India, 
Foreign Dept. 


1. Aitchkoa, C.U„ A CcUcction of treaties, lir.safcments anj Sanads Vol. Ill (1932), 
pp. 291-93. 



78 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Appendix V 

Agreement supplementary to the Treaty of 1869 regarding 
Extradition — 1887. 

Whereas a Treaty relating to the extradition of offenders was 
concluded on the 15th June 1869 between the British Government and 
the Bikanir State; And whereas the procedure prescribed by the Treaty 
for the extradition of offenders from British India to the Bikanir State 
has been found by experience to be less simple and effective than 
tbe'procedure prescribed by the law as to the extradition of offenders in 
force in British India : It is hereby agreed between the British 
Government and the Bikanir State that the provisions of the Treaty 
prescribing a procedure for the extradition of offenders shall no longer 
apply to cases of extradition from British India to the Bikanir State; 
but that the procedure prescribed by the law as to the extradition of 
offenders for the time being in force in British India shall be followed 
in every such case. 

Done at Bikanir this twenty-ninth day of July in the year one 
thousand eight hundred and eighty-seven. 

A. P. Thornton, Captain, 

Offg. Political Agent, Bikanir. 

Signature and Seal of Maharaja of Bikanir 

Ddfperin, 

Viceroy and Governor-General 
of India. 

This Agreementi was approved and confirmed by His Excellency 
the Viceroy and Governor-General of India at Fort William on the 
twenty-eighth day of March a.d. one thousand eight hundred and 
eighty-eight. 


H. M. Durand 

Secretary to the Govt, of India, 
Foreign Dept. 

1. Aitdilson, C.U., /t Collection of Treaties, Ensasetnents and Sanads, Vol. Ill (1932) 
pp, 295-9G. 



History 


79 


Appendix VI 

Agreement under the Native Coinage Act 1876, with the 
Bikanir Darbar, 1893. 

Articles of Agreement made this sixteenth day of February 
1893 between the Government of India pn the one^ part and the 
Bikanir Darbar on the other part : — 

Whereas under the Native Coinage Act, IX of 1876 the Governor- 
General in Council has power from time to time to declare by notifica- 
tion in tlje Gazette of India that a tender of payment of money if made 
in the coins, or the coins of any specified metal, made under the said 
Act for any Native State, shall be a legal tender in Britisli India: And 
whereas by section 4 of the said Act it is declared that such power 
shall be exercisable only under certain conditions, amongst which is 
the condition that the Native State for which such coins are coined 
shall enter into agreements corresponding with the first three articles of 
these presents ; And whereas by section 5 of the said Act any such 
State is authorised to send to any mint in British India metal to be made 
into coin under the same Act, and (subject as therein mentioned), the 
Mint Master is required to receive such metal and convert it into coin: 

And whereas the Bikaner State is a Native State within the 
meaning of the said Act, and the Bikanir Darbar, pursuant to such 
authority, has sent or will send to the Mint of Bombay silver to be 
coined under the said Act into a maximum of Rupees ten lakhs or 
thereabouts, and has requested the Government of India to exercise 
the power hereinbefore recited in the case of the said coins, and the 
Government of India have consented to exercise such power by issuing 
the requisite -notification in the Gazette of India, on the execution by 
the said Bikanir Darbar of this Agreement. 

Now these presents witness, and it is hereby agreed between the 
parties hereto as follows (that is to say) : — 

Firstly — The Bikanir Darbar agrees to abstain during a term of 
thirty years, from the date of the notification aforesaid, from coining 
silver and copper in its own mint, and also undertakes that no coins 
resembling coins for the time being a legal tender in British India, 
shall, after the expiration of the said term, be struck under its 
authority, or with its permission at any place within or without its 
jurisdiction. 



80 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


Secondly — The Bikanir Darbar also agrees that the law and 
rules for the time being in force respecting the cutting and breaking of 
coin of the Government of India reduced in weight by reasonable 
wearing or otherwise, or counterfeit, or called in by proclamation, 
shall apply to the coins made for the Bikanir State under this Act, and 
that it will defray the cost of cutting and breaking them. 

Thirdly — The Bikanir Darbar also agrees not to issue the said 
coins below their nominal value, and not to allow any discount or other 
advantage to any person in order to bring them into circulation. 

Fourthly— The Bikanir Darbar agrees that if at any time the 
Government of India call in its coinage in silver and copper, the 
Darbar will, if so requested by the Government of India, call in at its 
own expense all coins made for it under this Agreement. 

In witness whereof Rai Bahadur Sodhi Hukm Singh, Thakur 
Lai Singh, and Mahta Mangal Chand, Members- of the Council of 
Regency, and C. S. Bayley, Indian Civil Service, Political Agent, 
Bikanir on behalf of the Government of India, have set their hands 
and seals the day and year Erst above written. 

Sodhi Hukm Singh 
Lal Singh 

Lansdowne 

Viceroy and Govr.-GcnI. of India. 

Mahta Mangal Chand 
Chas. S. Bayley, 

Political Agent in Bikanir. 

This agrcemcnti was ratified by His Excellency the Viceroy and 
Governor-General of India at Fort William, on the third day of March 
1893. 


H. M. Durand, 

Secretary to Government of India, 
Foreign Department. 


1 . AUclmon, C.U., op . cii ., pp. 298-99, 



Appendix VII 

Genealogy of the rulers of the Bikaner State 


History 


81 


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(A.D. 1713) 1792 (A.D. 1736) 1802 (A D. 1745) 


82 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


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CHAPTER III 

PEOPLE 

POPULATION 


Total Population 


The total population! of the district in 1961, according to the 
Census figures, was 4,44,515. It was distributed among the various 
administrative units as follows : 


Unit 


Population 


Total 

Males 

Females 

Bikaner district 

4,44,515 

2.32,699 

2,11,816 

Bikaner north Sub-division 

3,05,748 

1,60,217 

1,45,531 

Bikaner tahsil 

2,51,781 

1,31,888 

1,19,893 

Ltlnkaransar tahsil 

53,967 

28,329 

25,638 

Bikaner south Sub-division 

1,38,767 

72,482 

66,285 

Kolayat tahsil 

47,998 

25,710 

22,288 

Naukha tahsil 

90,769 

46,772 

43,997 


Growth of Population 

The density of population in 1961 was 16 persons per sq. km. as 
compared to 13 persons per sq. km. in 1951. The density of popula- 
tion for Rajasthan as a whole, was 59 persons per sq. km. in 1 96 1 , 
and 47 persons per sq. km. in 1951. 

The following table gives decade variation^ in population during 
the last sixty years. 


Year 

Decade variation 

Percentage decade variation 



Bikaner 

Rajasthan 

1901-11 

+ 16,313 

-f 8.57 

4- 6.70 

1911-21 

- 8,118 

— 3.93 

— 6.29 

1921-31 

-f 36.230 

-f 18.24 

4- 14.14 

1931-41 

-f- 80,536 

-b 34.29 

4- 18.01 

1941-51 

+ 27,67.^ 

4- 8.77 

4- 15.20 

1951-61 

4- 1,01,424 

4- 29.56 

4- 26.20 


1. T!i<‘ of India, 196!. Vol. XIV, R-.ijastiuTn, Part H-A, pp. 21-22. 

2, ihiil,, p. 95. 





84 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


An analysis of this table will show that the population in the 
area has registered a steady growth since 1921. In 1901 the popula- 
tion of the district was a bare 1,90,457, comprising 99,407 males 
and 91,050 females. During the preceding decade i.e., 1891-1901 it 
had decreased by 29.7 per cent, as a consequence of the famines of 
1891-92, 1896-97 and 1899-1900. They were responsible for more 
than usual emigration and excessive mortality resulting mainly from 
epidemics like cholera and malarial fever.i The loss was partially 
made good in 1901-1911 when the population rose to 206,770. The 
following decade 1911-1921 again witnessed a decline in the growth 
rate with the result that the population of the district at the time of 
1921 Census stood at 1,98,652. This decline was due to the visitation 
of plague and influenza during that decade all over the country. 
Thereafter, the population rapidly increased to 234,882 in 1931, 
315,418 in 1941 ; 3,43,0912 in 1951 and 4,44,515 in 1961. The 1961 
Census population figure of 444,515 represents an increase of 29.56 
per cent over that of 1951. The corresponding increase in the popula- 
tion of the State of Rajasthan was 26.20. 

Sex Ratio 

In this district, as elsewhere in Rajasthan, males outnumber 
females. According to 192L Census, the number of females per 1000 
males was 885. This increased to 890 in 1931 and fell to 863 in 1941 
but again rose to 925 in 1951. In 1961, the females sex ratio for 
Rajasthan as a whole, was 908 while that for this district was 910. 
In urban areas of the district this ratio was 916, while in the rural 
area, it was 906. The number of females (being 884 to 1000 males) 
is lower than that of males in Bikaner city, but it is the other way 
round in other towns of the district; the ratio being 1117, 1002, 1046, 
1057 and 1006 females to 1000 males, in Gangashahr, Bhinasar, 
Napasar, Deshnoke and Naukha Mandi respectively.^ 

Arc 

As per 1951 Census report, infants aged upto four years 
accounted for 13 percent, those aged 5 to 14,26.9 percent and 
persons aged 15 to 34 accounted for 32 per cent; those aged 35 to 54, 

1. ErsV.inc, K.D., R&jputana Gazetteer, The Weitcrn RujpmSna Stales Residency, 
Bikaner, p. 331. 

2. Adjnstca figures to the jurisdiction of 1961. 

3 Census of India, Paper No. I of 1962, pp. 233-235, 



People 


85 


formed 18.5 per cent of the population and thos^ aged 55 and over 
formed 9.6 per cent. 

Age-wise distribution of the population according to 1961 
Census, is as follows : 

Age-group 

0-4 
5-14 
15-24 
25-34 
35-59 

60 and above 

Urban and Rural population 

Till the year 1931 only Bikaner had been classified as a town. 
The number rose to three and seven in 1941 and 1951 respectively. 
In the 1961 Census the number fell to six due to the re-definition of a 
towni by the code of Census Procedure, and accordingly Ltinkaransar 
was left out of the category. The particulars of other towns are as • 
follows : 



Area 

Population 

Population 1961 

Name of Town 

Sq. miles 

Sq. km. 

Per sq.mile 

Males 

Females 

Total 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

1. Bikaner 

14.71 

38.10 

10,240 

79,945 

70,689 

1,50,634 

2. Gangashahar 

4.58 

11.86 

2,335 

5,052 

5,644 

10,696 

3. Bhiniisar 

3.78 

9.79 

1,440 

2,718 

2,724 

5,442 

4. Napasar 

29.55 

76.53 

. 225 

3,243 

3,391 

6,634 

5, Deshnokc 

33.61 

87.05 

205 

3,344 

3,536 

6,880 

6, Naukha Mandi 4.09 

10.59 

1.892 

3,858 

3,882 

7,740 


Percentage 

16.7 

27.8 
17.7 

14.6 

17.6 
5.6 


1. Jn 1961 a town included : 

(1) All areas which were administered by municipalities in 1951 and where 
municipal administration continued to subsist. However, where municipal 
administration did not exist, the following three factors were required to be 
satisfied before any such areas were included in urban areas : 

(a) Minimum population was 5000, (b) 3/4 of male adult population was 
cnE.aRcd in non-agricmltural occupations, and (c) density of population was 
approximately ICOO persq. mile. 




86 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


The population in towns in Bikaner district in 1901 was 53,075. 
It rose to 55,826 in 1911 ; 69,410 in 1921 and 85,927 in 1931. The 
total number of people living in towns increased to 136,801 ; 148,988 
and 1,88,026 in 1941, 1951 and 1961 respectively. 

The rural population of the district, according to 1961 Census, 
is 256,489 (134,539 males and 121,950 females), accounting for 5.8 per 
cent of the total population. The distribution of rural population 
according to administrative units is as follows : 


Tahsil 


Urban 



Rural 


Total 

Males 

Females 

Total 

Males 

Females 

Bikaner 

1,80,286 

94,302 

85,984 

71,495 

37,586 

33,909 

Lnnkaransar 

— 

— 

— 

53,967 

28,329 

25,638 

Koluyat 

— 

— 

— 

47,998 

25,710 

22,288 

Naukha 

7,740 

3,858 

3,882 

83,029 

42,914 

40,115 

Total 

1,88,026 

98,160 

89,866 

2,56,489 

1,34,439 

1,21,950 


In 1961, the urban population formed 42 per cent of the total, 
but if Bikaner city is excluded, it is reduced to 8 per cent only. The 
other towns are only over grown villages as the economy of the district 
is overwhelmingly agricultural and pastoral. Scarcity of water and 
lack of any large scale industrial and trading centres, which only 
tempt large groups of people to them, are severe handicaps in the way 
of the growth of large towns in the district. The rural population is 
scattered over the desert and arid zone, clustering round wherever 
water is available for agriculture on a small scale, and for meeting 
the needs of human beings and domestic animals. 

Emigration and Immigration 

According to the 1951 Census, the total population of the 
district was 330,329 persons (171,279 males and 159,050 females). 
301,874 persons (158,163 males and 143,711 females) that is 91.4 per 
cent, were born in the district itself while 6.2 per cent or 20,712 persons 
(8,994 males and 11,718 females) were born in other districts of Rajas- 
than, and only 0.9 per cent, that is 2,683 persons (1,463 males and 1,220 
females) were born out side Rajasthfin but within Indi.a. Tliose born 
in other countries of Asia numbered 5,060 (2,659 males and 2,401 
females) and formed 1.5 per cent of the total population. 




People 


87 


According to 1961 Census, those born in the district itself were 
392,240 persons (209,845 males and 182,395 females) or 88.4 per cent 
of the total population. Those born in other districts of Rajasthan 
numbered 38,031 persons (14,858 males and 23,173 females) and 
accounted for 8.6 per cent. 9,034 persons (4,980 males and 4,054 
females) or two per cent, were born in other States in India and those 
born in Asiatic countries beyond India formed one per cent and 
numbered 4,679 persons (2,768 males and 1,911 females). Only three 
(2 males and 1 female) persons were born in Africa and two persons 
(2 males) were born in America. 526 persons (244 males and 282 
females) were declared unclassified. A comparison of these figures in 
1951 and 1961 Census reports indicates a definite trend towards greater 
mobility of population. 

The problem of emigration still remains largely of a semi- 
permanent variety, and consists of those traders and their dependents 
who arc indiscriminately known as Marwaris and play an important 
role in commerce, banking and industry in India. 

Displaced Persons 

According to the Census of 1951, the number of displaced 
persons in this district was 5,012 (2,634 males and 2,378 females). Only 
two persons had immigrated from East Pakistan (one in 1947 and the 
other in 1949), and the remaining have come from West Pakistan, (3,649 
in 1947; 1,247 in 1948 and 85 in 1949). Majority of them, that is 2,432 
or 48.5 per cent, were traders; of the rest, 1,707 or 34.1 per cent earned 
their livelihood by other services and miscellaneous sources, 597 or 12 
percent were industrialists and 194 or 3.9 per cent were engaged in 
transport, 18 or 0.3 per cent were cultivators of owned land, 28 or 0.5 
per cent were cultivators of un-owned land, 32 or 0.6 per cent were 
non-cultivating owners of land and 4 or 0.1 percent were cultivating 
labourersi. 

The displaced persons were absorbed on land, trade, industry, 
business and a number of other occupations. In order to facilitate 
their resettlement, grants of land, subsidy and loans were made to 
them. 

I 19S1. R-Sjcsthzn arJ Ajtrei District C /: //<./« ot A, Bikaner, Parti, 

General Descrifvtion and Census Table, p. 3. 



88 


Rajasthan Cistrict Gazetteers— Bikaner 


The following table shows occupational division of displaced 
persons in 1951.1 



Categories 

Urban 

Rural 

Total 


Male 

Female 

Male 

Female 

Male 

Female 

1. 

Cultivators of land wholly 
or mainly owned and their 
dependents 

4 

8 

6 


10 

8 

2. 

Cultivators of land wholly 
or mainly un-owned and 
their dependents 

14 

13 


1 

14 

14 

3. 

Cultivating labourers and 
their dependents 

4 

- 

- 

- 

4 

- 

4. 

Non-cultivating owners of 
land ; agricultural rent 
receivers and dependents 


32 




32 

5. 

Production other than 
cultivation 

284 

282 

17 

14 

301 

296 

6. 

Commerce 

1,253 

1,040 

71 

68 

1,324 

. 1,108 

7. 

Transport 

101 

93 

- 

- 

101 

93 

8. 

Other services and mis- 
cellaneous sources 

871 

813 

9 

14 

880 

827 


LANGUAGE 

According to the 1961 Census, the principal language spoken in 
the district is Marwari, a dialect of Rajasthani , which according to 
Dr. Grierson’s classification belongs to the Indo-European family, 
Indo-Aryan Branch, Central Group. It was spoken by 372,833 persons 
(190,424 males and 1,82,409 females),, excluding 3,467 persons who 
spoke other dialects of Rajasthani, forming 84 per cent of the total 
population at the time of 1961 Census. Hindi, including its variants 
Brij Bhasha and Khariboli, is spoken by 36,841 persons, Urdu by 12,922 
and Punjabi by 6,402 persons. The number of persons speaking other 
Indian languages in the district is : Bengali 1,3 17, Gujarati 341, Marathi 
513, Tamil 165, Nepali 163, Deshwari 93, Bihari 76, Arbic 69, 
Kankeri 26, Kashmiri 18, Mult.ani 10, Sindhi 6,535, English 46, 

1. Census, i9^^,llj■jaslhin and Ajmer District Census Handbook, Bikaner part I, 
General Description and Grnsus Tables, p. 80. 



People 


89 


Assamese 21 and Sanskrit 1. The other dialects of Rajasthan spoken 
in the district are Rajasthani (3,467); Rathi (2,156); Thali (475); Sansi 
(two) and Shekhawati (two). 

Bilingualism 

Bilingualism is fairly common among the people of the district. 
Out of the total of 444,515 persons, 16,660 were returned as speaking 
more than one language-English 10,353; Hindi 3,837; Urdu 1,037; 
Bengali 386; Punjabi 288; Sanskrit 188; Sindhi 175; Arabic 173; Gujarati 
121; Assamese 55; Nepali 18; Marathi 17; Persian 8; Tamil, Telgu, 
Tibetan and German one each. 

RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL GROUPS 

The bulk of the population consists of Hindus. Their total 
number according to the 1961 Census, was 376,265 (197,188 males and 
179,077 females) which formed 84.7 per cent of the total, Muslims 
numbered 50,264 (27,040 males and 23,224 femals) forming 1 1.3 per cent, 
Jains numbcreded 16,772 (7,750 males and 9,022 females) forming 3.7 per 
cent and the rest formed 0.3 per cent. These included 996 Sikhs 
(585 males and 411 females), 211 Christians (133 males and 78 females) 
and 7 (3 males and 4 females) those whose religion was not stated. 

Hindus 

The principal sects of Hindus in the district are (i) Vaishnava 
(ii) Shaiva and (iii) Shakta. They are worshippers of Vishnu, Shiva 
and Shakti respectively. Followers of Vishnu are said to predominate. 

Caste system among the Hindus of the district is the same as 
elsewhere in the State, and is showing the same signs of slackening of 
its rigidity, specially in the urban areas. Educational advancement, 
social awakening and continuous efforts to ameliorate the economic 
and social conditions of the groups at the lower rungs of the society, 
have helped to break the rigid-caste barriers. Important castes among 
Hindus living in the district arc Brahmans, Mahajans (Baniyas), Jats, 
Rajputs, Nayaks or Thoris, Meghwals, Bishnois and Darogas. 

BR.M5MANS-— Generally a, hard-working class, Brahmans are 
mostly traders and agriculturists, though some still perform priestly 
duties, and a few have adopted various other professions. Their 
different sects have not been recorded at any Census. Amongst the 
Brahmans, Pushkarnas arc believed to preponderate in the district. 



90 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Other Brahmans found in the district are Pareek, Ganr, Gujar Gaur, 
Dahimaor Dadhich, Saraswat. Sikhwal, Khandelwal and Paliwal. 
According to Ivluhnot lS!ensi,i the celebrated historian of Marwar, 
Pushkarnas originated from Sindh, where from they migrated to 
Jaisalmer and in course of time, moved to Pokaran and other villages in 
Marwar and the former State of Bikaner. They are strictly endogamous 
and are grouped into a number of exogamous sub-divisions, some of 
which are as under ; — 


1. 

Purohit 

6. 

Derasuri 

11. 

Churina 

2, 

Vyas 

7. 

Chhanjuni 

12. 

Kalla 

3, 

Kenlia 

8. 

Gundhari 

13. 

Joshi 

4, 

Bissa 

9. 

Busu 

14. 

Bhora 

5. 

Acharya 

10. 

Ojha 




The Paliwals 

are 

the remnants of 

the priests of the 


tribe, who, in their pastoral and commercial pursuits, gave up 
their spiritual calling. They take their name from the town of Pali 
which they held in grant from the Parihar Chiefs of Mandor, before 
the establishment of Rathor power in Marwar. It is said that when 
Sheoji, (Circa 1243 a.d.) the founder of Rathor power, imposed a 
general war contribution on the inhabitants of Pali, the Paliwals 
refused to pay pleading that they were Brahmans. This exasperated 
the Raja who threw the leaders into prison and issued a fiat punishing 
every Paliwal. Accordingly they all took refuge in Jaisalmer, and 
later, shifted to and settled in the former Bikaner State. At present 
only scattered families are found in villages and majority of them reside 
in urban areas. They still do not observe the festival of Rakhi which 
falls on the full moon of the month of Sawan because their ancestors 
are said to have been slaughtered in large number by Muhammad 
Ghori on that day. They worship the bridle of a horse on the festival 
of Dashera to commemorate the memory of their warrior ancestors 
who traded on horse back far and wide and would not hesitate to 
unsheathe their swords in defence of their merchandise. 

Mahajans — Mahajans or Banias arc generally known as 
Marwaris in other parts of the country where they are well established 
in trade and business. They form the wealthy section of the 
population. With regard to origin of this class, Tod writes: “The Banias 

1. Census of India, 1961, Vol. XIV, Part VI-D, Village Surrey Monographs, 
Mudb, p. 14, 



People 


91 


appear to trace tlieir origin to Rajputana and it seems not unlikely that 
their ancestors were the trading community among the inhabitants of 
Rajputana.” Amongst the Bania caste, the three most important divisions 
are the Oswals, Agar\?als and Maheshwaris. The Agarwals are said to 
bail from the Hisiir district of Haryana. The Oswals trace their 
origin to Jodhpur or Western Marwar. The Maheshwaris claim to be 
descendants of the Rajputs who took to commerce and sank to the 
level of other Banias. The Maheshwaris came with Bika the founder of 
Bikaner. The Agarwals and the Saraogis immigrated to the Bikaner 
State during the early period of Mohammedan invasions to save them- 
selves from the rigours of insecurity of life and property in the Punjab 
and the Gangetic plains. 

The Oswals are said to be the descendants of Rajputs of different 
clans who were converted to Jainism io.,tbE-secpnd:-Centlify Acd.. They 
take their name from the town of QSi^ltf-'OB^^frAheftuins of which are 
to be found thirty miles north^^Pf^^i^r ci^k^.J^heir_^chief sects in 
the district are Kothari, NahtS^/^rf^ Chopra, Da^, Kochar, Bengani 
and Sipani. 

The Maheshwaris are at!|^4)n^s, son^e^fT'^the Kotharis and 
Dagas are also Maheshwaris. l!fk^ii^^^OTW 5 ;^^Iiey''also trace their 
origin from the Rajputs, chiefly Chauhans, Parihars and Solankis, and 
comprise seventy-two exogamous sub-divisions. The name is derived 
from Mahadeo or Mahesh whom they worship. They are of abstemious 
habits in food and drink; refrain from the use of liquor and meat, 
and do not use onions, garlic or carrots. By occupation they are 
traders, contractors and bankers, some of them having trade connec- 
tions in the remotest parts of India. 

There are also a few Saraogi families in district. They are 
Digambar Jains and consist of 84 sections. The word Saraogi is said 
to mean ‘strict abhorrence of liquor’, but according to others, is a 
corrupt of Shravak, a lay worshipper of Buddha or Jain. They are 
strict vegetarians. They forbid the use of ivory bracelets by their 
women, bathe before breakfast, take their evening meal before sunset 
and burn no fuel without washing it. 

The Agarwals trace their origin to Raja Agra Sen of Agroha in 
the Punjab. They arc divided into 17i clans. The story runs that the 
Raja being keen lo marry his 17 sons to 18 snake-daughters of, Balak, 



92 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


had another son formed out of the body of the eldest and thus brought 
about their marriage; hence the number. The half section can eat 
together but not inter-marry with others, while the other half section 
known as the Narnaul Singhis, forms the Mutsaddi or the ofiBcial class. 
The other clans are engaged in trade and are very enterprising, being 
found in almost all the cantonments and distant places, running their 
small shops, or managing big establishments under the ubiquitous 
name of Marwaris. 

Jats — ^The Jats account for one-fourth to one-fifth of the entire 
population of the district; but preponderate numerically in the eastern 
tahsils. Their more important clans are Godara, Puniya, Beniwal, 
Sohu, Kaswan and Bagri; of these Godara and Saran are numerous in 
the district. The head of the Godaras still enjoys the privilege of putting 
the tilak or auspicious mark on the forehead of the new Maharaja of 
Bikaner Prior to the advent of the Rathors, the Jats held the greater 
part of this territory under their sway, but most of them are now 
agriculturists and are known to be good cultivators. They have also 
taken to sheep breeding work. They possess strong and hardy physiques 
and are good natured by temperament. They are Vaishnavas, and call 
in Brahmans to officiate at their ceremonies; socially they are 
in the fore-front of the castes where widow marriage prevails and is 
practised without demur. 

Rajputs — The Rajputs are the traditional fighting and .land 
owning caste. Formerly they were divided into two economic classes, 
namely, (i) the aristocracy consisting of Jagirdars, and (ii) the tillers 
of the soil. The abolition of jagirs has affected them adversely; many 
of them have not yet attuned themselves to adoption of new occupations 
in a competitive social set-up. 

The important Rajput clans living in the district are Rathor and 
the Bhati. The sects of the Rathor clan are the Bikawats, the 
Bidawats and the Kandholots, named after Rao Bika, the founder of 
the erstwhile State of Bikaner, and his brother Bida and his uncle, 
Kandhal respectively. Their further sub-divisions arc Ratansinghot, 
Sarangot Kishan Singhot, Kesho Dasot and Manohar Dasot. 

Tanwar Rajputs are also in sizable number. Rawane Rajput 
(also known as Darogas, Golas and Chelas) arc considered lower in 
status by the Rajputs. They arc also found in good number in the 
district. They have been described later. 



People 


93 


Nayaks or Thoris — The word Nayak in Sanskrit means a 
Commander. How it came to be associated with 'the name of this 
community is still unknown. The Nayaks claim their identity 
with Surya Vanshi Kshatriyas and their descent from king 
Ajay Pal in particular. The claim has been acceded to by scholars 
like Pandit Jwala Prasad Mishra and Pandit Chhote Lai Sharma to the 
extent that their ancestors occupied posts of responsibility in the service 
of the Rajput princes, but due to frequent incursions of invaders they 
look shelter in remote places where they mixed up with primitive 
communities, imbibed their habits and customs and became their 
leaders or Nayaks. This theory, however, is not borne out by historical 
evidence. 

The word Thori^ another name for Nayaks, is used in a 
derogatory sense, amounting almost to an abuse by the people of higher 
castes. They are treated as untouchables and are not allowed to build 
their huts adjacent to those of the high caste people. Their habita- 
tions arc, therefore, located usually at an appreciable distance from the 
main abadi. 

Till recently, the Nayaks have been considered good as mounted 
attendants or grooms or messengers. Their women folk serve as 
midwives. 

Meghwals — The Meghwals claim their descent from legendary 
Brahman saint Mcgh. The story goes that there were four brothers who 
decided that the youngest of them should remove the dead body of' a 
cow that had died in their yard. Accordingly, he dragged the carcass 
away to the jungle but on his return he was prevented from rejoining 
them and was forced to work as a Chamar.- Another story goes that a 
Raja had two daughters-Chamu and Bhamu, each of whom had a son. 
One day an elephant died in the courtyard of the palace. Charau’s 
son who possessed Herculean strength, carried away the carcass and 
buried it. Thereupon, he was declared an outcaste and forced to take 
up the profession of a Chamar. These legends, however, fail to explain 
the origin of Meghwals except that persons of higher castes were 
degraded to the groups that worked as skinners of dead animals. 

The Meghw'als arc split into a number of exogamous goiras, such 
as : Jatra. Chandra, Bora, Sullaria, Novanpuria, Sungaria, Kansotia, 

1. Cemvs of JrJta. Vol. XIV, Part VJ-B, ViUage Survey Monographs, Mudh, 

P.lf. 



94 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Dameria, Goyal, Pawar, Khatania, Gander Balaicha, Lotna, Bhati, 
Jalan, Tadia Kanteria, Barupal, Chabaria and a host of others totalling 
more than a hnndred. They worship Ramdeoji and Gogaji and their 
family Goddess Khetla Mata. 

A Meghvval youth is permitted by custom to have more than one 
wife but marrying of two real sisters by the same person is taboo. 
Remarriage of widows is prevalent but a widower cannot marry the 
sister of the deceased wife. At the time of betrothal, coconuts, jaggery, 
opium etc. are exchanged by both sides. A Garura Brahmin is 
engaged to officiate at the marriage ceremony. A feast called Bliaiyaji 
ka Bhojan is thrown during the seventh month of the first pregnancy of 
a girl, and a month after the delivery of the child, a ceremony known 
as Siirya puja is held in which the Sun-god is worshipped. The Meghwal 
bury their dead. 

Bishnois — Bishnoisi derive their name from Vishnu as they lay 
great emphasis on its worship. They embraced 29 articles of their 
faith at the instance of a Panwar Rajput ascetic of village Pipasar 
(Nagaur district), named Jhambhoji towards the end of the 15th century. 
Originally, the Bishnoi sect adopting a cosmopolitan spirit threw its 
gates open to persons belonging to any caste or creed. In course of 
time, however, the rigidity of caste system amongst other communities 
influenced the Bishnois, and they also formed themselves into a dis- 
tinct sect, and now the bondage of caste is as firm among Bishnois as 
in any other community. They are distinguished from the rest of the 
Hindus as they burry and do not burn their dead bodies. Mostly, Jats,- 
Brahmans, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas joined the Bishnoi sect. They 
marry among their own community but arc exogamous so far as their 
own Gotra is concerned. Some of the Goiras which are found in the 
district and are akin to those of the Jats are : Kaswan, Godara, Punia, 
Sahu and Bhadi. Their chief occupation is agriculture and they are 
good at that. They are noted for their strength, hardhood and longe- 
vity. A Bishnoi can easily be recognised by his typical features. They 
are strict vegetarians and will not assist or favour even hunting of wild 
animals. Bishnois have their own priests, called Thapans, who offi- 
ciate at their ceremonial functions. There are ten centres in the country 
which are considered sacred by them. Mukam, a village in Bikaner 
district, is one of these sacred places. Jambhoji was buried here and 

1. Dr. Hira Lai Mahcshw.iri. y/iom6Ae>//, Vislinoi Sampradaya Aur Sahitya, Vol. I, 
Calciitta, 1970, p. 437. 



People 


95 


his Samadhi was erected at this place. The Bishnois of the district 
visit the shrine in large numbers twice a year to pay their homage to 
the saint. 

Darogas — ^The origin of the Darogas can be traced to the 
numerous young maids who came as a part of the dowry with the 
brides in the Rajput homes and stayed with them under the same roof. 
As a result, children born of the extra-marital relations of these maids 
with the male members of the family were called Chakars, Hazuris, 
Chelas, Golas and Darogas, and were owned by the ruler, ibakurs, or 
other Rajput nobles concerned. They as a class had no hereditary 
rights to property or other ownership. For the services rendered by 
them they were allowed food and clothes. Arrangement of marriages 
among them was the prerogative of their master. Their wives and 
daughters were given away by their respective masters as a part of 
dowry with their own daughters. If, at any time, they stayed away or 
took shelter elsewhere, they were forced to come back. 

The Darogas in erstwhile Bikaner State, numbered 13,629 or 1.5 
per cent of the total population of the State according to 1931 Census. 
They sometimes claim to be Ravane Rajputs. No steps for their eman- 
cipation or defining their status in society, was ever taken till the 
advent of Independence. The political consciousness following it and 
the abolition of the Jaghirdari system have largely contributed to the 
emancipation of this class, whom their masters could not maintain 
after their jagirs had been resumed. 

Alakhgirs — The peculiar religious sect found in the district is 
that of the Alakhgirs which, though neither numerous nor important, 
is interesting because of its being founded by a member of the Charaar 
community known by the name of Lalgir with a number of high caste 
Hindus among its followers. Born in the village of Sulkhania, he was 
taken away while he was five years old by a Naga^ who made him 
his disciple. Fifteen j'ears later he returned with his Guru who dis- 
covering that Lalgir was the son of a Chamar, forsook him and him- 
self went under a course of purification. In 1830, Lalgir came to 
Bikaner where he lived in a but near the western gate of the fort for 
twelve years, and, when Maharaja Ralan Singh proceeded on pilgri- 
mage of the Ganges, he accompanied him. On his return from the 
pilgnmagc after constructing a well in his native village he came back 

l. This was a sec? of Hindu monks who adopted fighting as their profession. 



96 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


to Bikaner where, although he made no secret of his being a Chamar, 
he created a following, chief of whom was one Lachhi Ram, the chief 
steward of one of the powerful maharanis. Lalgir denounced idolatry 
and preached to his disciples to call God only as Alakh (incomprehen- 
sible). Their worship consisted of only enchanting the word Alakh. 
Charity was encouraged, the taking of animal life and meat as food 
were forbidden. Asceticism were recommended to subdue passion and 
the only reward held out in life was the attainment of purity, un- 
disturbed meditation and serenity. He believed that there was no 
further state of existence as all perished with the body and there was 
nothing beyond it. Peace in life and a good name afterwards were 
the sole but adequate inducement to the practice of virtue. 

Lachhi Ram, prompted by his guru started constructing the 
splendid 'Alakh Sagar’ at Bikaner, which was completed in Samvat 
1909. One day while Maharaja Ratan Singh was going 
to Lakshmi Narain temple, Lalgir contemptuously enquired what he 
would get there. This enraged the Maharaja who expelled him and 
threw his book in manuscript into water. The book contained abusive 
and derisive references to Hinduism. 

Lalgir went to Jaipur, and directed his followers to don the 
ascetic robs (the Dhagwan libas or clothes of a reddish colour, woin by 
the Dadupanthis) and become Jogis. The compliance of this mandate 
rent the air everywhere with the chanting of Alakh ! Alakh ! Maharaja 
Sardar Singh got irritated and in order to put an end to the creed, 
directed the expulsion of all Alakhgirs from the State. The weaker 
spirits abandoned the faith, but Lachhi Ram remained steadfast and 
was accordingly expelled, and his religious books were destroyed. 
Eventually, when Man Mai, son of Lachhi Ram, became Minister 
(about 1866-67), Lalgir was reported to have been permitted to return 
and resume his teachings. The Alakhgirs are mainly ascetics, though a 
few of them are family men. They do not admit Musalmans to their 
faith and consider themselves to be a Jain sect, respecting, though not 
worshipping, the Jain munis. 

Mohammedans 

Muslims are divided into Sunnis and Shias. Of these, the for- 
mer arc found in large number in the district. The principle divisions 
of the Muslims are Sheikh, Saiyad, Mughal and Pathan. The caste 
system has influenced the Muslims also who are divided into several 
functional and other castes. Some of them are as follows : 



People 


97 


1. Jaunjgobu, 2. Teli, 3. Kasai, 4, Rangad, 5. Sheikh, 6. 
Mirasi, 7. Bhisti, 8, Chhippa, 9. Dholi, 10. Fakir, 11, Mali, 
12. Rangrez, 13. Dhobi, 14. Jat, 15. Khalal, 16. Khoja, 17. 
Kiimbhar, 18. Kunjra, 19. Lohar. 20. Mulla, 21. Nai, 22. 
Pajabgir (worker at kilns, bricks etc.) 23. Chobdar and 24. Gujar. 
Pastoral tribes amongst Mohammedans consist chiefly of the Johyas, 
Bhattis and the Raths. 

Christians 

The small Christian community consists of 211 persons (133 
males and 78 females) according to the 1961 Census. Most of them are 
either Methodists, Roman Catholics or Presbyterians. The area is 
included in the Anglican Sea of the Bishop of Nagpur and the Roman 
Catholic Prefecture of Rajputana. The native Christians have come 
from outside to earn their living mostly on the railways. 

Sikhs 

Not in large numbers in the district, Sikhs regard Grantb Sahib 
as their Guru and strictly adhere to the five Symbols — Kara (iron 
bangle), Kacchha (underwear), Kangha (comb), Katar (daggar) and 
Kesh (hair) of the head and beard. Most of them are Jats. 

Jains 

Bikaner was popularly known as the land of Jains. Numerically 
insignificant, they hold important positions in the socio-economic life 
of the district by virtue of their pre-eminence in trade and commerce. 
The Oswals and Saraogis arc the important groups of the community 
who are outwardly Hindus in their behaviour, but distinguish their 
creed by avowal of Afiimsa as its sheet anchor, the worship of Tirthan- 
karas, and the absence of a priestly class. They are divided into the 
two sects of Swetarabar and Digamber. Swetambars are further 
divided into groups of Bais Sampradays, Tera Panthi and Mandir 
Margi. 

Religious Beliefs and Practices 

Orthodoxy grips the thought of most people in the district and 
their minds arc still sunk in superstition. A simple belief in destiny, 
nature or God sustains their faith. All phenomena for which their 
limited knowledge fails to find an explanation, or which is baneful, is 
ascribed to providence. This attitude, being common to most religions, 
is accepted by persons professing different faiths. The theory of Karma 



98 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


the law of causation i.e. Reward and Retribution follow action in this 
life or the life hereafter, has a great hold on their rninds. Along 
with these simple tenets, polytheistic anthropo-morphism still 
prevails and people have great faith in a number of gods and 
goddesses, notably Bhaeroji, Hanumanji, Shitla fGoddess of small 
pox), Pabuji, Ramdeoji, Gogaji, Hing Laj Mata Mawarian, Karniji, 
Babhuta Sidh and Kesaria Kanwal etc. Some of them were humans 
consecrated as gods immortal and possessing divine powers. The 
worship of the sacred herb Tithi and trees like Peepal and Khejra are 
also resorted to in many households. The wrath and retribution of 
the gods is feared as much as their boons are solicited. Animal 
sacrifices are also offered at certain shrines of the Gods to propitiate 
them for warding off the evil influences. Priests and priestesses 
(Bhopa & Bhopi) are attached at the shrines of Bhairo and Mawarian 
for this purpose. In some rural areas, simple superstitious faith still 
prevails in the capacity of professional charmers to subdue an evil spirit 
by captivating it in an earthern pot which is carried away to be nailed 
at some secluded place-usually a burial ground. Muslim sourcerers 
seek to ward off the effects of evil eye by amulets {Taviz) which they 
profess to have endowed with magic powers. No doubt these 
irrational beliefs are on the decline, but mostly in rural areas many 
people have still faith in the potency of charms, amulets and secret 
formula {Jantra, Mantra and Tantra). Sometimes it is believed to 
strengthen their courage, determination and self-confidence. 

People also believe in the efficacy of omens to forestall the 
coming events. Thus a cat crossing the way, a person with flowers or 
head load of fire wood confronting another set on a journey, sneezing 
or the sight of a widow before stepping out of the house, are considered 
ill foreboding, while coming across a sweeperess a maiden, or a married 
woman while undertaking a journey, is considered auspicious. If a 
lizard falls^on the left side of a man or the right side of a woman, it is 
considered ominous, and if it docs otherwise it is a bad . sign. Quivering 
of the left side of the body of a woman is taken to be a bad omen. It 
may, however, be mentioned that these omens are interpreted alike by 
all superstitious people in the State. 

There arc, however, certain omens related to a particular region, 
especially with regard to rains and ploughing; for example, there is a 
saying that if on the first day after the end of the nionth of Jeth, there 
is a rumbling of clouds in the sky, the next two months Asadit and 



People 


99 . 


Shrawan would go dry, and rain cannot be expected before the month of 
BJiadon. Further, it is considered a good omeu for the coming rains if 
Akha Teej is a windy day, but if Tikri, a bird, lays eggs on the banks of 
Nal, a place 13 km. (8 miles) away fro n Bikaner, it predicts drought. 

Most people of the district have a strong faith in astrology, and 
every auspicious occasion is determined by the proper constellation of 
the planets, known as Mahurat, for which some Brahman is generally 
consulted. Astrologers are quite popular for reading future events in 
the lives of individuals. 

Nomenclature 

In the matter of nomenclature Bikaner differs in no way from 
the neighbouring districts of the State. The higher and middle classes 
of the Hindus have two names, the first of which may be that of some 
god, or a term suggestive of (a) auspiciousness and happiness in the 
case of a Brahman, (b) power and protection in that of a Kshatriya 
and (c) wealth and prosperity in that of a Vaishya. The second part 
of the name is usually indicative of the division to which the holder 
belongs, c.g., Dan, Das, Datt, Dayal, Deo, Karan, Prasad among 
Brahmans; almost invariably Singh among Kshatriyas; and Chand, Mai, 
Raj among Vaishyas. A third name, showing the man’s clan, caste or 
occupation, is sometimes prefixed or added, e.g. Rup Singh Parihar, 
Purohit Ganga Ram, Mul Chand Bagla, Seth Bhagwan Das etc. The 
Sudras on the other hand, usually have monosyllable name which, as 
pronounced, not infrequently ends in the letter “O”- for example 
Manglib, Padmio, Rawatio. In all the castes popular names are also 
given following deities (Ganesh), days (Mangal Chand), dales 
(Gyarsilal), rivers (Jamana Das) etc. 

The female names are generally indicative of the names of 
goddesses, rivers and flowers, that is, Saraswati, Durga, Ganga, Champa, 
Chamcli etc. and suffixed mainly by Bai, Devi or Kanwar. In rural 
areas the nomenclature of males is adopted on similar principles as in 
urban areas but in actual practice the diminutive form of the first 
prefix is adopted, Justus ‘Motilal’ is called Moti; females are called 
by such names as represent the feminine gender of the names of their 
husbands. Thus Mcghti would be the wife of Megha and Jeilii would 
be the wife of Jetha, 

In names of the localities, the sufnx-.y£fr (meaning a tank) seems 
to be most common, that is, Napusar. Bhinasar, Ambasar, Malasar etc. 
Next comes pnm and wala, both meaning place or habitation c.g. 



100 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikane 


Amarpura, Karanpura, Lakrawalla, Gojaliwala. Such endings as garh 
(fort) e.g. Chak-Madhogarh, Chhatargarh are also found. Some places 
are also named after their founder or some leading personality. 
Buildings predominantly bear the name or caste of their owner and 
the moliallas are commonly known by the caste or community residing 
there, with chowk or pirol added e.g. Vyason-ka-chowk, Degon-ka- 
chowk, Beganion-ki-pirol, Badhanion-ka-chowk etc. 

Domestic animals are often described according to their colour, 
that is, Ka/i (black) D/io/i (white) cows,* and Kalia (black), bhuria 
(white) etc. are names given to dogs. In cities dogs as elsewhere, are 
generally given English names, that is Tomy, Tiger, Puppy etc. 

SOCIAL LIFE 

Joint family system 

The joint family system still forms a dominant feature of Hindu 
society in the district, though loose ends have appeared in the tight 
hold it had for centuries. The disintegrating process came to the fore 
with a number of factois emerging under the changed conditions of life. 
When living was simple and economic struggle Jess onerous, it served 
the society well by providing a de-facto insurance against sickness, 
employment and old age, but when the economic conditions became 
hard and the way of living more complex, it became too much of a 
burden on the head and other earning members of the family to feed 
drones on a shrinking hive. Individualistic trend in modern education 
and thinking is also eating into the vitals of this system. The immediate 
cause is provided by petty jealousies and dissentions among the ladies 
of the household. Disparity, in the income of the husbands, tempera- 
mental incongruities and lack of firm control by the head of the family 
as the one belonging to an older generation could exercise, on the 
women is strengthening the disruptive forces. Then, life is so hard 
that people arc compelled to leave their hearths and homes in search 
of a gainful occupation. The beginning of the disintegrating process 
has definitely set in, and cracks have appeared in the joint family fortress 
even in this district where orthodoxy and love of tradition hold sway 
over the minds of many a man. 

Inheritance 

The ordinary law of primogeniture was applicable to Jaghirdars 
irrespective of whether he was a Hindu or a Muslim. In case of others, 
succession took place according to the personal law by which a person 



People 


m 


was governed-Hindu law in the case oT Hindus and Mohammedan Law 
in the case of Muslims. The system in vogue in the district was 
patrilinial. The Hindu Succession Act, 1956, which now regulates 
succession amongst Hindus (including Jains and Sikhs) and which 
confers rights of inheritance on the daughter, in the property of the 
deceased father, has so far, had no effect in the rural area, where the 
customary law is still in vogue. The people are, of course, aware of it 
but the new idea of equality between sons and daughters in matters of 
succession does not find favour with them. They take it to be against 
the tenets of their faith and apprehend that it would create complications 
in the joint families. The Hindu Law also conferred no right on women 
to inherit absolute and dominant interest in the property of her 
husband. She had only a limited interest in it till her life or re-marriage. 
It was meant mainly for her maintenance and recognised religious 
performances, though she enjoyed absolute rights as far as Stri Dhan 
or women’s property, was concerned. This consists of ornaments or 
valuable presents given to her by her father, husband and other 
relatives. The Hindu Inheritance and Succession Act, 1956 now admits - 
the widow as an equal sharer with sons and daughters of the deceased 
to his property. She can now have absolute control over, alienate or 
dispose of, her share of the property. Nevertheless, this change also 
has yet to find roots. The orthodox people of the district still have 
not taken to this legislation favourably and often deny her the rights ' 
which the law confers, unless she takes recourse to the courts. 

Adoption 

The Mitakshara Law of adoption, as interpreted by the Banaras 
School, is in vogue in this district. Whenever a Hindu has no male 
issue, he adopts one of the male children of his relatives, preferably a 
brother’s son. The adopted son like a real son, enjoys all legal rights 
and privileges of the adoptive father and at' the same time, loses all 
claims to inheritance and other privileges in the family of his natural 
father. A' legitimate son born subsequent to an adoption, takes 
precedence over the adopted one who is treated as a younger son. 
Formerly, a woman had no right to adopt except with the explicit 
consent of her husband, or that of his agnates and collaterals in case 
of a widow. Under the provisions of the Hindu Succession Act, women 
can now adopt at their will and even a girl Citn be adopted irre.spcctive 
of the age of the adopter and the adopted. However, the old traditions 
die hard and still persist with the orthodox. 



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Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Polygamy 

Though Hindu Law lays down no restriction on the number of 
wives a person can have, yet force of tradition and pressure of public 
opinion worked for monogamous marriages amongst Hindus in general. 
Among certain classes of Hindus in the district, however, polygamy was 
traditionally allowed and they could keep as many wives as they desired. 
Hypergamous marriages sometimes in the past, used to be the pride 
of the landed aristocracy, but the practice has completely disappeared 
now. Polygamy now is not only forbidden by public opinion as before, 
but has been made an offence under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. 
The law provides that neither party can marry again with a spouse 
living at the time of marriage. Though according to Mohammedan 
Law, Mohammedans can have more than one wife, the number being 
restricted to four, yet in this district they rarely have more than one, 
due to economic factors and general awakening. In the case of the 
Government servants, generally, the State has prohibited the marrying 
of second wife, without the sanction of the Government. The Hindus 
(the term includes the Sikhs and the Jains for the purpose of the Hindu 
Marriage Act) and the Christians arc now by law monogamous. 

Restrictions on Marriage 

The Hindu Law and customs impose certain restrictions on 
contracting marriage, the most common being that no marriage can 
take place among families of the same gotra; where marriages in the 
same gotra are permissible, restrictions extend upto six degrees in the 
case of male line and four degrees on the maternal side. The Hindu 
Marriage Act has removed the restrictions so far as marriages among 
families of the same gotra are concerned, but marriages among Sapindas 
are still not recognised by law as well as custom. The caste is 
essentially an endogamous unit and no man could marry a woman 
except one from his own caste, which could in practice, mean the sub- 
caste. Inter-sub-caste marriages arc not common, but of late, they arc 
taking. place but on a small scale. Inter-caste marriages among the 
educated persons arc now being tolerated which though permissible 
under law, arc not favoured by the society. 

To a Hindu, the object of marriage is to have a son to perform 
the last rites of his deceased parents, without which there is believed 
to be no sak-ation for them. In Hindu and Jain families the order of 
priority of marri.ige among males is determined by their seniority in age. 
Muslims too follow it as they are mostly converts from Hinduism and 



People 


103 


hold old beliefs towards caste and social practices. The marriage is 
universal in the district as in the rest of India. Love marriages are 
few and far between. 

Marital Status 

According to the 1961 Census 1 1.3 per cent males and 37.7 per 
cent females, of the respective population in rural areas, and 5.0 per cent 
males and 25.6 per cent females in the urban areas, in the age-group 
of 10-14 years were married. It reveals the extent of child marriages 
in the district; of the girls and boys aged 14 or less, about 8 per 
cent amongst girls and about 3 per cent amongst boys were 
married according to 1961 Census figures as against 10 per cent among 
girls and 10 per cent amongst boys in 1951.1 it shows that child 
marriage, especially amongst boys, is on the wane. Generally, the 
marriageable age among girls now is between 15 to 25 and among 
boys, 18 to 30. The 1961 Census reveals that out of every 1000 males, 
420 were married, 550 unmarried and 30 were widowed or divorced. 
The corresponding figures for females were 475, 421 and 104 respectively. 
The number of divorced or separated males and females being 77 and 
86 only indicates that divorce is unusual and the law is invoked in 
rare cases only. Another striking feature is that number of widows is 
comparatively much higher than widowers which implies that men 
usually remarry. The number of married women, totalling 100,653 in 
the district, as against 97,663 married males, reveals the existence of 
polygamy. 

Marital Reforms 

First attempts to eradicate the evil of early child marriage were 
made with the enactment of the Bikaner Hindu Marriage Act, 1928. 
It made penal the marriage of a boy under 16 years, and of a girl 
under 11 years. The marriages of girls above 11 years, however, were 
left untouched. After the formation of Rajasthan the provisions of 
the Sarda Act were made applicable, which prohibits the marriage of a 
boy below IS and a girl below 15. These measures have succeeded to 
some extent but the evil still lingers. The educated and the progressive 
people, have discarded the child marriage, while the orthodo.K and the 
illiterate still cling to it. 

Marriage Customs 

The marriage rituals among the higher castes are the same as 
1. Based on Sample Survey, 1951 Census. 



104 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


elsewhere in the State with minor variations. Marriages still continue 
to be arranged by the parents of the boys and girls. Due importance 
is given not only to the eligibility of the girl proposed to be married 
but also to her family, whether it comes within the acceptable standards 
of the bridegroom’s family, in caste, status and financial position. It 
is also ensured that it is not within the prohibited degrees of marriage 
relationship. The considerations in selecting a boy for a marriage have 
undergone some change. The mere fact that the boy belongs to the 
higher group in the sub-caste is not sufficient. His education, economic 
independence and future prospects are now the decisive factors. Presents 
in cash and kind are made to the prospective bridegroom and his 
guardian at the time of settlement of the marriage. This ceremony is 
called Sagai. It is followed by tilak or tika which is held at the house 
of the bridegroom when the bride’s father sends presents both in cash 
and kind e.g. silver utensils, clothes, sweetmeats and fruits, according 
to his status and capacity. Either simultaneously with the above, or 
after sometime, there is a lagan ceremony in which the time fixed for 
the marriage is intimated by the bride’s father. The bridegroom then 
goes with his party, or the barat, as it is called, to the bride’s house. 
On the date fixed for the marriage, there is a ceremonial reception of 
the bridegroom and his party. This is followed by Kanyadan in 
which the father or guardian of the bride, offers the bride-groom 
his daughter or ward to be his wife. The actual marriage 
ceremony is variously known as Hath Leva or Bhanwar or Saptapadi 
or Phera, which consists in taking seven steps round the nuptial fire by 
the bridegroom together at the predetermined auspicious hour. Members 
of the family, relatives and friends of the bride’s side take part in the 
Kanyadan. The ceremony is begun by honouring the bridegroom 
and making presents of a small ring or a coin or otherwise; and 
is followed by actual offering of the bride. The last ceremony is the. 
bida or farewell to the bride. An interesting custom among the 
Pushkarana community in the district is that mass marriages take place 
simultaneously after every four years. If some one fails to attend the 
ceremony, he is to wait for another four years; exception, however, is 
allowed when the marriage is celebrated in Jkalsava. 

Marriage ceremonies among the Muslims are much simpler as 
compared to those of the Hindus. The actual Nikah ceremony differs 
in the case of Shias and Sunnis on the one hand, and the Rajput 
converts on the other, who follow their old customs along with the 



People 


105 


Islamic rituals. With the Muslims, marriage is a contract and the 
dowry or mehr is always fixed before the ceremony takes place, the 
amount of mehr varying according to the status of the contracting 
parties. The proposal for marriages, as in the case of Hindus, is usually 
initiated by the parents of the bridegroom, rather than those of the 
bride. Muslims also follow the ceremonies of mangni or betrothal and 
taking of bar at. Before the actual marriage ceremony is solemnised, 
consent of both bride and bridegroom is obtained in the presence of 
witnesses. Legally the bride’s consent is obtained through vakils 
because of faminine modesty and purda system. As soon as the consent 
of the parties to the marriage is communicated and announced and the 
mehr fixed, the Quazi recites the Khutba and the marriage is solemnised. 
Friends, relatives and other persons who attend the marriage, are then 
entertained and auspicious dates and candy are distributed. The 
bridegroom is then introduced to relations and the parting ceremony or 
ruksat takes place. The restrictions on marriage among the Muslims 
are not many and marriages among cousins are permitted and even 
considered desirable. Marriages between uncle and niece, brother and 
sister, half-brother and half-sister are not possible, They are thus 
closely endogamous. 

Dowry 

The system of dowry is prevalent mainly among the high caste 
Hindus, though in one form or the other, it exists in nearly all the 
castes. Among the Brahmans the father of the girl accepts money from 
the boy’s side though this is not the practice among those who are rich 
and aflluent. Among the Rajputs and the Banias it is the girl’s father 
who gives dowry, but among Jats and other communities, the father of 
the boy has to give cash to the father of the girl. In some cases a 
definite amount to be given by the bride’s father is negotiated before 
the marriage is settled. The amount so settled is paid either at the 
lime of settlement of the marriage or of betrothal, or a part is given at 
the betrothal and the balance at the time of various ceremonies which 
precede the actual marriage. Usually ornaments, clothes, furniture and 
house-hold goods are given to the bride. The dowry, as generally 
understood, refers to the negotiated cash payment and not to the 
voluntary presents which are usually given to the bridegroom by the 
father of the bride and her other relatives to enable him to set up 
smoothly a new home. Effects of the legislative measures, banning 
dowry are yet not clearly discernible. 



106 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Divorce 

The dissolution of marriage in the various communities is regu- 
lated either by custom or their personal laws or by special legislations 
recently enacted. The Christians are governed by the Indian Divorce 
Act, for marriages registered under the Christian Marriage Act. The 
Mohammedan Law on divorce governs Muslim marriages. Among 
the Scheduled Castes and some lower-caste communities of the Hindus, 
divorce or dissolution of marriage, was permitted by custom and the 
society recognised such separation and remarriage of the separated 
couple. Divorce was not recognised under the Hindu Law, since 
marriages were regarded as indissoluble sacrament until the Hindu 
Marriage Act of 1955 was passed. It enabled the high caste Hindus to 
seek divorce through court in restricted circumstances. A few cases of 
desertion of wives by husbands have always been there as exceptions to 
the general rule of conjugal fidelity. 

Widow Remarriage 

The marriages of widows among high-caste Hindus are still not 
so common as in backward and Scheduled Castes, where a woman is 
valuable second string to the economic bow of the family. Widow- 
remarriage is viewed with favour in Muslim law, but in practice, due 
perhaps to the influence of Hindu lineage and neighbourhood, it is not 
in vogue in this district. In the rural areas, Jat widows often marry 
their husbands’ younger brother, or occasionally some one else, and 
it is called Choori Pahnana in the former case, Nata or Kareva in the 
latter. Among Bislinois too, a widow may remarry her husband’s 
younger brother if she so desires, though it is not obligatory, but elder 
brother of the deceased husband cannot marry his younger brother’s 
wife. The rule restricting the marriage of persons of the same goira is 
applicable to the widow also. Widow remarriage is performed without 
any pomp and show'. The would-be-husband simply presents a new 
suit of clothes and a set of bangles as symbol of wedded life, and takes 
her to his home on a Saturday night after dinning at the house of her 
parents. By another custom a person who remarries a married woman 
has to pay compensation locally called Jhagda to her former husband 
and this is prevalent among some of the communities who permit 
widow remarriage. 

Position of Women — Women belonging to the upper and middle 
classes arc still, as they have been from times immemorial, largely 
dependent on their husbands 9 ConomicaUy. The vyorking class women 



People 


107 


all along work with their men and lend a helping band and eke out 
their livelihood. They naturally enjoy greater freedom of movement 
and action. Among the higher caste families of Hindus, especially 
the Rajputs, and the Muslims, strict purdah is observed by women 
and their movements are confined to the four-walls of their homes, or 
those of their relatives. Despite the fact that at present the district 
has unique privilege of being administered by a lady Collector, the 
subordinate social position of women in the area is too apparent. 
Thanks to the impact of modern education with its liberali- 
sing and emancipating influences, the purdah system with its social 
seclusiveness and complex of inferiority is losing ground among the 
younger generation, slowly but steadily. Its pace will be quickened 
by spread of more education among girls. The district can take pride 
even now in some of its women social workers who are playing a signi- 
ficant role in all spheres of life. Their example will knidle the torch of 
enlightenment, which will sweep in its stride all dark shadows of tyranny 
of tradition, which make them cling to the chains that bind them. 

Prostitution 

Prostitution as an institution has always been an evil adjunct to 
corporate life. Attempts made to restrict its influence arc met with 
partial success. Introduction of Immoral Traffic Act, 1956, providing 
for the suppression of brothels and trafficking in women, has partly 
succeeded in vacating the red light districts in as much as, fallen 
women still carry on the profession clandestinely. The reported figures 
of the number of prosecutions launched or convictions secured in this 
respect, do not throw much light on the actual extent of the evil, 
because of legal difficulties in launching and securing prosecutions and 
convictions under the act. 

Drinking 

People generally abstain from liquor. It was common among 
the Rajputs and some of the hard working classes. It is noticeable 
that the younger generation of Rajputs is much less addicted to drink- 
ing-than the older. The taking of opium was also common amoncst 
the Rajputs but now its intake has considerably dwindled due to 
restrictions imposed by the Government, as opium is now sold on 
ration cards supplied to addicts on medical grounds. 

D.41LY LtrE— Life in the sillagcs starts pretty early in the morn- 
ing. People go to the fields by 7 a, M , work there till noon, take 



Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 




rest for a couple of hours, and again resort to work right upto 6 or 7 
p. M. Women also get up early in the morning, grind their corn for 
the day’s requirements, milch the cows and buffaloes, churn the 
curd, fetch water from the wells, sweep their houses, courtyards 
and the lanes outside the houses, and go out into the fields to assist 
their men folk in their work. In the evening, the villagers assemble 
together, gossip and smoke and then retire for the night. From June 
to October the farmers are fairly busy first in preparing the land for 
sowing and then in harvesting operations. The scarcity of water, the 
shortage of food and the rigours of the climate have hardened their 
life and mental attitudes. They are apt to fall a prey to sluggishness of 
mind and become resistant to new ideas for their socio-economic uplift. 

Life in the towns generally starts at about 7 A. M. in summer 
and 9 a. m. in winter. The business community and artisans work 
for the whole day between 8 a. m. to 9 p. m. The life of workers 
and office-goers is [regulated by the fixed working hours, that is 9.30 
A. M. to 5.30 p. M. Persons without work kill their time in scandal 
mongering, playing cards and gossiping. The women-folk start their 
work early in the morning because most of them have to prepare food. 
They generally reit.ain indoors and keep themselves busy in household 
chores. 

Home Life 

HoustHOLDS — The distribution of the households at 1951 and 
1961 Census was as follows : 


Administrative Unit 

Households 

1951 ^ 

19612 

Total 

65,857 

78,073 

Rural 

34,301 

44,989 

Urban 

31,556 

33,084 


1. Census. I95i, Rijasihan and Ajmer District Census Handbook, Bikaner. Parti 

p. 63, ' 

2. Census of India, 1961, ilSJastfiin District Census Handbook, Bikaner District, 


People 


169 


According to Census figures the size of the house- holds varied 
from one or two members to more than ten. In the rural areas 50 per 
cent of the households were of medium size, consisting of four to six 
members, 27,8 per cent of small size consisting of less than 4 members 
and 22.2 per cent of large size, consisting of more than six. In the 
urban area the- households are distributed evenly over the various sizes, 
being one-third in each category. 

According to the sample survey carried out at the time of the 
1961 Census regarding accommodation, households with one room 
tenement were 25.5 per cent, with two 29.0 with three, 21,3 with four, 
11.5 and with five or more rooms were 12.7 per cent; and people living 
in them formed 18.6, 26.8, 23.2, 14 and 17.4 per cent respectively of 
the total population. The distribution of this accommodation in 
different categories of households in rural and urban areas is as 
followsi : 


(Percentage) 





One 

room 

Two 

rooms 

Three 

rooms 

Four 

roams 

Five or more 
rooms 

1. 

2. 

Households j 
Population 

j 

1 Rural 

1 Urban 

1 Rural 
f Urban 

24.4 
27.1 

17.9* 

19.5 

32.1 

24.9 

29.9 
22.6 

23.3 

18.7 

25.5 

20.1 

11.5 

11.5 

14.0 

13.9 

8.7 

17.8 

12.7 

23.9 


Furniture 

Except for string cots, there is practically no furniture in 
average village home. Sometimes, in the mud huts, there are shelves 
built in the walls for the storage of articles and alcoves for housing 
the deity. Women decorate the houses by painting the walls and 
doors. Madhna or the indigenous art of household painting is skill- 
fully designed with a chalk solution and on festivals with gulal, roJi or 
flour. In towns, chairs and tables have made their appearance in 
middle class families. The more well-to-do among them, have more 
pretentious furniture; a drawing room suite, small tables and mnw 
beds. The rich maintain a drav.'ing room with carpets and sofa sets 
and decorate it with old pieces of art objects. In families with older 
traditions the practice of having a sitting room furnished with floor 
spreads and pillows i? still in vogue but is yielding place to new style 
of furnishings. 


l, Ussiii on 20% SampL* Survey, 





no 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


Dwellings 

The common types of dwellings in the villages are circular huts 
with walls made either of mud or bamboo plastered with mud and 
covered by a thatched roof. In a typical household there are three or 
four such huts which serve as living rooms, a separate structure known 
as Kotlia which is meant for storing the grain, a separate kitchen and a 
cattle-shed that can, in time of need, be converted into a guest-house. 
A circular hut is locally termed as jitopcia and the gable ores which are 
closed on three sides as paidwa. People put enclosures of thorny hedges 
around their dwellings as a protection against the sand drifts and hot 
winds. The houses of village traders and the thakurs are usually built of 
sand-stone and mortar. 

In the towns, one may see the magnificent masonary Havelies 
where the rich live, mud dwellings of the fairly comfortable type 
and the humble huts of the poor. The latter, which are made of grass, 
twigs and roots of the pitog bush, are mostly circular and look like 
small ricks. On the outskirts of bigger towns one may observe modern 
style bungalows and flats making their bright appearanee. 

Dress 

Males in the rural areas usually wear Dhoti, Angarkha and 
Poiia (head gear). The Dhoti or the lion-cloth which covers the lower 
body, is generally smaller than the standard dhoti. It is a sheet of 
cloth of local manufacture measuring about 10 feet by 3 feet. The 
upper part of the body is covered by a Bandia, Angarkha or in some 
parts of the district by Bnndi. It is like a shoit-coat tightly fitting the 
body and fastened with tapes, over the chest or on the left side. The 
third is the covering for head known as Poiia. In fact, the headgear 
is poor imitation of the Rajput Safa (turban). 

The well-to-do classes including the Rajputs, substitute ZJ/jo// 
by a Churidar Pyjama and Angarkha by a Kurta, which is a collarlcss 
and cuffless shirt. Over the Kurta, however, is worn the Achkan or the 
Lamba angarkha, a buttoned up long coat touching the knees. The 
turban is either called by its universal appellation pag or its variation 
Pagra or Pccha. The Pecha (turban) is folded with a strip of 
fine cloth. In local dialect, the word Moiiya is used for it. 
Five-coloured turban is the coveted type known as Pachranga pecha or 
Pachrangi Pagri. Marwaris use turban or Pagri which is kept ready 


People 


111 


made to be put on like a cap. Many a time, a kerchief, locally known 
as a rumal is tied round the turban or the pas>‘i ^nd sometimes 
around the neck. 

The dress of the ladies usually consists of a coloured skirt or a 
petticoat, a tight bodice and a sheet of veil over the head and 
around the body. For the lower part of the body the Ghagra or 
Lahanga (skirt with vertical pleats) worn below the navel is almost 
universal. Formerly it was made of triangular pieces and was known 
as Kalidara each piece having the bud of a flower. All such pieces, 
sewn toghether formed Gliagra, as they were wider at the base and 
tapering tov/ards the waist tied around with a string. Ghagra made 
of rectangular pieces has pleats with flaring width near the 
ankles and waist tight on the upper side. It lends grace to the wearer 
and is fared as Gliera Glnumlo in the folk songs of Rajasthan. High 
class ladies sometimes wear a narrow piece of cloth, different in colour 
and ornamentation from that of Ghagra, suspended centrally on the 
front side. It is called Phelai and indicates that the bearer is a lady 
whose husband is alive. 

Upper part of the body is covered with a bodice called Kachali 
or Kacavo. Folk-songs also become lyrical over this tight-fitting 
bodice. This is artistically embroidered. There is then the scarf 
popularly known as Odhani which wraps the body. It is usually 
wider than the normal Sari as it covers the entire body from head to 
foot. Its one end is tucked at the naval or the waist and the remaining 
portion spread to the left covering the back and head. The other end 
dangling from over the head is either brought under the right arm-pit 
or tucked into the bodice. 

Style of putting on male dresses varies in accordance with the 
community to which the wearer belongs, especially in regard to the 
turban. The Rajputs and those allied to them put on the Bikaner 
Safa, with curves on the left and right and tail suspended on the back; 
Maheshwaris and Brahmans wear round pag, Oswals a curved pag-. 
The jPwgft’c of the Marwari 5e//;.r of Bikaner has a peculiarity of its 
own and is a common sight all over India with their peculiar dress, 
consisting of a silk ckola, a silk banyan, a super-fine Dhoti, a pump 
shoe and multi-coloured Pagrcc. 

The Ralhs in Pug.ai and bjagra put on white turban keeping the 
middle of the Iscad uncovered, a long and loose Choki and a Laongi or 



112 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Talmiad Gujarnear Dhotis, half shirts and round Sa/oi. Despite 
slight differences in the mode and style of dress from community to 
community, the general dress, however, is a shirt, a Dhoti and a turban 
for the males and a Ghagva, Kurti and an Odhni for the females in the 
rural areas. 

Muslim males wear a round turban, an Ajarak a loose cloth on 
the shoulder which is spread on the ground during Namaj, a full sleeved 
but collarless kurta upto knees and a Tahmad, a long sheet of cloth 
usually printed and worn losely round the waist. They wear trousers 
and not Dhotis and mostly use an Achkan or long coat at social 
functions. 

The Muslim women wear Paijama, a long Kurta, usually half- 
sleeved, an Odhni and when going out of doors, a Jhogga which 
resembles a flowing gown gathered up at the waist in innumerable 
tucks, but is put on like a coat, as it is open in front and has close 
fitting sleeves. The Burqa is also used in towns and villages. 

The dress-habit of the people especially females are, however, 
suffering a gradual change with the changing times and wider contacts. 
More and more women are taking to Saree, and blouse type choli is 
replacing KachJi. Many men in towns are seen strutting in western 
attire, which was till recently considered a symbol of their education and 
status. 

Ornaments 

Men generally do not wear ornaments except the rich who put 
on gofd necklace and finger rings. A few of them, however, wear rings 
of gold or silver in their cars and silver anklets. Women, of course, 
arc as usual fond of ornaments, and those belonging to affluent 
families mostly revel in go'd, while those from the poorer sections and 
the rural area, generally wear ornaments made of silver. The most 
common ornament for women is the borla made of gold or silver studed 
with glass-beads. Khuraba, Jhimiars and Damni arc worn in the ears, 
while PhooJari in fingers of feet and Nath and Long decorate the nose. 
The ornaments worn in the neck arc Hasli, Kanthl, Tussi Timania and 
Dora. On the hands are Choora (with or without gold pattis), Choori, 
Bajuband and Dantra, The waist is encircled with a chain called Kanakti 
pnd on the ankles qnd feel are vyOFn fiada^ Nevri, Amyaja and Pa^al, 



People 


113 


During the princely rule wearing of gold ornaments on the feet was a 
privilege which could be enjoyed by those on whom the State had 
conferred it. No such restrictions exist now. In villages, Hammel a 
neckless of silver Rupees is very common. Women-folk is fond of 
ornaments and when they cannot afford gold and silver ornaments. 
Rang ornaments are used. 

In rural areas, though ornamental tattooing is not very common 
yet it is sometimes adopted to decorate the body. Followers of 
Ramdeoji mostly get tatoo marks representing the feet of the deity, , 
known as Ramdeoji-ka-paglia , on their arms. Occasionally a tattoo 
mark representing the figure of a peacock or a flower pot is also put. 
Tattooing is done with the help of machines by professional tattooers, 
who do not belong to any particular class or community. At times, 
street needle-sellers also do this job. 

Use of a variety of modern cosmetics amongst the educated 
ladies, and those belonging to well-to-do families, is getting popular, 
but those who still cling to old ways of living, and in rural areas 
Mehndi (myrtle paste) is still applied to decorate hands and feet. Men- 
folk in rural areas pridefully don their moustaches, mostly in a plain 
manner, but the Bishnois distinguish themselves by keeping the two 
sides of the hair on the upper lip apart by shaving a portion thereof 
in the middle and by trimming their beard. Meghwals and others of 
low caste keep their moustaches plain. 

Food 

The staple food of the people is Bajra. Other cereals used arc 
wheat, barley, gram, jowar and occasionally rice. Wheat is consumed 
by rich people, generally in the towns, and by the poor and the rural 
community on festive occasions. The main pulse is Moth though 
Moong and gram are also eaten. The common vegetables are Gawar-ki- 
phali, Kachri, Sangri, Tindsi, (Phophalia loia) onions and radishes. The 
Gawar-ki-phali is the whole pod of Gawar and is eaten with thick Sajra 
bread called Sogra. Kachri, dried unripe and Kakri or cucumber, are 
also extensively consumed; Sangri is the pod of Khejra and its leaves were 
also eaten during farnines. Tindsi when dried is called Phophalia and is 
relished with Bajra bread. The pods of the Kair and Phog are sometimes 
used as condiments and the use of chillies is very common. Water-melon 
and berries arc the fruits available to the people in the rural areas. 



114 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


Formerly, in years of scarcity, seeds of the various grasses, particularly 
one known as Bhurat, were used by poor people. The most common 
preparation is the Rabdi (porridge) or flour cooked in diluted butter 
milk generally in the evening and taken in the morning. Other dishes 
are Khichra that is, husked Bajra mixed with moth in the proportion 
of four to one with a little ghee added to it. 

The food served in feasts held on special occasions connected 
with marriages, deaths, births and festivals, consists of Dal-ka-sira or 
Halva (pudding) made of Mootig-lci~dal, Atta-ka-sira and Churtna made 
of Bajra-ki-roti or wheat flour mixed with Gtir or sugar and Ghee. 
Kichra is a speciality of Akha TeeJ. Klieer and other sweet dishes are 
taken during Shradhs, and other festivals. It may be mentioned here that 
Bikaner is known for its Rasgidla, fapad and Bhtijia which are also sent 
to other parts of the country. 

Hours of meals — People in the city, generally, take only two 
meals a day; the first in the morning between 9 and 10 a.m. and the 
second in the evening between 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. The villagers take 
three meals a day. Their first meal, which is called Strvan consisting of 
Rabdi and Clihacli is taken in the morning at about 6.30 a.m. in the 
summer and about 7 A.M. in the winter before they go to the fields to 
work. The second meal called Dopehri, is taken at mid-day and consists 
of Roti of Bajra and some dry vegetable or Chhachh. They have their 
evening meal at about 7 P.M. consisting of Bajra bread with raw onion 
or Chatni of red chillies and sometimes Khichra or Moth andBajra with 
milk or curd. 

The conventional etiquette requires that shoes arc taken off 
while taking meals. Food is kept at a slightly higher level than of the 
person eating it. Meals are taken in kitchen or on cots or pattas. In 
the city Papar is served at the end of the meals and is taken as a signal 
that nothing else is to come. 

Communal Life 

Fairs & Festivals — Fairs and festivals play a significant role in 
the life of the people in this district as in other parts of Rajasthan. 
Fairs provide the market places where local produce is sold or 
exchanged and where goods made in other parts or adjoining areas, 
arc made available. They arc often held at religious centres, and 



People 


115 


inspire people to get-together to give a touch of gaity to an otherwise 
drab and sordid existence in the villages. Festivals, on the other hand, 
are generally associated with some epochal event, actual or mythical, 
in the hoary past of the community and bring home to the people the 
vitality of their corporate living and further the cause of their 
emotional intergration with one another. 

Festivals — The principal Hindu festivals observed here are the 
same as elsewhere in the State. Holi is observed in Phagim (February- 
March), Gangor (festival of Qauri or Parvati) in Chait (March-April), 
Akha Teej in Baisakh (April-May), Raksha-bandhan in Sawan (July- 
August) when sisters tie charms round the wrists of their brothers, 
Dushera in Asoj (September-October), and Dewali in Kartik (Octobcr- 
November). Basant Panchami is the festival of spring. During Navratara 
in Chaitra goddess Durga is worshipped for nine days. Other 
important festivals are Ram Navmi, Janmashtami, Shiv Ratri, Ganesh 
Chaturthi, Makar Sankranti etc. New year begins on the /)^t day of 
Chaitra Sudi 1. These festivals are celebrated in much the same manner 
as elcswhere though Akha Teej is celebrated with gay abandon, and is 
considered of special significance in this district because Bikaner State 
was founded a day before Akha Teej by Rao Bika, and it, was the first 
day of celebrations connected with this historic event. It is popular 
among the youngsters as it is ear-marked, for kite flying. 

The main Muslim festivals are the same as in other parts viz. 
Muharram, celebrated in the memory of Hazrat Immon Husan, Tdul- 
Fitar, Idul-Zuha, in commemoration of Hazrat Ibrahim, Shab-i-barat 
and Bara wafat, Ramzan is the month of fast and staunch Muslims keep 
fast for all the 30 days in the month for purification of one’s soul and 
to control one’s emotions. 

The Jains celebrate the festivals of Mahavir Jayanti on Chaitra 
Shnkla 13 and Swetarabers, Paryushan terminating on Samvatsari, the 
fifth day of the dark half of Bhadra (August-Sepfember). 

The main festivals of Sikhs arc Baisakhi, the 1st day of Baisakh 
(April) Nanak Jayanti and Guru Govind Singh’s birthday. 

Fairs — ^T lie following arc the important fairs held in the 
district : 



116 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


MoKAM Fair — Twice a year a fair is held at Mukani (in commemo- 
ration of Jambheshwarji)!, on Phagun Krishna Amavasya and Aswin 
Krishna 1 4- Amavasya in commemoration of Jambheshwarji the founder 
of the Bishnoi sect. It was initiated by his disciples on Phagun Krishna 
Amavasya Samvat 1648 (1591 a d.). This is attended by more than 
12,000 persons and 3,500 persons respectively including Bishnoi 
who come from all parts of the country to pay • their homage to the 
illustrious founder of their sect. The most striking feature of the fair 
is the performance of big Havans on the platform of the shrine both 
morning and evening, extending four to five hours each time, at which 
Mantras and Subdas of Jambheswarji are recited. Women keep awake 
all the night singing religious songs. All the expenses are borne 
out of donations comprising mainly Ghee, Moth and cash received 
at the time. Moth is stored and utilised for feeding the pigeons 
and birds all the year round and Ghee is used for performance of Hayan 
on the occasion of the fair and afterwards. 

Kolavat Fair — The name of Kolayat, a place of pilgrimage, 
originates from the Sanskrit word Kapilayatan. The mythological 
account of Kapilayatan as narrated in Skandh Puran, records that 
Maharishi Kardam, the son of Brahma, the creator of the Universe, 
married Devhuti, the daughter of Manu. She gave birth to Kapil Muni 
the propounder of the Sankhya system of Hindu philosophy. While 
journeying towards north-east Kapil Muni was bewitched by the 
natural beauty of this place and chose it for performing Tapsya (penance) 
for the redemption of the world. It is said that the saint did not 
remain there with his whole atma (soul) as only a fraction of it 
remained at the oasis and the remaining part proceeded on its original 
errand towards the north-east. But as the great saint had selected this 
oasis as the place for his penances, it was named after him as 
Kapilayatan. 

In course of time this place acquired great sanctity and the gods 
are believed to have felt jealous of it, as they thought that instead of 
under-going untold hardships that were inevitable in performing the 

1. Jambheshwariji, also known as Jambha Devji, Jambh Rishi or Jambhajl was 
born at Pipasar, 16 kilometres from Mukam on Bhadrapada Krishna 8, Vikram 
Samvat 1508 (1451 A.D.). His father was one Jhabar Lohat of the Panwar clan 
of Rajputs. It is believed that Jambheshwarji was born in the thirty-second 
Ecneration in the direct line of the celebrated King Vikramaditya. He died in 
Mukam and was buried. Census of India, 1961, Vol. XIV, Rajasthan Part VI-A, 
yUIoge Surrey Monographs MukUm, 1965. 



People 


117 


penances and sacrifices, or undertaking hazardoiis journeys to places of 
pilgrimage, like Ayodhya, Kasi, Puri, Dwarika, Kanchi, Avantika etc., 
people would attain redemption by taking an easy course of having 
a dip in the lake of Kapilayatan. They, therefore, planned to shift 
into the sandy desert but Skandh Deo, the son of God Shanker and 
Goddess Parvati, and the Conimander-in-Chief of the armies of the 
gods, took pity on the suffering humanity and brought this sacred 
place to light for the benefit of all and sundry, so that they might 
attain the summum bonum of life in this dark age of Kali by having a 
dip in its holy water. Great sanctity thus is attached to a bath in the 
Kolayat lake. It remains open for pilgrimage all the year round but 
great religious merit is attached to it in the month of Kartik especially 
the last five days of the month, known as Bhishma Panchak, which are 
more sanctimonious than the others. To take a dip on the Kartik 
Purnima, is considered to be the most auspicious. 

On this day a fair is held at Kolayat, and the villagers around 
participate in it with great gusto and never forget to have a dip in the 
lake and pay their homage by visiting the temple of Kapil Muni. The 
Kolayat lake with its mystic tradition has a magical effect on the 
minds of the simple people and they reveal in singing songs in its praise 
deep in religious ecstasy. 

The significant feature of the fair is Deep Malika, the lighted 
lamps of atta (flour) are made to swim in rows in the tank, which 
presents a fascinating spectacle. It is also considered auspicious. A 
large number of people ranging from 20,000 to 50,000 participate in 
the fair. < f 

Desunoke Fair. — This fair is held on Chait Sudi Ist-IOth and on 
Ashvina Sudi isr-lOthin honour ofKarntji, a Charan women who is said 
to have possessed supernatural powers. The Royal House of Bikaner, 
Rajputs and other communities also have great reverence for Kami 
Mata who had blessed Bika with success in his mission. The temple 
of Karniji at Dcshnoke is famous throughout Rajasthan and people 
from all parts pay their homage to solicit her blessings. The white 
rats, called Kavas arc' held in great reverence at the -temple and arc 
regularly nourished. Appro.xiraatcly 30,000 people usually assemble at 
the fair. 

Tebj Fair— U is held twice a year once in SavanStidi 3 in 
Damanion ka Chowk, Bikaner and the other in Bhadon BadiTeejot Kajli 



118 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


TeeJ near Junagarh fort. The main feature of this fair is the procession 
of Gori from Junagarh fort to the Chautina well, which is attended by 
thousands of people. 

Shiv Bari Fair — It is celebrated in honour of Lord Shiva on the 
7th, 8th, 9th and 10th days of bright half of the month of Savan and on 
all Mondays of that month, to pay homage to the Lord known as 
Laleshwar. In fact, the whole of the month of Savan is replete with 
fairs and feasts as it is very pleasant to go to Shivbari and to have a 
dip in the tank, which is full to its brim in the monsoon season and 
echoes the sentiments of the inhabitants in their often repeated phrase 
Savan Bikanerro. 

Naginiii Fair — The image of Devi Naginiji was brought from 
Jodhpur, and it is said that as it was being brought, the vehicle stuck 
fast to the spot where the temple now stands. Believing that the Devi 
desired the temple to be built there, it was constructed at that place. In 
commemoration of the Devi, a fair is held on Dhabi Amavas of Bhadon 
and is attended by about 10,000 people, mainly Brahmans. 

Nar Singh Chatordashi Fair — It is held on Baisakh Sudi 14 
simultaneously at Lakhotion-ka-Chowk and Dogon>ka-Chowk, 
Bikaner, in honour of Prahlad, who made his father Hiranya Kashyapa 
realise the powers of God. A sort of one-act play is staged wherein 
God-half lion and half human in form of Narsing Avatar is depicted 
rescuing Prahlad from the tyranny of his father by tearing open his 
abdomen. It is attended by about 20,000 persons. 

Sujandesar Fair — This is held at Sujandesar annually on the 
10th and 11th day of the bright half of the month of Bhadon in honour 
of Ramdeoji, and is attended by about 10,000 persons. 

Kenyara Fair — This is held at village Kenyara in tahsil 
Lonkaransar on Magh Sudi 10 in honour of Ramdevji. 

Jetha Bhutta Fair — ^This is held at Gajner on the 8th day of 
bright half of the month of Ashvina in commemoration of Jetha Bhutta, 
who was a sepoy believed to be gifted with supernatural powers and 
became a Pir after his death. The Muslims gather at his Mazar to get 
blessings. 

Kodemdesar .Pair — This is held on Bhadwa Sudi 14, at 
Kodemdesar in tahsil, Kolayat to pay homage to Bhaironji, The temple 



People 


119 


is said to have been built by Rao Bika, the founder of Bikaner city. 
People go to the tensple especially for performing Mtmdan ceremony 
(shaving of head) of their children. 

Ridmalsar Fair — Held at Ridmalsaf on Asoj Siidi 7 in the 
memory of a Bbati Rajput girl who immolated herself. People gather 
there to pay homage to the Mitrti (idol) of Satiji. 

Dada-JI-ka-Mela — It is a Jain fair held at Nal and Udramsar, 
on Bhadon Sudi i 5. 

Dance 

Among the Marwari women, dancing has always been a popular 
pastime. There are many varieties of folk dances in their repertoire, 
and their activities are mostly centered in the city. Ghumer of Bikaner 
is famous in which a group of women putting on their colourful skirts 
dance in circles, clapping with small sticks. This dance is performed 
especially on the Navratra and the Ganger day. Its display is full of 
rhythm and charm and presents an attractive spectacle. Jhumer is s. 
group dance in which the women dangle on their heads ornaments 
and flowers. 

The Dandiya-Ras Nritya is also a danee. It is performed by 
a group of dancers, dancing in a circle and holding long sticks. The 
drummer takes his position in the centre of the circle with the drum 
hanging round his neck and sets the rhythm and pace of the dance. It 
begins with slow shuffling steps, but as the drum beats become faster, the 
steps grow swifter. The dance goes on round and round, arms waving 
and feet moving in step. Interspersed with the joyful exclamation of 
IIo, E( , by the dancers to lighten the emotional tempo, it is an eloquent 
and rhythmical expression of the feeling of joy and exhultation at the 
ringing out of the old season and ringing in of the new, and at the 
successful end of wintry toil by the sons of the soil. It is specially' 
pcrfoimcd on the eve of Holi festival. 

The Sidh jats of the Thar Desert have their fire dance, v/hich 
they perform around fire, during Riarch-April at Mela (fair) held in 
honour of Guru Jasnath at Katariyasar to the accompaniment of songs, 
drums and pipes to commemorate Guru Gorakhnalh. Among some 
communities like Bhahgis, Sansis, Mcghwals, etc. women dance on 
raardages and festive occasions which arc more an expression of their 
joy and enthusiasm rather than any diplay of the art of rhythm. 



120 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Music 

Both local and classical music have always been patronised in 
the area. The local music consists of Bhajan and Kirtan, heroic songs 
by professional bards and love songs of Dholans. Among the classical 
musicians Kiriamyas most of whom are from the Goswami community, 
hold a prominent place. The other musicians of the classical school 
are Mirasis, Tawaifs and Bhagtans. With the exception of songs of 
professional bards, the local music is still very popular. The special 
feature of the local music in the rural area of the district is that songs 
are sung to the accompaniment of Chang (a round musical instrument 
made of sheep-skin and played by hand). The classical music is fast 
losing its attraction and the light music is taking its place in popular 
appeal. The rags and raginis enjoyed in the district are Mand, Loom 
and Holi. Kamadias sing Pabuji-ke-Bhope on maat. 

Folk lore 

The folk lore singers have been always customarily assembling 
on the occasions of fairs and festivals to earn their livelihood by the 
singing of traditional songs. Dholis and Dooms are the most well 
versed communities in this form of musical fare. The striking peculiarity 
of Bikaner folk-lore is Tlmmat for full week during Holi celebrations. 
Popular folk songs in the district relate to the exploits of Bika and 
Amar Singh. 

Songs 

There is no significant event in the life span of the common man 
in the district which is not accompanied by songs to highten his 
pleasure or relieve his pang. There are various songs associated with 
every ceremony, festival, season and eventful moment. Women do 
most, of the singing as a pastime which helps them a great deal in 
assuaging the unremitting humdrum toil of their lives. 

Amusements 

Sports and Games — In the rural areas, Kabbaddi, Mar pari, 
GUIi-danda, Lathi exercises, Ankh Michoni and Khoh arc popular games. 
The man indoor games of the villages arc Chauper, cards and Charbhar. 

The principal sports played in the urban areas are foot-ball, 
volley-ball, hockey, tennis and cricket, the last three being played in 
Bikaner city only. Gymnastic exercises and athletics are also a regular 
feature of spor?s Hfe. The popular indoor games are table-tennis 



People 


121 


(mainly in city), chess, carrom and Chaupar. The popularity of games 
and sports is on the increase as is evident from several tournaments 
organised, mostly by educational institutions, or games and sports 
organisations; and especially under the auspices of School Athletic 
Association, Bikaner, throughout the year. Bikaner has the proud 
distinction of having one of the biggest stadiums in the State with a 
seating capacity for 40,000 spectators. 

Other Recreation — Apart from the common social and 
religious festivals and fairs which occur during the various seasons and 
months of the year, the people in the rural areas do not generally have 
any special mode of recreation except assembling in groups at some 
common place to indulge in light conversation. Women hardly have 
any mode of recreation except gossiping at Pan^hat where they go in 
numbers to fetch water, or enjoy singing folk-songs according to the 
season. The rainy season is the most alluring one for recreation and 
swinging-a cherished enjoyment. 

Ram lila, Bhajan, Kirtans from Ramayan and Mababbarat, and 
Kathputli (puppet) demonstrations are also popular means of 
recreations in the rural areas provided by intinerant performers. During 
recent years radio sets have been provided by the panebayat samitis 
in some villages where people listen to news and musical broadcasts 
with interest. Field publicity units also sometimes arrange film shows. 
Reading rooms and mobile libraries are new features which also provide 
facilities for recreation. 

Puppets — ^The Kathputli (puppets) shows are very popular among 
the rural people. The puppets usually tell a story of some legendry 
hero. In this show Kathputli player holds a string in his hands and 
manipulates the various movements of the wooden dolls to depict 
the story. 

Cinemas — Cinema is becoming increasingly popular in urban 
areas. In Bikaner city there arc three Cinema-houses namely, Ganga 
Theatre, Vishwa Jyoti and Prakash Chitra. Ganga Theatre is owned 
and controlled by the State Government and the other two are run 
privately. "No other town in the district has a permanent cinema 
house. 

Clubs — The notable clubs in Bikaner arc the Sadul Club, 
Bikaner Sporting Club, Railway Club, West Rajasthan and the Golf 
Club. The Sadul Club is one of the famous clubs in Rfsjasthan. 



122 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers —Bikaner 


It has tennis courts, squash courts, billiards, skating-rink, table-tennis, 
a piano and a dancing hall, besides a number of other means of 
amusements, desired by club goers. 

Impact of Recent Social and Economic Changes 

The structure of the old social order has under gone a significant 
change and is passing through a phase of disintegration. Formerly, 
the social set-up was mostly feudal, and in the rural areas revolved 
round the central figure of iht ihakiir orthtfbig Jaghifdar \vho was 
the kingpin of local life. The end of royalty, the iritfoductioh of 
agrarian reforms, tlib abolition of jaghirdari, the establishment' of the 
district administration on the lines' of the provinces' of the former 
British India, the reorganisation of local self-goVefnlrient and the rieii^ 
system of the panchayati raj launched by Democractic Decentralisation 
Scheme, have all had a powerful impact on' the social set-up. Thfe 
feudal lords have lost their privileged status- in society and have 
considerable difficulty in adapting thehiselVcs to’ the new eiiiefging 
pattern of life. The landless workers have begun to own the land, 
they cultivate. The common man has acquired the right to exercise 
his vote to elect the representative of his own choice to look after the 
affairs of the State. The increasing educational facilities and the 
growing political consciousness among all classes and castes of people 
has accelerated the process of dissolution- of the traditional society. 
At the same time, it cannot be, gain said that the changes so apparent 
on the surface, have been slow to percolate to the tradition-ridden 
minds of some of the people, and as a sequence, the votaries of the old 
crumbling social' order still comraandVespect and privile^. This factor 
has been phychologically helpful to them' in defying' the inc’vitable 
process'of socio-political readjusthifedt. 

Some of the ex-jaghirdars have also not fully adjusted themselves 
to the change. A few of them are seeking employment or looking for 
other professibns. This'social up-heaval has caused great suffering to 
the retainers and hangers on of the oli order, who found themselves 
without any new moorings. The professional musicians for instance, 
who earned their livelihood by singing and dancing or composing songs 
in praise of the jaghirdar, and the chararis, the" bards, who used'tb 
compile exaggerated histories applauding the landed aristocracy and 
depended for their livelihood on their patronage, find themselves 
without ostensible means of livelihood. The changes brought about 
by the progressive evolution of social order,.have benefited the common 



People 


123 


man to a considerable extent. He is now able to own land, improve 
his economic condition as a result of various measures sponsored under 
the developmeiit programme, and has acquired ^ sense of dignity. 
With the increase in the wants of the people n?^ articles of consumption 
and daily use, have found their way into tb® villages, and generally 
speaking, people there now enjoy a higher standard of living. 

In the social sphere, the caste system i? fnst losing its old rigidity 
and the disintegrating process has begun. The old taboos regarding 
dress, food and types of dwellings, have mostly disappeared and a new 
social freedom and equality, is gradually emerging. Several castes 
and communities who were debarred in the old order from following a 
profession other than that of their fore-fathers, have recently taken to 
■^carneh prolessipns auh mhus'ifijh anh comurcrcrJi -pursuVcs. Tne 
tendency to separate from the joint family is fnst growing in the urban 
areas as the old family ties and loyalties are weakening. 



CHAPTER IV 


AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION 


General 

The general feature of this district with its elevation varying 
from 400 to 1200 feet above sea-level,i is a vast sandy plain interspersed 
with sand-dunes and sand hills. Most of the sand-dunes are found in 
the west of Bikaner tahsil and north of Lunkaransar. Only a few of 
them keep moving and the rest are fairly stabilised with trees and- 
shrubs already growing on them. The height of these sand-dunes 
varies from five to a hundred feet. With average annual rainfall 
of 259.6 mm (10.22 inches’), there is hardly any forest worth the 
name. South of the Bikaner City there is a considerable tract covered 
with brush- wood, which when green during and after rains, gives the 
impression of a growing young forest. This is called “Jorbir”. The 
whole of this sandy tract, however, turns immediately after rains into ' 
a beautiful vast green expanse, covered with the richest and the most 
succulent grasses, making the district one of the best pasture lands in 
the country. The area under tahsil Kolayat which is located in the 
south-west of the district has different physical features, as its former 
mmt Magra which in the local dialect means hard, suggests. The soil 
of this tahsil is level, firm and somewhat stony, but fairly productive 
under good rain-fall. 


According-to 1961 Census, 22.33 per cent of the people of the 
district as shown below, were engaged in agriculture directly or indirectly 
as against 36.95 per cent of the population of the State as a whole.2 


Items 

Bikaner 
district 1961 

Percentage 

Raiastban 

1961 

Percentage 

Total Population 

4,44,515 


2,01,55,602 


Males 

2,32,699 


1,05,64,(182 


Females 

2,11,816 


95,91,520 


Agricultural Population 





(i) Cultivators 

98,306 

22.11 

70,55,079 

35.00 

Males 

57,962 


42,05,067 


Females 

40,344 


28,50,012 


(ii) Agricultural Labourers 962 

0.22 

3,93,631 

1.95 

Males 

653 


2,30,193 


Females 

309 


1,63,438 



1. Census of India, 1961, RSJaslhSn District Census Handbook, Bikaner, p. iii. 

2, Census of India, 1961, Vol, XIV, Rajasthan, Part H-B (/), General Economic Tables, 




Agriculture and Irrigation 


125 


Co-operative Movement 

The co-operative movement in the erstwhile Bikaner State was 
started as early as 1920 with a view to diminishing rural indebtedness, 
promoting thrift and self-help among agriculturists, artisans and other 
persons of limited means, and bringing credit facilities within their 
reach. In order to help the landholders in time of need with compara- 
tively larger loans for improvement of their holdings, a Land Mortgage 
Central Co-operative Bank was started on 20th September, 1930. 

There were 117 agricultural credit and multi-purpose societies 
with a membership of 3,953 as on 30th June, 1960.1 

The progress of agricultural credit and agricultural non-credit 
societies is indicated below during the Third Five Year Plan.2 


1561-62 19 62-6 3 1963-6 4 1964-65 1965-66 

Type of Societies j,}o. Member- No. Member- No. Mcmbei-No. Member- No. Member- 
ship ship ship ship ship ■ 

Agricultural • w 

Credit 153 8,856 157 10,441 168 11,291 184 13,280 186 :r6’,237 

Agricultural . 

non-Credit 20 323 24 389’ 23 430 .23 430 22,. • 350 


There was one farming society with'a'^membership of 13 at the 
end of the year 1965-66. 


Afforestation 

During the Second Five Year Plan, special attention was paid to 
the plantation of trees on the rail routes, and road sides. Other 
land was also brought under plantations to maintain the soil fertility 
by checking the movement of sand. During the Second Five Year 
Plan period an amount of Rs. 2.56 lakhs was spent on the forest and 
soil conservation schemes in the district. During the Third Five Year 
Plan period an amount of Rs. 39 thousand was spent on the forest 
development in the district. The area under forests stood at 1 1 thousand 
hectares at the end of the year 1965-66. 


1. Sraiisticst Abstract, RSjaslhita, 1951, p. 16S. 

2. Sanisticst Abstract, Ritjastban, yearly volumes for various years. 


126 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


IRRIGATION 

The main problem of the district is the lack of irrigation 
facilities. As stated earlier no perennial or semi-perennial river flows 

,.1 ' <• ‘ • / * • I ‘ 1 v'j . ' . 

through it. There is practically no surface run off except in the case of 
a few nullahs which have been impounded. The undpr^ground water 
which is the main source of supply both for drinking and other purposes 
is generally found at a mmimiirn depth of about 90 to 100 metres below 
the surface and even there percolation is so scanty that continuous 

• I ^ 1 1 » • I ' ' ' ' V ' ’ ' I ' 1 i • f ^ ' 

drawing of water by a power driven machine would render it dry after 
a few hours. In some places the water is so saline and brackish as 
would be harmful not only to humans but also to the cattle and is 
therefore u nfit for irrigation purposes. Due to inadequate and erratic 
rainfall the cultivable waste is difficult to put under the plough to any 
significant' extent. 

Irrigation by Lakes & Tanks 

Most of the iinportant lakes and tanks of the district are 
situated in the Magra area. "We have already given some of their 
details in a previous'^ chapter. From the irrigation point of view, they 
are hardly of much significance. 

Gainer Lake — ^This is an artificial lake at Gajner with a capacity 
of 50 mcft. of water. The catchment area of this lake is about 129.5 
sq. km. (50 sq. miles) and is fecT by local streams. It belongs" to the 
Maharaja and its water is used mainly for drinking and bathing 
purposes and is only sometimes put to irrigation use. 

Kolayat Tank — ^This is a natural tank in a wide depression at 
Kolayat with water stretching upto two miles. The depth of this 
tank is 6.09 metres (20 feet)' and it has a capacity of 100 mcft. 
of water. The catchment area is about 194 sq. km. (75 miles) and the 
tank is fed by local streams. The water is used principally for bathing 
and drinking purposes. 

Ganga Sarow Alt Tank — This is another tank situated 17.70 km. 
(11 miles) north-west of Gajner village in Kolayat (Magra) tahsil. It 
is an artificial lake constructed during the reign of Maharaja Ganga 
Singh and named after him. It is 1886.7 metres (6190 feet) long and 
the height of the bund is 9.14 metres (30 feet). It has a water 
holding capacity of 94 mcft. with a catchment area of 79.5 sq. km. 
(30.70 miles) The water of this tank irrigates nearly 873 biglias of land. 



Agriculture and Irrigation 


127 


Bund No. 1 — This is an artificial lake situated near Mandal 
village 53.1 km. (33 miles) from Gajner in Kolayat (Magra) tafisil and 
constructed during the lefgn of Maharaja Ganga Singh. It is 1575.8 
metres (5170 feet) long with its bund 7.6 metres (25 feet) high. Its 
water capacity is 50.56 mcft. and catchment area 77.70 sq. km. 
(30 sq. miles). Fed by a local stream, it irrigates an area of 500 bighas. 

There are a few other small tanks in the district which are as 
follows; 

1. Mudh Bund — It is situated near Mudh village 16 km. 
(10 miles) west of Gajner. It was constructed for utilising surface run 
off of Mudh valley for irrigation. Lying breached for many years, it is 
not being restored as its bund is spongy and cannot hold water for long. 
Its catchment area is 968 sq. km. (374 sq. miles). 

2. Bund No. 2 — It is situated near Sankelan village about 24 km. 
(15 miles) west of Gajner and was constructed in the early years of 
Uiis century for utilising for irrigation, the monsoon flow of local 
nullahs in the vicinity. When full, it submerges 54.21 hectares 
(134 acres) of land an!d has a catchment area of 6.47 sq. km. (2.50 sq. 
miles). 


3. Bund No. 3 — It is situated near Bund No. 2. When full, 
it submerges 114 acres of land and has a catchment area of 7,8 sq. km. 
(3 sq. miles) and a capacity of 7.78 mcft, of water. The bund is kacha 
and is used for irrigation purposes. 

4. Bund No. 4 — It is also situated near Bund No. 2 and 3 above. 
When full, it submerges 139.61 hectares (345 acres) of land and has a 
catchment area of 5.2 sq. km. (2 sq. miles) and a capacity of 38.43 
mcft. of water. 

5. Dadar Tank — It is situated near Godah village. When full, 
it submerges an area of 93.07 hectares (230 acres) and irrigates 40.5 
hectares (IhO acres). The catchment area is 15.28 sq. kra. (5.90 sq. miles) 
and capacity 12.30 mcft. of water. 


6. Sallta TANK~It is situated near Gndah village, 24 to 32 km. 
tl5 to 20 miles) west of Gajner. Its capacity is 13.50 mcft. and catch- 
ment area 11.66 sq.km. (4.50 sq. miles). It irrigates about 20.23 
hectares (50 acres) of land. 



128 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


7. Khudi Tank— It is also situated near Gndah village, 24 km. 
to 32 km. (15 to 20 miles) west of Gajner. The capacity of this tank 
is 5.30 mcft. of water and the catchment area is 3.89 sq. km. (1.50 sq. 
mites). It irrigates an area of 10.11 hectares (25 acres) and when full 
submerges an area of 22.66 hectares (56 acres). 

8. Jhinjhiniya Tank — It is situated near Bithnok, 34 km. 
(21 miles) west of Gajner. The capacity of this tank is 13.80 mcft. of 
water and the catchment area 10.36 sq. metres (4 sq. miles). It 
irrigates an area of 20.2 hectares (50 acres) and when full, submerges an 
area of 68.79 hectares (170 acres). 

9. Kiniya Tank — It is situated near Kiniya Basti, 48 km. 
(30 miles) west of Gajner. The water holding capacity of this tank is 
14.11 mcft. and the catchment area is 25.9 sq. km. (10 sq. miles). It 
irrigates an area of 28.32 hectares (70 acres) and when full, submerges 
an area of 67.17 hectares (166 acres) of land. 

10. Bhatia Tank — It is situated near Bhatia village 58 km. 
(36 miles) from Gajner. The water holding capacity of this tank is 
6 mcft. and catchment area is 7.77 sq. km. (3 sq. miles). It irrigates an 
area of 10.11 hectares (25 acres). 

Irrigation by Wells 

Since the level of the water varies from 300 to 600 feet, well 
irrigation is uneconomical. The area served by wells, therefore, forms 
a negligible proportion of the total irrigated area. Whatever little area 
is irrigated in the district, by wells (including tube-wells) is for food 
crops only. The extent of this during the last few years is indicated 
belowt-: 


Year 

Area (in hectares) 

1960-61 

4 

1961-62 

17 

1962-63 

23* 

1963-64 

58* 

1964-65 

95* 

1965-66 

55* 


1. Statistical Abstract, Rajasthan, yearly volumes lor various years. 
* Includes area irrigated by other sources. 



Agriculture and Irrigation 


129 


There were 20 tube-wells and’ 973 pucca wells in the district, 
which were in use during the year 1965-66 for irrigation purposes. 
106 wells were lying out of use during the same year. Water from the 
wells is lifted either in leather buckets by employing bullock power or 
by electric motor pumps. The number of wells in Bikaner district have 
been given in Appendix I. 

The people of the district are keenly looking forward to the 
completion of the Rajasthan Canal Project which would enter Bikaner 
district at village Kharbara in tahsil Lunkaransar and is designed to 
terminate at village Charanwala in tahsil Kolayat. 

The work on Rajasthan Canal Project is being undertaken in two 
phases. In the first phase, in Bikaner district 22 villages of Bikaner 
tahsil and 8 villages of Lunkaransar tahsil with an area of 5.18 lac 
•acres will be benefited under the Fruit Development Scheme. Since the 
Rajasthan Canal Project would benefit mainly the western part of the 
Bikaner district, a scheme of lift irrigation has been sanctioned to 
benefit the eastern portion of the district. Under the lift irrigation 
scheme 41 villages of Lunkarasar tahsil with an area of 2.59 lac acres 
and 35 villages of Bikaner tahsil with an area of 3.93 lac acres will be 
benefited. Thus in the first phase of the Rajasthan Canal Project and 
through the lift irrigation project 106 villages with an area of 11.70 lac 
acres will be benefited. 

In the second phase of the Rajasthan Canal Project 82 villages 
of Kolayat and Bikaner tahsils of the district with an area of 14.25 lac 
acres will be benefited. 


Thus, the total area to be benefited through both the phases 
of Rajasthan Canal Project and lift irrigation scheme is estimated as 
follows: 


S.No 

Name of the 
tahsil 

No. of villages to be 
benefited 

Area to be benefited 
tin lac acres) 

1. 

Bikaner 

76 

11.24 

2. 

Lunkaransar 

49 

3.59 

3. 

Kolayat 

63 

11.12 



Total 188 

25.95 


Apart from the irrigation benefits from the Rjijasfhiin Canal 
Project, other development programmes like agriculture, animal husban- 
dry, industries, colonisation, drinking water supply, communications, 



130 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


medical and social services etc. which will be implemented in the area, 
will benefit the district. 

SOIL EROSION 

In the district soil erosion is mainly caused by winds. To check 
soil erosion a scheme was introduced in the Third Five Year Plan by 
posting an Assistant Soil Conservation Officer in Naukha. The main 
works undertaken under the scheme are kana bundi, stable mulching, 
ploughing, strip cropping, field bunding and levelling etc. 

During the year 1964-65 an area of 536 hectares (1,325 acres) 
was brought under Med bundi, 10,348 hectares (25,571 acres) under 
Kana bundi, 7,723 hectares (19,085 acres) under Bar bundi and 
6,770 hectares (16,730 acres) under Stable mulching. During the year 
1965-66, Med bundi was done on 266 hectares (658 acres), Kana bundi 
on 31,374 hectares (77,526 acres) Bar bundi on 6,522 hectares (16,109 
acres) and Stable mulching on 2,746 hectares (6,785 acres). 

AGRICULTURE 

Soil and Crops 

The soil of the district is more or less totally sand except in a few 
villages where it is loam with shifting sand dunes. Due to scarcity of 
rains, the vegetative cover on the surface and organic matter in the soil 
is liable to wind erosion, as moisture retentive capacity is nil. Looking 
to the geographical and climatic conditions, only barani crops 
pai ticularly feo/ra, Jo»rar and pulses like moth and moong are grown. 
Wheat, barley and gram are also cultivated if there are timely rains. 

Agricultural Operations 

Crop pattern has remained largely unchanged over the decades. 
The actual ploughing operations begin with the first rain-fall and the 
harrowing of the fields is done within three days after it. The beginning 
of the monsoon is e.xpected in the later part of Jcth (June). There is 
a common saying that on the first day after the end of the month of 
Jeth if there is a rumbling of clouds in the sky the next two months of 
Asadli and Shrawan would go dry and rain could not be expected before 
the month of Bhadon^ It is also commonly believed that it is inauspi- 
cious to plough fields on Tuesdays. Wednesdays are considered good for 
ploughing and Thursdays for harvesting.^ 

1. Sts sftdV 1 ^ 

*ntTT?- eran to 5% ^ 

2. swtffi ctranl 



Agriculture and Irrigation 


131 


Agricultural operations are started by harrowing the fields twice; 
first lengthwise, and then crosswise. When new land. is to be brought 
under the plough, bushes and shrubs are first removed. The ground is 
then roughly levelled by Suhage. The cleanine process is called Sur. 
The first of the ploughings is called cheer, second chank and the third 
bijari. A bullock ploughs one acre while a pair of bullocks or a camel 
can plough two acres per day. Nidan (weeding) is done when seedlings 
are about 15 to 20 cms. high. A harrow is passed between the rows of 
young plants to remove weeds. 

Agricultural Crops 

Bajra — Bajra is the most important crop of the district. Sown 
in an area of 2,26,305 hectares during the year 1965-66, it also excels in 
quality. It is grown both in irrigated and dry lands in all the tahsils 
and it thrives well if there is timely rainfall. The tilling and soil 
preparation is begun by the end of March and finished by the end of 
April. 


It is sown as early as Jeth (May-June) but the more usual sow- 
ing time is Asadh-Sawan (from the middle of June to that of August). 
When it is sown after the end of July, yield is generally poor. It is 
neither irrigated (except in canal area where one or two irrigations 
arc given if rains fail) nor manured but ripens quickly, i. e. within 
three months. 20th August to 15th September is the normal period for 
inter-culture (weeding and hoeing) and harvesting is done by the end 
of September to end of October. Bajra is the staple food of the people 
and the stalks {Karbi) are used for fodder and thatching purposes. 

In 1950-51, Bajra covered an area of 15,913 hectares out of 64,652 
hectares of the total cultivated area in that year. It rose to 130,130 
hectares during 1956-57 out of 351,397 hectares of the total cultivated 
area during that year. The production of Bajra in the district was 6,695 
tonnes during 1956-57 which rose to 29,910 tonnes during 1959-60. Its 
production during 1960-61 (the last year of the Second Five Year Plan) 
was 10,888 tonnes which increased to 29,113 tonnes during 1962-63 
with an increase of area under its cultivation from 1,86,812 hectares 
during 1960-6! to 1,98,297 during 1962-63. 1963-64 was a bad year 
in as much as the area under cultivation fell to 1,85,423 hectares and 
the production of Bajra was only 831 tonnes. During the year 1965-66 
the area under cultivation of this crop was 2,26,305 hectares and the 
production was 10,146 tonnes. 



132 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers—Blkaner 


JowAR— /fliwr or great millet is not commonly sown in the 
district as it requires a rather stiff soil. It is generally sown 
later than Bajra and takes longer to mature and also some-times 
needs irrigation. It is mostly sown for fodder purposes and fof 
seed for the next year. Its seed rate is usually 6 to 8 pounds per 
acre, is sown in June-July and is harvested in October-November. 
Under normal conditions its grain yield is 1200 lbs. to 3500 lbs. of 
dry fodder per acre. Jowar for fodder is sown thickly in April-May 
and is ready by the end of May to be generally used as a green 
fodder. 


The area under Jowar was only 10 hectares during 1950-51 which 
rose to 1,508 hectares in 1956-57. Its production during 1956-57 was 
367 tonnes, which fell to a mere 14 tonnes during 1965-66, the area 
under the crop in the later year being 859 hectares. 

Wheat — This is sown in irrigated areas and occupied 164 hec- 
tares during 1956-57 showing a small increase from 109 hectares during 
1950-51. But this area is negligible as compared to the total cropped 
area. The ploughing and soil preparation is done between 20th April and 
lOih May and from 10th September to 15th November respectively. The 
sowing is done from 20th October to 15th December and harvesting 
from KUh April to 15th May. The first watering is given at the time of 
sowing and 3 to 7 irrigations arc given each at an interval of about 
three weeks. The seed rate is 40 to 50 pounds per acre and the yield 
about 1600 pounds per acre. Natural manures are generally used but 
with the efforts of the Department of Agriculture, the cultivators have 
started the use of Chemical fertilisers, viz.. Ammonium Sulphate where 
ever irrigation facilities are available. 

Pulses — The pulses include Mash or Urd, moong, moth and gram. 
These pulses except gram, arc generally sown mixed with bajra, jowar 
and cotton. Gram is sown mostly with wheat or barley. A species of 
the kidney bean called moth (Phaseolus aconitifolius) comes next in 
importance to Bajra. This can be sown up to the middle of September 
and takes sixty days to ripen. It thrives best in a light soil. The yield 
per acre is much the same as that of Bajra and the stalks [Gum) leaves 
and pods [Palo.si) supply good fodder for camels. These are used as 
vegetables and as split dal when ripe. 

Fruits ard Vegetables— The principal fruits are the water 
melon (Afatira) and a coarse type of melon called Kakri. The former 



Agriculture and Irrigation 


133 


spring into existence during the rains and are so plentiful that great 
quantities are thrown to the cattle; the seeds are pounded into a kind 
of flour which is mixed with that of cereals^ For this fruit, Elphin- 
stonet wrote thus: “In the midst of so arid a country, the water melon 
the most juicy of fruits, is found in profusion. It is really a subject of 
wonder to see melons, three or four feet in circumference, growing from 
a stalk as slender as that of a common melon in the dry sand of the 
desert. They are sown and perhaps require some cultivation, but they are 
scattered about to all appearance as if they grew wild. The natives 
assert that a large melon suffices to allay the thirst of a horse and his 
rider.” Among vegetables, raddish {Midi) is most easily raised. 

Oil Seeds — The oil seeds grown in this area include Til (Sesa- 
mum idium) in autumn and sarson or mustard and taramera and rape 
seed in spring. Mustard is not very common but sesamum is cultivated 
on a large scale, occupying about 4 per cent of the total cropped area 
during 1965-66. This is often sown together with some other kliarif 
crops and, as it requires little tillage and no irrigation and weeding, it 
is a popular crop sown in July-August and harvested in September- 
October. The seed is used for extracting oil. 

There is practically no rabi cultivation in Bikaner district but 
in some pockets of Kolayat tahsil where some water is available culti- 
vation of wheat and barley only is done. 

The area and production of principal crops in the district are 
given in Appendix II. 

Manures 

Soil of the district is deficient in Nitrogen and to some extent 
in Super-Phosphate. These deficiencies cannot be made good by 
the application of Chemical fertilisers duC to want of irrigation. 
Traditional manure, however, is applied to the fields. It is formed 
by staking together of cow dung, petrified hay and other [house- 
hold rubbish and keeping it for some time so that the process of de- 
composition sets in. Sometimes cow dung or refuse of sheep and goats 
are used as manure even in their natural form. Herds of cattle are 
encouraged to graze in fallow fields so that droppings provide natural 
manure to the fields. During the year 1965-66 manure of compost 
pits numbering 2,236 was used, of which 132 were in Bikaner 


1. Eritinc, Major K. D., KS.]putSna Ga^etictr, Vol. 1 H-A, pp, 344-345, 



134 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


Panchayal Samiti, 684 in Naukha, 407 in Kolayat and 1000 in 
Lunkaransar. 

Crop Rotation 

Rotation of crops is hardly known. The fields are sown 
for 2 to 3 years continuously till the soil shows signs of exhaustion 
when new land is broken or previously abandoned land re-cultivated. 
Due to this fact a considerable portion of the holdings of the 
cultivators consists of waste or fallow land. 

Crop diseases 

The main diseases prevailing in the district are, green ear disease 
of Bajra and smut of Bajra. These are being controlled by treating 
the seed before sowing and by destorying the infected plants. Damage 
from these diseases varies from 0.05 to 1 per cent. 

Agricultural pests 

Locust menace is common in the desert where it finds a congenial 
soil for laying eggs. The cultivators project their crops by digging 
trenches round their fields, in which the hoppers are buried. Officers of 
Anti-locust Department of the Government of India, assisted by the 
Revenue authorities, play a great part in destroying locusts and hoppers. 

Other local pests which cause considerable damage to the crops 
arc (1) Grass hoppers, (2) Babel, (3) Gram cut worm and (4) Rats, 
Damage from these pests is about 5 to 8 per cent. Rats are being 
eradicated by poison baits, prepared by mixing one tola Zinc Phosphate, 
4 tolas of bin and 20 tolas of flour. Grass hoppers, white ants, Katra, 
Babel and gram cut worms are being controlled by application of 
Bcngene Hexa Chloride. Babel may also be controlled by light traps. 

Departmental Activities. 

Since there is no large scale cultivation, no separate office of the 
Agriculture Department has been ‘established here. The District 
Agriculture Officer, Churu, is looking after this district. Only one 
Plant Protection Unit, consisting of a Plant Protection Supervisor and a 
Plant Protection Field Assistant, has been established in Bikaner. The 
Department, in association with the Panchayat Samitis is trying to 
improve production by suggesting better methods of cultivation 
through actual demonstrations, distribution of better seeds, application 
of -anurcs and by taking steps to eradicate various pests and diseases. 



Agriculture and Irrigation 


135 


Some of the important achievements in this respect arc given in 
Appendix III. 

Agricultural Implements 

The agricultural implements used in the district are still mainly 
traditional, the more important of them being ploughs, harrows, 
levellers, clod-crushers, seed drills and hoes. The clod-crusher {kurli) 
is a heavy and flat piece of wood about 15 cms. thick and 80 cms. wide 
with varying length. It is dragged over the fields by bullocks to level 
the ground and gather the weeds. The indigeneous plough leveller etc. 
are made of wood and the seed drill is made of bamboo. Besides, 
there are several hand tools used in agricultural operations, such as 
Kurhad or Kudali (axe) Kttladi (pich-axe), Phawada (spade), Khurpi 
(weeding hoes), Dantili (sickle). Karate (bill-hoek), Panar (crow-bar) and 
the Dantli (rab with teeth). They are generally made by the village 
carpenter or the blacksmith. 

During the 1961 Census, the Superintendent Census Operations, 
Rajasthan conducted special economic studies of two villages; viz., 
Mukam and Mudh in the Bikaner district. From these studies it was 
observed that the plough used was not much diSerent from that in vougc 
in the other parts of the State. It consists of a thick curved wooden 
piece of a sufiiciently heavy log of the kikar wood, pointed at both 
ends. The entire body of the plough is about 1 metre high. The bend 
in its middle divides it into two equal parts. In the centre there is a 
hole in which the hal is fitted. The lower part of the plough is fitted , 
with an iron part, halbani which is held fast by an iron choat 
(iron piece). The hal is a straight pole which differs in length according 
as it is to be driven by a pair of bullocks or a camel. In the former case 
the length is about 1.5 metres and in the latter about 3 metres. The 
draught pole is held in position by a small wooden piece gangda and at 
the other end by an iron kill. A yoke is fastened to the farther end of 
the pole and is driven by a pair of bullocks. If the plough is intended 
to be driven by a camel, the draught pole is attached to a frame work 
called pinjdi fastened tightly to the saddle which rests on the hump of 
the camel. The movements of the camel are regulated by a pair of 
strings which are fastened to a small wooden piece passing through the 
perforated nose of the camel. In the case of light sandy soils only one 
bullock is sufiicient to till the ground. In this case the mechanism 
differs from the one used for a pair of bullocks. Instead of one draught 
pole there are two thinner poles which arc attached to the plough by 



136 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


pieces of wood called iadiyas and attached to the plough by bagada. 
At the other end is a fixed semi-circular wooden piece known as jamanta 
which rests on the neck of the bullock. The halbani (plough share)' is 
fixed to the inner side of the lower end of the plough. It is about 
30 cms. long, slightly pointed at the lower end and resembles a spear 
head. It is affixed to the lower part of the plough and slightly overlaps 
it at the tapering end. When the plough is moved forward, the halbani 
is tightly pressed against the wooden body. At the time of sowing, a 
becjani (drill) is attached to it. It is a bamboo tube fastened to the 
plough in such a way that its lower end is just a few cms. behind the 
plough share. The seeds fall through the tube into the furrow and are 
covered with soil when the next furrow is drawn. 


The following table indicates the number of agricultural imple- 
ments and machinery in use in the district at the time of 1966 livestock 
Census! : 



Implements 

Bikaner 

In Tahsil 

Kolayat LOnkaransar 

Naukha 

Total 

1. 

Ploughs 
(i ) Wooden 

11,291 

12.207 

10,586 

16,823 

50,907 


(ii) Iron 

2 

15 

55 

2 

74 

2. 

Carts 

3,067 

2,687 

229 

5,031 

11,014 

3. 

Glianis 

31 

28 

26 

41 

126 

4. 

Oil Engines with pumps 
for irrigation purposes 

- 

1 

4 

2 

7 

5. 

Tractors 

3 

2 

2 

- 

7 

6. 

Electric pumps for 
irrigation purposes 

4 

- 

1 

- 

5 


Seeds 


The Jakharana bajra seed is suitable for this area. Durina the 
year 1965-66, 461 maunds of improved seeds of 60 maunds of 

wheat, 200 maunds of Moth and 13$ lbs. of vegetables were distributed 
through the Agriculture Department. There arc three seed stores one 
each at the Bikaner, Ltinkaransar and Naukha but there i.s no seed 
multiplication farm in the district. 

1. Report of the Uvestnek Census of Rajasthan, 1966, pp. 236-37 




Agriculture and Irrigation 


137 


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND FISHERIES 
Animal Husbandry 

Fodder — In the absence of adequate irrigation facilities, people 
in the district have to depend on the rainfall even for fodder needs of 
their animals. Local grasses which are highly nutritious spring up in 
the district even when a small rainfall comes and then there is no 
scarcity of fodder.- Besides, spontaneous growth of trees and bushes 
acts as ‘green meat’ or fodder. Famine, however, is a frequent feature 
as rains do fail in some part of the district every now and then. During 
famine years, fodder has to be imported from outside. People also 
migrate with their cattle in search of food and fodder. 

The types of grass mainly grown here for fodder purposes are : 
Sawan, Bitaitrt, Dhaman, Latpati, Karbi, Phalgati and Char a (Moth). 

Livestock — According to 1951 Census the total number of livestock 
stood at 570,774 which increased to 949,024 during 1956 but fell down 
to 903,740 during 1961. Table given in the Appendix IV gives details 
of the figures relating to the years 1961 and 1966. The district is famous 
for the breeds of its cattle. We find here cows of Ratbi and Sahiwal 
breeds and bullocks of the famous Nagauri extraction. The north 
western portion of the district, where animal' husbandry constitutes 
the mainstay of the people, is said to contain the best sheep. Cows of 
Pugal are renowned for their milk. 

Nagauri breed animals are also found in this district and have 
great stamina and surefootedness in work on medium heavy soils or in 
pulling heavy weights Being leggy, they arc very good and fast 
trotters. They arc famous for their speed in the carts, and rafhs 
(Chariots) too. They are in demand in all parts and particularly 
northern Slates of India and fetch more price than any other breed 
of cattle, as they can pull heavy loads, draw water from deep wells and 
also because of their capacity to plough lands with heasw loamy and 
clay soils. The average price of a male calf of about R years is 
approximately Rs. 1000 and that of the fully grown good bullock, 
about Rs 1300, 

Cattle are a source of income in various ways of which the 
principal are, the sale of heifcis, bullcalves and buffaloes and also 
g/av. Buffaloes arc more valuable than cows as they yield more milk 
and ghee, bat they do hot thrive on brackish v/atcr. A cow, with fair 



138 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


grazing, yields milk for about 100 grams of ghee per day for six months 
and a buffalo, 150 grams for eight ti nine months. The young stock of 
cows and buffalloes {Bachri or Jhoti) are always reared. Male calves 
arc generally kept for 3 to 4 years and then sold to travelling traders 
or at a fair. The buffalo male calves (jhotas) are also sold as beasts of 
burden. 

The district almost holds a monopoly in the production of good 
camels not only in Rajasthan, but also in India. This animal, roughly 
called a ship of the desert, has also proved its utility in the rest of the 
country. In addition to its use in agricultural operations, it is employed 
for carrying loads in hilly areas as well. There are two varieties of 
camels in Rajasthan; one known as Jaisalmeri is noted for riding pur- 
poses and the other known as Bikaneri for carrying heavy loads. Local 
camels when compared to their counterparts elsewhere have less hair 
and are light in weight. This facilitates quick speed without any strain, 
on the rider. The average weight of a fully grown camel of Jaisalmeri 
breed is 1200 lbs. and that of Bikaneri, 1500 lbs. Their height is 7' and 
8|' respectively. They cover 30 and 25 miles per day respectively. 
Camel wool is used in the manufacture of strings and it gives a fair 
return. The skin is used in making jars and big bottles for keeping 
ghee and oil. The camels also serve as carriers of grain and water. . 

A Camel Development Scheme was started in the district in 1959 
with the aid of Indian Council of Agricultural Research. To improve 
their breed a camel breeding farm has been established at Jorbir, about 
10 km. from Bikaner, and improved Bikaneri camels are kept, to cater 
to the needs. The purpose of this scheme is to produce nucleus herd 
of high pedigree Bikaneri camels for bringing an improvement in the 
existing stock. 

Marwari goats of Bikaner are known for their good yield of milk 
and mutton. They are generally black in colour. They are very heavy 
with a dressed carcase of 50 lbs. on an average. Their hair is also a 
valuable commodity as it is spun into coarse thread, yarn or string and 
is mostly used for making sacks for carrying various goods on donkeys 
and camels. ... - ’ 

Sheep play a very important role in the economy of the 
district. Sheep rearing is one of the principal occupations of the people. 
Most of ' them arc bred for dual purpose i.e. mutton and wool. The 
heaviest type is called Conadi and is famous for its high yield of mutton 
and good milk, rich in butter contents upto 10 per cent. Ghee (fat) is 
manufactured from its milk and is sold in local markets. 



Agriculture and Irrigation 


139 


Magra breed of sheep are found all over the district. They are 
generally well built, having , light brown patches round their eyes and 
medium sized twisted ears and medium tail. The body weight of ewes 
is 50 to 65 lbs. and that of rams from 70 to 75 lbs. The wool grown 
per year (sheep washed before shearing) is 3 to 5 lbs., and number of 
clips is 3. The quality of wool is of medium and coarse grades. The 
sheep of Pagal is said to be the best in the district. The shepherds are 
either nomadic or very mobile and' move from to place in search, of 
water and fodder. It is only in monsoon that they do not move 
when plenty of grass and green vegetation is found near home. 

There is a Government Sheep Breeding Farm at Koramdesar for 
breeding Magra rams and a Woollen Cottage Industries Institute for 
processing the wool. There are 11 sheep and wool extension centres in 
the district situated at Bikaner, Napasar, Jamsar (Panchunl, Kolayat, 
Lunkaransar, Mahajan, Naukha, Gariala, Visalpur, Pagal and 
Sattasar. Bikaner, Napasar, Kolayat, Lunkaransar and Naukha 
centres were established during the year 1954-55,- while Mahajan, 
Jamsar (Panchun), Guriala, Visalpur, Pagal and Sattasar centres were 
set up during the year 1962-63. Attempts are being made to improve 
the breed of sheep by improving Merino rams from Australia. 

, There is one Regional Sheep Research Station for Chokla breed 
of sheep at Bikaner where the strength of the livestock at the end of 

1965-66 was 592. The main programme of the Research Institute 
is fi) to improve Chokla sheep apparel wool by selective breeding, (ii) 
to supply farm breeding stocks to .selected village flocks, and_ organise 
controlled breeding directed towards improvement of wool quality, (iii) 
to study fertility and different characteristics of Chokla sheep, (iv) to 
study important problems of sheep husbandry including . nutrition in 
relation to wool production in the existing conditions around the Fa^m. 
Duririg the year 1962-63, 654,380 kg. of wool was produced from the 
twddips from 1,068 animals. 

There is also a Wool Analysis Laboratory at Bikaner (i) to 
classify wool grown by different breeds of sheep into different grades 
and types, (ii) to prepare their standa.'-d sarriples for, helping in visual 
grading in the fields (iii) to study, breeds and (iv) to evaluate the 
commercial manufactures of graded work of different breeds, their 
definition and rdaihn to fibre characteristics. 

During the year 1952-63 a sum of Rs. 44,000 was sanctioned 



140 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


by the Government for boring of wells and construction of tube wells 
and overhead tank at the Sheep Breeding Farm at Koramdesar. 24,636 
bales of wool were graded at Bikaner centre during 1956 which was 
42.6 per cent of the total wool graded in that year. Bikaneri is the 
trade name of this wool. 

Sheep and Wool Extensions and Sheep and Wool Development 
Schemes sponsored by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research are 
under operation in Bikaner Panchayat Samiti. The main purposes of 
these schemes are (i) to bring about an increase in the overall production 
of wool by way of improving quality and quantity of wool produced, 
(ii) to secure better percentage of new born lambs of improved varieties 
obtained through controlled breeding, (iii) to rear better types of sheep, 
(iv) to maintain Ram lambs at the Centres for classification into catego- 
ries according to their performance for general distribution among flock 
masters, (v) to improve local methods and applications practised by 
flock masters/owners in sheep farming and replacement with new scien- 
tific methods equipped with current knowledge in sheep husbandry, and 
(vi) to eliminate the possible losses due to spread of epidemics in sheep. 

For an all-round development of the animal husbandry and to 
remove the shortage of improved bulls, a Key Village Scheme was 
introduced in this district from 1st July 1958. Under this scheme six 
Key Village Units situated at Bichhwal, Rirmalsar, Napasar, 
Gangashahr, Barsinghsar and Palana are functioning. Some of the 
important achievements under this scheme are indicated below : — 


Items 

1961-62 

1962-63 

1963-64 

1964-65 

1965-66 

1. Artificial Inseminations done 
Cows 

194 

207 

644 

728 

826 

Buffaloes 

67 

— 

— 

— 

— 

2. Natural services done : 

Cows 

577 

366 

499 

781 

879 

Buffaloes 

260 

268 

456 

478 

429 

3. Animals tested : 

Cows 

20 

270 

305 

227 

252 

Buffaloes 

59 

73 

— 

— 

— 

4. Calves born : 

I. By artificial insemination 
Cows 

15 

67 

119 

195 

309 

Buffaloes 

— 

— 

— 

— 


II. By natural services : 

Cows 

84 

62 

193 

126 

250 

Buffaloes 

64 

44 

105 

143 

251 

5. Animals castrated : 

908 

883 

536 

308 

1,014 


Agriculture and Irrigation 


141 


Besides the above, a Post-graduate College of Veterinary and 
Animal Husbandry is also functioning at Bikaner under the University 
of Udaipur. Under this college a poultry farm is being maintaned. 

Poultry Development — During the year 1965-66 subsidies and 
loans were given for the development of poultry. A subsidy of 
Rs. 155 and loan of Rs. 500 each were given to poultry breeding farms. 
About 5,000 chicken were distributed to the poutry breeders by the 
Veterinary College, Bikaner at subsidised rates. 

Fisheries 

There has been no significant development of fisheries in the 
district due to paucity of water and obhorance of people in general to 
killing and the eating of flesh. In Panchayat Samiti, Kolayat, the 
soil is fit for tanks to hold water round the year and fisheries can 
be developed but for the apathy of people on religious and sentimental 
grounds. 


Artificial Insemination 

There is no artificial insemination centre in Bikaner except the 
Key Village __Centres. There were nine veterinary hospitals and 
dispensaries in Bikaner as follows : 


1 . 

2 . 

3. 

4. 
5 

7. 

8 . 
9. 


Veterinary Hospital, Bikaner (functioning from time of integration) 
„ „ Ltinkaransar (established in 1954-55) 

„ „ Naukha (established in 1954-55) 

„ Mahajan (established in 1962-63) 

„ „ Kolayat (established in 1955-56) 

„ Dispensary, Deshnoke (established in 1965-66) 
Multipurpose Dispensary, Bikaner 
Mobile Veterinar>' Dispensary, Bikaner 
Veterinary Hospital R.A.C., Bikaner (established in 1964-65) 


Animal Diseases 

The area being sandy and climate dry, the possibilities of 
cattle diseases arc remote. During the rainy season, however, foot 
and mouth diseases do make their appearance. These arc readily 
treated with little loss of life. Seasonal diseases like Hamorrhagic 
Septicaemia arc reported before the advent of rains, and if the animals 
arc not vaccinated earlier the chances of survival arc bleak. Obvious 
symptoms of this disease arc swelling in the throat and chest 



142 


Rajasthan District Gazettcers—Blkaner 


accompanied by fever which incapaciates the victim to eat anything 
resulting in death. The mortality on this account is 80 to 90 per cent 
Another disease known as Black Quarter spreads in the winter mostly 
among the young stocks, 

Goshalas 

There are five Goshalas functioning in the district. These are 
situated at Bikaner, Naukha, Deshooke, Napasat and Bhinasar. The 
Goshala at Bikaner has been functining under the Animal Husbandry 
Department under the Goshala Development Scheme since 1960-61. 
This institute was maintaining a herd of 116 cattle at the end of 
1965-66. During this period the Goshala supplied milk to the extent 
of 14,076 .kg. to the public. The name of the ocher Goshalas 
functioning in Bikaner district are as follows : 

1. Shri Ganga Jubile Gaiishala, Bikaner 

2. Shri Ganga Gaiishala, Naukha 

3. Shri Murli Manohar Gaushala, Bhinasar 

4. Shri Gaushala, Napasar 

5. Shri Gaushala, Deshnoke 

There is a Gosadan at Koramdesar at a distance of 24 km, from 
Bikaner city. 380 animals were being maintained in this institution 
at the close of the year 1965-b6 and a sum of Rs. 13,646 was paid 
to it as grant-in-aid by the Department during this year. Useless 
and uneconomical animals are kept and fed here on compassionate 
grounds. 

Cattle Fairs 

Bikaner claims the distinction of being the home of famous 
breeds of sheep, goats and camels in Rajasthan. Nali in sheep, 
Marwari in goats and Bikaneri in camels have attained an all India 
reputation. To popularise the above breeds a number of fairs are 
held every year under the aegis of Kolayat. Lunkaransar and Naukha 
Panchayat Samitis. The details of these fairs are given in Appendix V 
based on the fairs held during 1958-59. 

famines' 

Famines and Scarcity conditions are fairly frequent in the 
district which has to depend, for production of food-grains and 
fodder (and even for drinking water), on erratic rainfall, there being 
practically no other means of irrigation. A general famine may occur 



Agriculture and 'Irrigation 


143 


once in ten years but local sea rcity is a common feature at least 
every four years. The distress caused thereby is relieved only by 
temporary migration of the live-stock. 

Famines-Early visitations^ 

' The first severe famine of which we have records in the history 
of Bikaner occurred in 1755-56 a. d. when Maharaja Gaj Singh was 
the ruler of the Slate. It is said that free distribution of food was 
organised by the State and employment was offered to iriany people in 
the construction of the city-wall. The next famine occurred during 
Maharaja Ratan Singh’s reign in 1834 followed by one in 1849 and 
again in 1860, but no details of the relief measures adopted are available 
■ in respect of these famines. 

Famine of 1868-692 

The district was severely hit again by a famine in 1868-69 
causing deep distress to the people. Scarcity conditions’ took- /'hold 
early in October 1868 when people began clamouring for food.- Some 
philanthropists took steps to relieve distress by free distribution.of 
cooked food as also by opening small relief •■centres.- The State had 
no plans to meet the situation except the establishment of,a free food 
distribution cehlcd (sada-brat) at the Capital • town^pf Bikaner. The 
other relief work started was digging of a small tank .giving. employ- 
ment to a few people for a short time. This too, ' had. to be closed.for 
want of funds. The State’s directive remitting transit duties on grains^ 
was disregarded and officials collected land revenue by imposing heavy 
fines and employing other coercive methods. This resulted in the 
perilous loss of more than one third of the population and bulk of 
livestock. The price of grain rose gradually to six seers a rupee, and 
even water became a scarce commodity. 

Famine of I89I-923 

The next visitation of famine was in 1891-92 which affected 
IS.S^lO.sq. miles in the north, where the Kharif crop had failed for 
the eighth year in succession. Because of the migratory habit of 
the people, relief measurcs'proraplly taken by the State, a good wheat 
crop in the spring of 1892 and other facilities afforded fay the railways, 

t. iirskitse. Major P.&jpatSiia Cazcitccr The Western Rijputina 

Sfiitfianrf Bikaner Aseney, 1909, p. 2154. 

2. ukJ., p. 354, 

3. ibtJ., p. 355, 



144 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


the impact of draught conditions on the lives of the people was not so> 
severe. Relief works, like small tanks, repairs to wells and earth work 
for the railway track were started in September 1891 and closed in 
August 1892, giving employment to 11,51,000 and gratuitous relief 
to 4,04,088 people. About half the cattle, however, perished as grass 
was hardly available, and at the beginning of 1892, it was selling at 
thirty five seers for a rupee. Three times the number of cattle in 
ordinary jears had migrated but the majority returned before the end 
of 1892. Prices of wheat, bajra and moth rose to eight or nine seers 
per rupee. Various relief measures together with the remission of land 
revenue accounted for an expenditure of more than Rs. 3.3 lakhs; 
besides advances to agriculturists and suspensions of land revenue 
amounted to Rs. 53,000. 

Famine of 1896-19711 

The year 1896 witnessed an extensive failure of the Kharif crop 
affecting more than three-fourth of the then Bikaner State, The relief 
works consisted mainly of digging of the Ghaggar Canal and the 
railway track giving employment to nearly 27.50,000 units* while about 
8,14,000 units* were relieved gratuitously. The expenditure incurred on 
these measures exceeded Rs. 3,5 lakhs and suspensions of land revenue 
and iakavi advances were also granted. Prices of foodgrains ranged 
from seven to nine seers per rupee. Fodder was very scarce, and it 
was estimated that one third of the cattle in the affected tracts in the 
south and cast and about one fifth elsewhere had perished. 

Famine of 1899-19002 

Another severe famine occurred in 1899-1900. Average rainfall 
for the then whole State of Bikaner in that year was 3i inches; 
Bikaner city leceiving 1.14 inches only. Crops failed miserably, but 
the timely help rendered by the then State authorities of Bikaner and 
well thought out relief measures personally supervised by the 
Maharaja, enabled the people to withstand the calamity boldly. 
Relief works and famine camps Were started in August 1899 and 
continued till October, 1900. Relief works weie so planned as not 
only to provide immediate relief to the famine stricken , but also to 
bring long range profits to the State. Of the 93,48,715 per.sons 
engaged on works, more than eighty per cent were actual workers. 

1. Erskinc, Major K. D., RSJpuiSna Cczetteer, Vol. HI-A, The fVestern Rajputana 
States and Bikaner Agency, 1909, p. 355. 

2. ibid., p. 355. 

• A unit would consist of labour of one man per day. 



Agriculture And Irrigation 


145 


Four poor houses were set up, two at Bikatier and one each at Churu 
and Rajgarh. The poor house at Bikaner v/as state controlled and 
the latter two were managed by local philanthropists. There was no 
system of gratuitous relief to people at theif own houses, but distressed 
parda-mshin women were fed at different camps and accommodated 
in huts specially erected for them. About twenty-two per cent of the 
population emigrated, and three-fourth of the cattle were said to have 
died. Total expenditure on relief was more than Rs. 8.5 lakhs, of which 
nearly half was subscribed by the leading Seths or Bankers who were 
reputed for their philanthropy. Land revenue suspensions amounted to 
Rs. 4.7 lakhs and Rs. 85,300 were advanced to agriculturists. Mention 
may here be made of the excellent services rendered by the Imperial 
Service Camel Corps^ which was then converted into a famine 
fighting unit. 

As a result of successive bad years after the big famine of 
1899-1900, the economic condition of people got a severe set-back 
necessitating considerable remissions in revenue arrears in 

1902-03. Further sizable remissions were announced in lean years 
of 1904-05, 1909-10,1911-12 and 1918-19, as also on such festive 
occasions as birth of the Heir-Apparent and His Highness’ Silver 
Jubilee. Total remissions thus amounted to Rs. 22,34,279 upto the 
end of the financial year 1935-36. Besides, many other substantial 
concessions were granted to the people to improve their economic 
condition, and bring more area under cultivation. These included 
abolition in interest on arrears of land revenue in Khalsa (State-owned 
as against Jagir) villages, payment of revenue in two half yearly 
instalments instead of one yearly instalment as it existed prior to 1913, 
facilities for taking more land on annual or four years’ lease, free 
grants for constructing and repairing kutcha and pucca wells, tanks 
and bunds (reservoirs for collecting and storing rain water) and 
advances free of interest for a fixed period for the cultivation of Rabi 
and other profitable crops. These concessions were offered in addition 
to normal taccavi loans, the grant of which was considerably liberalised 
to benefit the agriculturists. 

In 1915, owing to the failure of moosoon, Rs. two lakhs were 
given as interest free loans foronc year, in addition to free grants of 
Rs. one lakh for the purchase of camels and cattle to the cultivators 
at half price. A concession of half railway freight on grass and 



146 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


fodder imported for consumption in the State by the Bikaner Railway 
was further granted. 

State grain shops were opened at Bikaner in 1918-19 and 1921. 
In order to restrict undue rise in prices and prevent profiteering, a 
scheme of co-operative sale was introduced and a grain market was 
built at Bikaner. 

In 1920-21, earth work was started on the projected railway 
line between Hanumangarh and Talwara and grain compensation 
allowances were granted to the lower grades of State employees, 
Taccavi loans were given to the agriculturists liberally. 

In later years, regular budgetary provision was made for 
liberal /flccav/ advances, amounting to more than Rs, 30,000 between 
1930-31 and 1935-36. 

Famine of 1939-40 

Because of failure of rains during 1939-40, famine was declared 
from 20th August, 1939. The tahsil of Magra was partially affected, 
while the tahsils of Sadar, Surpura and Ltinkaransar were generally 
affected. 

To combat this calamity a Central Famine Oflricer was 
appointed and Famine Execution and General Committees were set up. 
This organisation set itself to the task of granting various relief 
measures. Thus usual steps like remission and suspension of land 
revenue were announced in affected areas, land was allotted in 
perennial and non-perennial irrigated areas in the colony for temporary 
cultivation, exempted from payment of land revenue and water and 
crop rates, to agriculturists coming from Baranl areas, with grant 
of taccavi loans for purchase of seeds and agricultural implements. 
Relief works were opened to provide employment. Free traval facilities 
were offered to labourers coming to the relief works and reduction 
was made in freigh rates on the movement of grass, fodder and cattle; 
Fodder Depots were opened at various places to supply fodder at 
cheap and fixed rates. The total expenditure incurred on relief works 
during the period amounted to Rs. 14,35,619. Besides, about Rs, four 
lakhs were distributed as taccavi to help the impoverished agriculturists 
in pursuing their vocation. Commendable efforts were also made by 
private institutions like gosbalas, and philanthropic individuals to 
maintain cattle at their expense during this period. During the 
famine, inspite of all the efforts made, about 29 per cent of the cattle 
arc reported to have perished. 



Agriculture and Irrigation 


147 


Famines during recent years 

The year 1963-64 witnessed ^an unprecedented famine in recent 
years. The rainfall was very scanty and sufficient water even 
for drinking purposes was not available, much less for cultivation of 
food or fodder. Whole of the district consisting of 680 villages was 
declared famine stricken by the Slate Government and the Government 
machinery of the district was geared up to meet the situation. Relief 
works were started to mitigate the distress. Arrangements were made 
for the import of fodder from Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya 
Pradesh, Bengal and Madras, besides from places within the State, 
and its distribution at subsidised rates through 67 fodder depots 
scattered in the whole of the district. The paucity of driking water 
was met by giving subsidy for deepening vveJJs in 208 viJJages; and 
where there were no wells, drinking water was transported by railway 
tanks and camels. In some villages, electric or diesel motors were 
provided for drawing water from wells. As many as 863 disabled 
and old persons were given subsidy at Rs. 1 5 each per month during 
the famine period. Cattle camps were also organised where assistance 
at Rs, 10 per cattle was given for their maintenance. Public 
co-operation was also sought in running such camps and fO per cent 
of the total expenditure was met by the Government. Migration of 
cattle, however, was then inevitable and about 20,000 livestock were 
transported to Suratgarh Mechanised Farm in Ganganagar district, 
where grazing facilities were provided free of cost. To help the 
distressed, village relief works were started within five miles of each 
village and arrangements for shcltcr, drinking water, medical facility 
etc,, were made so that the workers could engage themselves in relief 
works without difficulty. At one time, the number of persons 
engaged in such relief works was as high as 38,000 daily but the 
number was reduced on the advent of rains in July. Clothes and 
biscuits were distributed in the camps by the Red Cross Society. The 
Government distributed woollen blankets to the poor and disabled. 
Persons, who could not work in relief works, were distributed Charkhas 
at subsidised rates by Khadi Organisations and supply of cotton and 
wool also arranged. Toccavi loans were advanced by the Government 
to the tune of Rs. 25 lakhs in 1963-64 {Samrat year 2020) at easier 
terms. In all about Rs. one crore were spent on relief measures 
during this year, 

1965-66 {Samvat 2022) was again a year of famine, though less 
se\’£rc as compared to the famine of 1963-64. Rains were not only 



148 


Raiasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


meagre but their distribution too was uneven. Accordingly the 
following test works were started on 14.10.1965 : 

1. From Khara to Hamera via Husangsar, Gersar, Bambloo, 
Ranisar and Sharera. 

2. From Bikaner to Earasalpur via Jhajha, Pawarwala, 
Mankarasar, Gokal and Cbila Kashmiri. 

3. From Palana to Kesardesar via Gigasar. 

4. From Diatra to Nokhra via Gadiala. 

5. From Dhirera to Hindaun via Khiryera, Ladera, Khokhrana, 
Kabhana-Jagor and Hathoosar. 

6. From LtJnkaransar to Shekhsar via Nathwana. 

7. From Dalalsar to Jiinglu via Udasar, Kudsu. 

On 22.12.1965, 554 or about 82 percent of the total number 
of villages of the district were declared famine stricken as the crops 
there had failed to the extent of fifty percent or above. The test 
works started in October were included in the famine relief operations 
and more works were taken up to give relief to the sufferers. By the 
end of March 1966, as many as 24 works had been started and 
in April 1966, 22 more works were taken in hand for construction of 
village roads. The result was that 180 miles of gravelled roads had 
been constructed by the end of March 1966. A sum of Rs. 48,50,000 
was spent from 1.4.1966 to 12.8.1966 on roads. 

Other relief measures taken in hand consisted of running of 
18 fodder depots, 52 cheap ration shops and 5 cattle camps, giving* 
subsidy for 129 wells, transportation of drinking water by 128 railway 
tanks to various areas affected by scarcity of water, distribution of 
nearly 105 tonnes of wheat, assistance for bulls and buffaloes of the 
Panchayat Samilis at Rs. 30 each, and distribution of powder milk to 
1,19,683 villagers. In all, a sum of Rs. 9,37,325 was spent from 
October 1965 to March 1966 by the State Government on relief 
measures. Inspite of such a severe famine, no starvation deaths 
were reported because of well organised steps taken by the authorities 
well in time. 



Apriculture and Irrigation 


3149 


Appendix I 
Wells in use and disuse^ 


Year 

Tahsil 



WELLS 





In use 


Out of use Total 

Tube 

wells 

Old 

pucca 

wells 

New wells 
brought 
in use 

Total 


wens 

1960-61 

1. Bikaner 

— 

195 

6 

201 

6 

207 


2. Lonkaransar 

- 

160 

2 

162 

12 

174 


3. Naukha 

6 

205 

9 

220 

2 

222 


4. Koluyat 

- 

187 

7 

194 

4 

198 


5. Total 

6 

747 

24 

777 

24 

801 

1961-62 

1. Bikaner 

4 

180 

12 

196 

6 

202 


2. Lonkaransar 

1 

181 

2 

184 

21 

205 


3. Naukha 

9 

195 

9 

213 

3 

216 


4. Kolayat 

- 

187 

7 

194 

4 

198 


5. Total 

14 

743 

30 

787 

34 

821 

1962-63 

1. Bikaner 

4 

204 

9 

217 

11 

228 


2. Lnnkaransar 

3 

173 

3 

179 

24 

203 


3. Naukha 

8 

193 

8 

209 

3 

212 


4. Kolayat 

1 

131 

8 

140 

3 

143 


5. Total 

16 

701 

28 

745 

41 

786 

1963-64 

1, Bikaner 

4 

410 

- 

414 

66 

480 


2. Lnnkaransar 

1 

175 

- 

176 

37 

213 


3. Naukha 

12 

296 

12 

320 

6 

326 


4. Kolayat 

1 

130 

11 

142 

9 

151 


5. Total 

18 

1,011 

23 

1,052 

118 

1,170 

1964-65 

1. Bikaner 

16 

410 

- 

426 

66 

492 


2. Lnnkaransar 

1 

175 

- 

176 

37 

213 


3. Naukha 

12 

308 

- 

320 

6 

326 


4. Kolayat 

1 

141 

3 

145 

9 

154 


5. Total 

30 

1,034 

3 

1,067 

118 

1,185 

1965-66 

1. Bikaner 

16 

410 

5 

431 

67 

498 


2. Lnnkaransar 

1 

175 


176 

37 

.213 


3. Naukha 

- 

— 

* 





4. Kolayat 

3 

379 

4 

386 

2 

388 



5, Total 

20 

964 

9 

993 

106 

1,099 


I . Soarce : Board of of Revenue (Land Records), Risjaslban, Ajmer, 


150 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


Appendix II 

Area' and Production of Principal Cropsi 


Year 

Bajra 

Jowar ' 

Wheat Barley 

Kharif Sesamum 
Pulses 

Rape 

& 

Mustard 

Cotton 

1956-57 

1,30,130 

Area under Crops (Hectares) 
1 ,508 164 - 2,11,690 

7,852 

51 

1 

1957-58 

1,32,908 

551 

16 

- 

1,66,302 

6,803 

10 

- 

1958-59 

1,29,956 

226 

- 

19 

1,56,358 

9,317 

1,542 

- 

1959-60 

1,71,060 

711 

312 

7 

1,90,996 

12,120 

80 

- 

1960-61 

1,86,812 

633 

49 

- 

1,87,653 

14,164 

- 

- 

1961-62 

1,96,890 

1,108 

39 

- 

2,02,563 

26,116 

- 

2 

1962-63 

1,98,297 

1,088 

51 

2 

2,05,430 

12,701 

9 

_ 

1963-64 

1,85,423 

418 

218 

10 

1,99,195 

10,428 

1 

2 

1964-65 

2,18,576 

883 

215 

4 

2,42,954 

19,912 

6 

- 

1965-66 

2,26,305 

859 

120 

1 

2,51,593 21,307 

4 

- 

1956-57 

6,695 

Production of Crops (Tonnes) 

367 199 ' - 26,206 754 

5 

2 

1957-58 

20,182 

169 

11 

- 

12,777 

827 

3 

- 

1958-59 

16,591 

73 

- 

14 

23,204 

940 

415 

— 

1959-60 

29,910 

217 

217 

3 

31,518 

354 

21 


1960-61 

10,888 

180 

59 

- 

28,816 

1,430 



1961-62 

16,331 

286 

29 

- 

36,742 

615 

— 

1 

1962-63 

29,113 

175 

44 

- 

, 37,796 

3,359 

4 


1963-64 

831 

44 

101 

1 

11,013 

82 

- 

1 

1964-65 

34,052 

121 

165 

. 3 

52,299 

1,361 

2 


1965-66 

10,146 

’ 14 

79 

- 

19,267 

382 

1 

- 


1 . Statistical Abstract, Rajasthan, yearly volumes for various years. 


Agriculture and Irrigation 


151 


Appendix III 

Physical Achievements - Agriculture Sector^ 


(Provisional) 


Items 

Units 

1964-65 

Years 

1965-66 

1 , Reclamation of land 

Acres 

8,498 

40,486 


Hectares 

3,439 

16,384 

2. Distribution of Ammonium 

Sulphate 

Qtl. 

2.65 

6.63 

3. Compost pits dug and filled 

Nos. 

1,401 

2,236 

4. Compost prepared & used 

Tons 

4,357 

7,544 

Tonnes 

4,427 

7,665 

5. Seeds distributed; 

( i ) Bajra 

Mds. 

1,033 

461 

Kg. 

38,556 

17,206 

(ii ) Moth 

Mds. 

200 

200 

Kg, 

7,465 

7,465 

(iii) Wheat 

Mds. 

750 

60 

Kgs. 

27,993 

2,239 

(iv) Vegetables 

Lbs. 

0.50 

13.75 

Kg. 

0.23 

6.2 

6. Improved Ploughs Distributed 

Nos. 

24 

166 

7. Rat control 

Acres 

33,874 

54,748 


Hectares 

13,708 

22,156 

8. Disinfection of seed stores 

No. of times 711 

354 

9. Seed treatment 

Mds. 

16,082 

7,496 


Kg. 

6,00,250 

2,79,782 

10. Shady plants distributed 

Nos. 

2,538 

. 2,479 

11. Fruit plants distributed 

Nos. 

1,419 

90 

12. Der trees budded 

Nos. 

46 

123 

13. Med Bundi 

Acres 

1,325 

685 


Hectares 

536 

277 

14. Kam Bundi 

Acres 

25,571 . 

77,526 


Hectares 

10,348 

31,374 

1 5. Bar Btmdi 

Acres 

19,085 

16,109 


Hectares 

7,723 

6,522 

16. Stable Mulching 

Acres 

16,730 

6,785 


Hectares 

6,770 

2,746 


1. Source : Agricultur: Dcpartroent, RSjastban, Jaipur. 


152 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


Appendix IV 
Livestock 


Type of Animals 

1961 

1966 

A. Cattle 

289043 

355704 

( i ) Males over three years 

29661 

33482 

1. Breeding 

1794 

1659 

2. Working 

26895 

31229 

3. Others 

972 

594 

(ii ) Females over three years 

149148 

182580 

1. In milk 

60687 

lOOlOI 

2. Dry 

66926 

82246 

3. Others 

21535 

233 

(iii) Young stock three years and under 

110234 

139642 

Males 

51195 


Females 

59039 

- 

B. Buffaloes 

38512 ' 

44743 

( i ) Males over 3 years 

1220 

1187 

1. Breeding 

152 

149 

2. Working 

862 

991 

3. Others 

206 

47 

(ii ) Females over 3 years 

22338 

25595 

1. In Milk 

8911 

1353! 

2. Dry 

9216 

11992 

3. Others 

4211 

72 

(iii) Young stock 3 years and under 

14954 

17961 

Males 

4883 

___ 

Females 

10071 

. •- 

Total Cattle and BulTalocs 

327555 

( 

400447 

Sheep 

430232 

533517 

( i ) one year and above 

359261 

440608 

(ii ) Below one year 

70971 

92909 


Agriculture and Irrigation 


15 ^ 

> t 



Type of Animals 

196t 

1966 

i 

_3, 

Goats 

1Q36M . 

132964. 


( i ) one year and above 

76369 

91163 


(ii ) Below one year 

27295 

41801 

4. 

’ " . i 

Horses and Ponies 

552 

437 

s:' 

"Mules 

6 

- 

6. 

7. 

Donkeys 

3308 

4050 

Camels 

38360 

47184 

-iS. 

Pigs • 

63 • 

U 


' Total Livestock 

903740 

1118660 

■'9. 

Pouitr^' 

2142 ' 

12357 


( i ) Fowls 

2111 

12338 

- 

(ii) Ducks 

■23 

19 


(iii) Others 

8 



Source : Statistical' Abstract , RSfastlrUn, 1967 and Report on the Livestock Census, 
1961, the Board of Revenue, Rajasthan, Ajmer. 




154 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


Appen 


Cattlei 


Name of the fair 

Location 

Managed by 

Dates 

on which 

held 

Distance 

from the 

Rly. Station 

1. Mahajan Cattle 
fair 

Mahajan 

Distt, Board 

27.9.58 to 

2.10.58 

2 miles 
or 3 km. 

2. Kolayat 

Cattle fair 

Kolayat 

T> 

»9 

25.11.58 to 

30.11.58 

J mile or 
0.8 km. 

3. Naukha Cattle 
fair 

Naukha 

99 

99 

15.10.58 to 

20.10.58 

1 mile or 
1.6 km. 

4. Naukha Cattle 
fair 

Naukha 

99 

99 

2.2.59 to 

8.2.59 

1 mile or 
1.6 km. 

5. Kolayat Cattle 
fair 

Kolayat 

99 

99 

25.1.59 to 

30.1.59 

1 mile or 
0.8 km. 

6. Mahajan Cattle 
fair 

Mahajan 

99 

99 

19.2.59 to 

25.2.59 

2 miles or 

3 km. 


1. A Guide to Rajasthan Cattle Fairs, 1958-59, Department of Animal Husbandry, 
RSjastban. 




Agriculture and Irrigation 


155 


DIX V 
Fairs 


Principal 



Number of 

the 

animals brought 

and 

sold 



species 

Cattle 

Buffaloes 

Horses 

Camels 

Donkeys 

Sheep 


B 

s 

B 

S 

B 

S 

B S 

B 

S 

B 

s 

Rathi 

1,300 

563 

200 

- 

10 

- 

300 - 

- 

- 

40 

- 

Rathi & 

Nagauri 

1,175 

134 

50 

1 

4 

2 

2000 133 

5 

2 

- 

- 

Nagauri & 
Bikancri 935 

396 

100 

— 

— 


200 - 



100 


Rathi & 
Nagauri 

1,070 

268 

25 


5 


100 1 




• 

B:kancri 

Camels 

1,0 5 

417 

25 

_ 

5 

2 

100 15 

- 

- 

_ 

- 

Rathi 

1,275 

138 

50 


— 


100 7 

— 


— 

— 


Note ; B denotes brought 
S denotes sold. 




CHAPTER V 


INDUSTRIES 

OLD TIME INDUSTRIES 

Being almost entirely a desert area with negligible forest giowtli 
and little water resources, and the only agricultural produce being 
Bajra and Moth, Bikaner district could not boast of much industrial 
activity and has been, for these natural drawbacks, industrially 
backward, so far as agriculture-based industries are concerned. The 
district has, however, been famous for the production of wool; but 
even for its processing there were no industries in the past, except one 
unit which was working under the trade-name of M/s Bikaner Woollen 
Press, in the Capital city. Captain P. W. Powletti has described the 
industrial activity in his days thus : “The principal manufactures 
are those of blankets and sweetmeats: the latter of course from 
imported sugar, which is worked up into a great variety of sweetmeais 
so superior to any produced elsewhere that large quantities are 
exported". According to Major K.D. Erskine,2 Bikaner had been 
famous for the manufacture of woollen fabrics (Lois or woollen shawls), 
carpets, ivory bracelets, pottery, lacquer-ware, leathern water bags and 
sweetmeats. The ivory bracelets were often tinted with gold or silver 
while the pottery consisted chiefly of household utensils made of red 
clay or marl. Work in lac was confined to small articles like toys, 
bangles, stools and legs of beds White sugar candy had been a 
famous product of Bikaner which was made of imported sugar and 
rainwater. The other industries consisted of weaving of coarse cotton 
cloth, rugs, durries, grain bags of goat hair and the manufactures of 
camel saddlery. 

' The old industries thus mainly consisted of small units 
producing handloom articles like durries, woollen blankets known as 
Burdies and Lois, handicrafts like carved building stones, wood, 
lacquer-wares and block printing etc. The artisans were mainly 
concentrated in Bikaner city, except the weavers of blankets, who were 
spread throughout the district though Napasar has been famous for 
the skill of its weavers. 

1. Powlctt, C.iptain P.W., Gazetteer of B'tkaner State, 1874, p. 98. 

2. Erskinc, Major K.D., Bajputana Gazetteers, yol, Ill-A, The Kujputdna Stoles and 

the Btkencr Agency, 1909, p. 351. 



Industries 


157 


Col. J. Todi has stated, “The Bikaneris work well in iron, 
and have shops at the capital and all the large towns for the manu- 
facture of sword blades, match-locks, daggers, iron lances, etc. The 
sword-handles, which are often inlaid with variegated steel or burnished, 
are in high request and exported to various parts of India. They have 
also expert artists in ivory,' though the articles are chiefly such as are worn 
by females, as C/<»m, or bracelets. Coarse cotton cloth, for internal 
consumption was woven in considerable quantities on handlooms.’’ 

Bales of raw wool were sent out of the district mainly to big 
industrial towns like Bombay, Karachi and Ahmedabad for further 
processing and making it suitable for knitting and weaving purposes. 
The economic condition of the sheep breeders was far from 
'satisfactoTj'; The wool based industries, however, have got a fillip 
consequent on the encouragement of industries given by the Government 
during recent years. 


POWER 

Power is the pre-requisife for the development of all industries. 
The first electrie light was switched on in Bikaner as early as 1886. 
In 1902, a P6wer House on modern lines was erected near the City 
Railway Station for the purpose of supplying electric power to the 
various State buildings and other State institutions. The demand, 
however, quickly outgrew the capacity of the plant installed, and a 
new Power House was built in a more central and suitable locality 
in 1906. Afthat time, it was one of the most up-to-date plants in 
India, and one of the first to introduce the new universal system 
of light tension alternating current. Since then, the plant has been 
extended from time to time, to cope with the ever increasing dernand 
for electric current. It is interesting to note that the whole power 
msed to be generated from lignite fuel mined at Palana. During the 
years^ 1939-^0, 1940-41 and 1941-42 the number of connections was 
4,465, 4,579 and 4,842 and the electricity generated was 1,03,47,644, 
1,06,82,130 and 1,20,95,328 units respectively. 

.Prior to the supply of power from Bhfikhra Nangal Grid 
in 1962, availability of power in the district was limited to Bikaner 
city and the adjoining suburbs, as it was generated only from a 

1. J. Tod, Lkut. Co!. J., Armak cn! AntiquUks of HijasthSJi Vo!, 11, 1’.ombay, 1929, 

P. ns, 

7, AdtnhustraiwTi Report of the Dikansr Stale, 1939-40 to I94 j- 42, p. 95. 



158 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


combined steam and diesel power house located at Bikaner. The 
installed capaicity of this Power House was 8,500 K.w. by steam and 
1,108 K.w. by diesel during the year 1965-66. At present it is being 
partly utilised. 

The main source of electricity now in the district is Bhakhra 
Hydel Power. This was partly brought in the district first in 1959 
and fully in May 1962. The existing transformer capacity at 
Bikaner Grid sub-station is 2 x 4,000 k.v.a. As more .and more 
power became available from the Bhakhra Grid, generation from the 
local steam and diesel power houses has been progressively declining. 
Thus in 1961-62 as against 10 million k.w. of power generated 
locally, Bhakhra Grid supplied only 4.8 million K.w. In 1965-66, 
however, local generation fell to a bare 0.536 million K.w. against 
17.80 million k.w. obtained from Bhakhra. 

The total number of connections as on 31st March, 1967, in 
Bikaner district, stood as follows : 


1. 

Agricultural 

10 

2, 

Industrial 

355 

3. 

Domestic 

16,805 

4. 

Water Works 

95 

5. 

Street-lighting 

36 

6. 

Others 

38 

7. 

Commercial 

2,260 

There 

is one 66 k. v. Grid sub-station 

having transformers 


of 2x4 mva-66/1 1 K. V. to bring and regulate the supply of hydro- 
electricity in the district. The Thermal Station is at present kept as 
a stand-by to feed part of Bikaner city in the case of failure of 
Bhakhra supply. Its generating capacity is 2,000 K.w. 

Rural Electrification 

Rural electrification started in the district in the year 1961, 
The total power supplied for the purpose is about 700 K.w. 
The number of towns and villages electrified in the district as on 
31st March. 1966 was 47; the names of these are given in the 
Appnedix I 



Industries 


159 


MINERALS 

Bikaner is fairly rich in mineral wealth. The important 
minerals available in the district are as follows : 

Non-nietallic 

Gypsum— The gypsum deposits of Bikaner are well known and 
cater to the requirements of cement and fertiliser industries in the 
country. From times immemorial, it has also been used for plastering 
buildings. The important gypsum occurrences in Bikaner district 
are at Jamsar, Dbirera, Dulmera and Lankaransar; some of these are 
discussed below ; 

Jamsar — The gypsum deposit at Jamsar is one of the biggest 
and the best deposits of gypsum in India. It is located near village 
Jamsar. A railway station of the same name is situated within the 
area covered by the deposit, which extends to about 5*6 kilometres in 
the east-west and about 1 -6 km. in the north-south directions. The 
mineral which is of very good quality occurs in almost horizontal 
beds of varying degrees purity and thickness, intercalated with slightly 
unconsolidated clay and sand beds. This deposit is held at present 
under a mining lease by m/s Bikaner Gypsum Ltd., a Public Limited 
Company, in which Government of Rajasthan is also a partner. 
The mines are fully mechanised and the mining is carried out by open 
cast method. On an average, the deposit is estimated to contain 
reserves of 30 million tons of good quality gypsum, 

Dhirera— The deposit is about 1,000 ft. down south of Dhlrera 
Railway Station on the Bikancr-Bhatinda line of the Northern 
Railway. The area is under a mining lease to m/s Bikaner Gypsum 
Limited. The estimated reserve is about 1‘33 million tons. 

The deposits of gypsum also occur at the following places : 

Jaima!sar-~The approximate reserve of gypsum is about 2'15 
lakh tons. 

Kanvni — The approximate reserve here is about 6'6 lakh tons. 

Bharu— The estimated reserve is nearly 5'S3 lakh tons. 

i\fakrasar— The estimated reserve is approximately 5 laldi tons. 



160 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Dholera—This deposit has a reserve of approximately 5 lakh 

tons. 


A crystalline variety of gypsum i.e. Salenite occurs at Lankaran- 
sar which is a railway station of the Northern Railway (Blkaner- 
Bhatinda line). These nearly 3 ft. thick deposits extend over about 
2'6 sq, km. The salenite bearing earth contains 60 per cent of salenite. 
The area is under a mining lease to M/s Bikaner Gypsum Ltd. 

Bitlmok — The deposit is situated near the place of the same name. 

Macl/iogar/i — It has reserves of gypsum estimated at 15,000 

tons. 


Gypsum is mainly consumed by the fertiliser factory at Sindri, 
for the manufacture of artificial manure, and by the cement factories 
of the country. Besides, Gypsum is also used by the textile industry 
and the pottery factories of the country. A small quantity is also 
used by the local consumers of Bikaner for the manufacture of wall 
plaster. 

White clay — The deposits of white clay mainly lie to the 
north-west of village Marh. The nearest Railway Station is 
Kolayat. A number of mining leases for white clay (fire clay) have 
been granted to various 'private parties. The mines are located at 
Marh, Kotri, Indfika-Bala and Chandi. The clay of the area is 
greyish white to white in colour, soft and soapy to touch. It is not 
gritty and possesses good plasticity. The mineral is worked by manual 
labour and by open cast method. 

The chief uses of white clay lie in the manufacture of pottery, 
porcelain and fire bricks. It is also used in the paper, textile, rubber 
and paints industries. 

Fullers’ earth — Fullers’ Earth is a variety of clay that has high 
capacity for absorbing basic colours and can remove these colours 
from their solutions in animal, vegetable and mineral oils, as well as 
some other liquids, especially water. The local name of the mineral is 
Muitani Mini. It is found in the vast 'area near village Marh of 
tahsii Kolayat, and in Palana, where it occurs at a depth of about 70 ft. 
The dcposii near Marh has been given under a mining lease to a private 
party and ihc mineral is mined by open cast method. 



Industries 


161 


The mineral is used for refining of mineral and vegetable oils 
and also by the textile industry. It is also used as a substitute for soap 
in the rural areas of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. 


Yellow ochre — Yellow ochre is found near Joglra tank beyond 
Marh village of tahsil Kolayat and near Bikaner in Kismidesar 
area. The deposits are under mining lease to private parties. The 
mines are worked by open cast method through manual labour only. 

This mineral is used for the manufacture of distempers and colours 
and is consumed locally. 

Glass Sand— Glass sand of good quality, is found in village 
Marh. The occurrence of glass sand is along the bank of nullah for 
nearly 0*8 km. and reserves are roughly estimated at 14 million tons. 
, The area has been given under a mining lease to a private party. The 
mines are worked by open cast method, employing manual labour 
only. The sand is used for the manufacture of sheet glass, bottles and 
containers. 

Fuel 


Lignite (Brown Coal) — The only known deposit of coal 
(Lignite) in Rajasthan exists near Palana in Bikaner district and is being 
worked by the Department of Mines and Geology, Rajasthan. The 
average annual production is about 30,000 tons. The coal or Lignite 
of a dark brown colour was discoverd in 1896 while sinking a well 
at Palana, south of the city of Bikaner. On an analysis made in the 
Geological Survey Laboratory, following results were obtained : 
Moisture 8*20 per cent. Volatile matter 42'72 per cent, Ash 9.80 per 
cent, thus indicating a fuel that would burn rapidly on account of 
large amount of volatile matter, but would be somewhat deficient in 
thermal power. Operations were started in 1898 and the Colliery 
was connected by a rail link in 1899. The seam is 20 feet thick, 250 
ft. below the surface and 50 feet above the water level. More than 
two million tons of coal arc estimated to exist and the deposit has 
shown signs of exhaustion only in one direction. The extraction has 
grown steadily year by year. The following table indicates the annual 
out put : 



162 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Rlkaner 


Year 

out -put" in tons • - 

1898 

' 511 

1899 

4,249 

1900 

9,250 

1901 

12,094 

1902 

16;503 

1903 

21,764 

1904 

45,078 

1905 

42,964 

1906 

3;2,372 

1907 

28,062 

1923-24 

21,000 

1924-25 

26,472 

I93?-40 

39', 723 

1940-41 

'42,837 

194l-f2 

47,0^6 

1944-45 

'43.069 

1945-46 

'■1R','291 

1946-47 

61;1'26' 


During 1907, the Colliery gave employment to abouthfiSO 
(labourers fliainly Jats, Gharnmars.Xor Dheds) and Thoris, and the 
daily wages ranged between six'and seven anna's olr 'SV and ’4^-paise. 


The ■ mineral is, however, of • inferior . quality disintegrating 
'rapidly and becoming very friable when exposed to, the atmosphere. 
It is consequently not Well fitted for use in locomotives, as the .sm'all 
fragments-and diist are liable to choke;- the boiler tubes. So far; the 
chief use of Lignite has been as a fuel in. Power ,-lHouses and kilns. . It 
is also suitable for any 'stationary boiler 'and most serviceable as a 
pulverised fuel. 


Building Materials 

• Sand Stone — The sand stone quarries are situate^.in Dnlmera 
•which is a Railway Station on Bikancr-Bhatinda line, ,, The quarries 
are situated just- near nhe' Railway Station, The ..existing ^-quarries 
cover an area of about . 12 lakh sqr ft. The '"colour , istfinc red-brown 
and the stone is of -good quality. . It is used for building purposes. 
The entire sand stone for Bikaner city buildings is said to have been 
obtained from these quarries. 



Industries 


163 


The quarrying is done by manual labour only and the methods 
employed are still primitive. Besides being consumed locally, the stone 
is sent to Bhatinda and other places in Punjab. It used to be sent to 
Bahuwalpur also before partition. 

Lime Stone— The deposits of lime stone occur near village Dawa 
Silva of tahsil Naukha. They are exposed at four hillocks making a 
continuous belt extending over 6'4 km., near village Dawa Silva 
(Bandra). The quality of the lime stone is highly dolomite. 

Bajri or Grit — This is quite an important building material 
which is elastic rock consisting of medium sized grains of silica and 
may be described as grit. The chief development of this grit is at 
Gangashahr, ‘Gharisar and Sheo-Ba'ri. Almost due south of the city 
of Bikaner, there is- a vast area of Bajri Kankar, from the west of 
Pancha Mukha Hanuman temple upto Gangashahr Gbati. The 
quality of Bajri'is quite good and the deposit is considerably large. 

'Kankar — A-good deposit of Kankar is found atDarbariNal 
hnd’Gh'arisar. Kankar is ‘used locally -for.. iim’e.’buming ; as well 
as' for ballast. 


Metallic Minerals 

CoPPER-r-The only metalliy Mnuciai luuuu »u 
Todt mentioned about the existence of 'two mines,, one at Biramsar 
and another at Bldasar (both ihr'the; south of Bikaner) and'wrotc 
that the former did not repay the expense of working, while the latter 
having been worked for nearly thirty years, was alihost exhausted. 
-According to the local chronicles the mine at Bidasar was discovered 
•in 1753 and was never- a paying concern owing to the absence of proper 
appliances for keeping down the water. 

LARGE SCALE INDUSTRIES 

•Glass sand found in village Marh is of a very good quality and 
most useful' 'for manufacture of glass- ware. There had been only one 
large scale factory in' the district for the- manufacture of glass, articles 
which was first started at Bikaner in 1930-but closed-down in 1931-32. 
It was revived in July 1945 and started manufacturing glass with a 
capital investment of Rs. 8 lakhs providing employment to'800 persons. 

Tod. licut-Cot. James. Antxsh and AntuT-fifics of lUJassh-An, Vol. IF, p. 1154, 



164 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


The production of this unit was worth Rs. 4,000 per day. The unit 
worked only for a couple of years and was closed down.l 

SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES 


Pottery 

Attracted by the deposits of china clay in Kolayat one unit for 
the manufacture of pottery and electrical insulators has recently come 
up at Bikaner. It started its production in 1967-68, The total capital 
outlay is about Rs. 6 lakhs and it employs about 70 workers. 

Steel Processing 

The following are the important steel processing factories 
working in the district. 

1. Mundhra Metal Works — This is situated in the old 
Industrial Area. The important products are hole carvings, tanks, 
trolleys and cast brass articles. These products find market throughout 
Rajasthan. The production per annum varies from Rs. 1 lakh to Rs. 1.5 
lakh worth of goods. The factory has acquired its own building in the 
Industrial Area. It employs 15 to 20 workers per day and the capital 
investment is about Rs. 2 lakhs. 

2. M/s Ahmud Box Jehordeen — They manufacture steel 
furniture, conduit pipes, almirahs and articles like trusses etc. The unit 
is equipped with a lathe, a welding set and a power drill, pipe drawing 
line and hard tools, and is run by power. 

3. Bharat Metal Iron Works — It is a re-rolling mill which 
manufactures round bars and flat iron. The unit has got furnaces and 
ten sets of rollers. The capital invested is about Rs. one lakh, besides 
another Rs. one lakh of working capital. Electric power of 100 h.p. 
is used. 

t. A new chanter in industrial development of Bikaner was begun when the 
Minister for State Enterpiscs, Rajastha'n inaugurated a Woollen Mill in Public 
Sector on 11.4.1968. This unit comprises of 1200 spindles and carries a capital 
investment of Rs. 61.5 lakhs. It is expected that, running in two shifts, the 
mill will manufacture about 50,000 kg- of woollen yam for hosiery and carpets 
every, year, which is likely to bring in a revenue of Rs. 75 lakhs including 
foreign exchange. The net income is expected to be about Rs. 5 lakhs per 
.annum. 



Industries 


165 


Besides, there are a number of units which manufacture steel 
furniture and cabinets. The total employment offered by all the above 
units vary from 400 to 500 persons per day and their daily production 
is worth Rs. 20,000 to Rs. 25,000. 

Wool Based Industries 

Bikaneri wool has been rated very high for manufacture of 
carpets. There were 42 wool baling, pressing and wool cleaning units 
in Bikaner district registered, till 3Ist December, 1966, under the 
Factories Act, and employing 1671 workers. Besides, there was a 
Government Wool Production Centre at Bikaner, engaged in wool 
carding, spinning and finishing. Three woollen mills were also registered 
in the district. 

For the last few years, due to improvement in the standard of 
living of the middle class people in the country, use of carpets has 
come into fashion and consequently, Bikaneri wool has gained 
considerable ground in the Indian markets. 

The following small scale weaving and spinning units working at 
Bikaner deserve particular mention: 

1. Rajasthan Khadi Gram-Udyog Board Ooni Finishing 
Plant. 

2. The Advance Woollen Mills (Pv.) Ltd., Industrial Area. 

3. Bikaner Woollen Mills, Industrial Area. 

d. Rajasthan Hoisery Mills, Gajner Road. 

5. Rajasthan Woollen Mills, Jasarasar Gate. 

6. The Challani Woollen Mills. 

7. The Modern Woollen Mills. 

8. Paras Hoisery Works. 

Besides, there arc a number of cottage units which employ 
mostly women labour for cleaning the raw wool. The wages of the 
labour engaged in these units vary from Rs. 1.25 to Rs. 1.50 per day as 
against Rs, 3 to Rs. 5 paid in other units. 

Mineral based Industries 

There are sis plaster of Paris manufacturing units, out of which 
three arc located in the Industrial Estate at Bikaner and the remaining 
ones in the City. Tire plaster of Paris rnanufaclurcd by them is pf 



166 


RajasthSo District gazetteers— Bikaner 


building grade and finds ready market in Bombay, Ahmcdabad, Delhi 
and Calcutta, in addition to the local markets within the State, One 
unit viz. Satya Raj & Co. has been striving to manufacture surgical 
plaster also. The yellow and red ochre is manufactured by two units. 
Only four units have installed pulverisers and are equipped with suitable 
furnaces. The other units are working with disintigrators, grinders an 
smaller furnaces. The capital investment of each of these units varies 
from Rs. 20,000 to Rs. 40,000. As regards the raw materials, Gypsum 
is obtained from Jamsar and Ochre from Kolayat tahsil. 

There are five tiles manufacturing units, three at Bikaner and 
one each at Napasar and Naukha. Tiles are used for flooring purposes 
Tjoth coloured and decorative. The capital investment of these units 
varies from Rs. 50,000 to Rs. 1,00,000 and production from 20 to 50 
■tonnes per month. About 60 persons find employment in these units 
and the wages paid vary from Rs. 2 to Rs. 5 per day. 

Printing Presses 

There were 22 registered Printing Presses in the district at the 
end of December 1966. One of these was the Government Press at 
Bikaner, which is equipped with 15 printing machines out of which 4 
are automatic. About 75 persons are employed in this press. In other 
presses the employment potential is less than 10 persons and wages paid 
range from Rs. 3 to Rs. 5 per day. 

Cold Storage and Icc Factories 

There is one Cold Storage unit at Bikaner with a capacity of 
650 tons. The items stored arc mostly potatoes, and some other 
vegetables and fruits. There are two ice factories in the city, besides a 
number of ice candy factories, which prepare good type of ice candies, 
with the abundant quantity of milk available in Bikaner. 

Chemical Industries 

1. Plastic & Celluloid Industries — There are five plastic 
articles manufacturing units in Bikaner city, out of which three 
manufacture bangles and the remaining two Polythene bags, auto- 
mobile tapes and other sundry articles. These articles find market 
throughout the country. . The labour employed varies from 8 to 15 
persons, and the wages paid from Rs. 2 to Rs. 5 per head per day. 

2. Hair Oil, Ink, Washing Soap, AcARnATTi, Candle, Pan 
Masalla, Tobacco and Sweet Supari Making Units — These units 
puqiber 20 and work as cottage industries using no power. Hired 



{ndustrics 



labour is employed and the raw material is obtained from outside 
Rajasthan, and in some cases imported even from abroad. Both female 
and male labour is employed on daily and piece wage basis. 

3. Guar Gum Manufacturing Unit— There is only one Guar 
Gum manufacturing factory viz. m/s Satya Raj & Co., Bikaner. It is 
equipped with grinding machines, boilers, driers etc. and is electrically 
operated. It manufactures and supplies both Guar splits and finished 
gum to the textile factories in the countiy. The unit is trying to export 
the finished gum outside the country. 

4. Ayurvedic Pharamacies — There are seven Ayurvedic 
pharmacies working in the district; Mohatta Rasayan Shala, Bikaner, 
is the largest of all these. This factory is equipped with grinders and 
furnaces and is electrically operated. It gives employment to 33 
persons per day. 

5. Distilled Water and Battery Acid Units— T here are two 
units for the manufacture of Distilled water which is used in the 
automobile batteries. These are not mechanically operated except 
for bottling. 

Electronic Industries 

1. There are two radio manufacturing units in Bikaner out of 
which one is situated in the Industrial Estate at Bikaner, and manu- 
factures radio cabinets and complete sets of transistors and radios. 
The average production per month is about 100 sets, and is marketed 
mostly outside Rajasthan, in South India and Saurashtra. The factory 
also manufactures some radio parts like coils and transformers which 
arc sold to other units. The unit employs 10 to 15 persons per 
day and wages paid per day vary from Rs. 3 to Rs. 5 per head. 

2. There is one Electric line tester and Ball point pencil manu- 
facturing unit located in the Industrial Estate, Bikaner, which employs 
4 to 5 persons per day on daily wages of Rs. 2 to Rs. 3. 

Machine and Cycle Industries 

There is one machine manufacturing unit situated, under the 
name and style of Pradeep Industries, in the Industrial Estate,. Bikaner. 
They manufi'.cturc woollen carding machines and power presses and 
employ about 20 persons. The unit is well equipped with a foundry 
and a workshop. 



168 


R^asthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


One unit viz. R.C.A. Industries, Bikaner manufactures conduit 
pipes and steel furniture etc. This unit is well equipped and five 
persons are employed on piece wage basis. 

Another unit situated in the Industrial Estate at Bikaner viz. . 
Hukum Engineering Works, has a well equipped workshop and manu- 
factures automobile parts, machines, nuts and bolts and executes odd 
jobs to order. It employs about 15 persons on piece wages. . 

One unit located in the Industrial area at Bikaner is engaged in 
the manufacture of wire nettings. It works on hand operated pit 
looms and employs about six to eight persons on piece wages. 

Food Industries 

There are three mechanised .biscuits and confectionary making 
factories in Bikaner out of which one is located in the Industrial 
Estate; one factory is solely manufacturing biscuits and its daily 
production is about 1 00 kg. The other factory manufactures sweets 
and lemon drops etc. 

Oil & Dal Mills 

There are five oil mills in the district one each at Naukha, 
Gangashahr and Deshnokc, and two at Bikaner. Besides four Dal 
mills, two each at Bikaner and Naukha, are also working. 

Brass Utensils 

There are about 35 families of Tliallieras in Bikaner who manu- 
facture brass' utensils. Their annual production, valued between 
Rs. 75,000 and Rs. 1,00,000, is also exported outside Rajasthan. 

Miscellaneous Industries 

There are U saw mills and wooden furniture making units. 
One unit manufactures wooden casings. The labour employed is 
according to the quantum of work in hand and the wages vary from 
Rs. 2 to Rs. 4 per day. 

There arc two power loom societies one each at Gajncr and 
Napusar. Loans for the purchase of ten power looms and working 
capital of Rs. 10,000 each were advanced to three units by the Indus- 
tries Department. 

There is one Gadia Lohar Co-operative Society at Bikaner, It 
has a workshop equipped with a lathe, a drill, a cutter and a power 



Industries 


169 


grinder in addition to hand tools. At present, this is lying defunct 
due to organisational reasons. 

At the end of 1965, there were 95 registered private factories 
with a licenced maximum employment of 2221 workers, four Govern- 
ment factories with 1563 workers’ licensed employment and one factory 
under Local Fund ownership with 287 workers, in the district. The 
names of these are given in Appendix II. 

COTTAGE INDUSTRIES 

Hand-spinning and hand-weaving (including hand looms) both 
of cotton and woollen textiles, and leather tanning constitute the main 
type of cottage industries spread all over in villages and towns of 
Bikaner district. 

Hand Spinning & VVeaving 

There are about 25,0001 families throughout the district who are 
engaged in the production of cotton and woollen cloth including 
carding and spinning of the basic material. Woollen blankets, shawls 
and all types of other cotton and woollen fabrics in good designs and 
texture are being manufactured by the weavers of this area. Superior 
qualities of Lois are manufactured at Napasar and it is one of those 
items which can attract a very good market outside. About 25 per 
cent of the weavers of KJmdi and handloom (cotton and woollen) 
cloth have organised themselves into co-operative societies. 

Khadi Mandir, Khadi Gramodyog Pratishthan and Khadi 
Ooni Grab Udyog are the most important organisations in Bikaner 
whose aim is to encourage the above type of cottage industries by 
purchasing their products, and also by manufacturing Khadi and hand 
spun and hand woven blankets. They are sponsored by the Khadi 
and Village Industries Board of India. 

Leather tanning and manufacture of leather goods are the 
other main cottage industries of the district. About 15,000 families 
earn their livelihood out of this industry. As a result of continuous 
efibrts of the Stale Industries Department about 35 per cent of them 
have started taking to improved tanning methods. 

Steel Fabricators 

There are about 75 Lidsar families in Bikaner having their own 
I. Nigem, B.L,, Indjsttiaf PolctitlaUiics and Dsvthpmfnt in Bikaner, 1961, p. 18. 



170 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


small workshops. Some of them also use power and do gas welding. 
All of them manufacture all sorts of household articles and iron 
utensils. A few of them also manufacture steel furniture viz. almiralis 
and buckets, boxes, kothis, iron gates and trusses etc. 

ARTS & CRAFTS 

The main handicrafts of this area are dyeing and printing 
{Rangai and Chhapai) of cloth, embroidery, manufacture of Lois, 
lacquer-ware, lac bangles and wooden toys. 

Dyeing & Printing 

There are about 200 families of dyers and Chippas in Bikaner. 
A few of them have formed a Co-operative Society called Kapra 
Rangai Chhapai Utpadak Sahkari Samiti Ltd., Bikaner. .The^work of 
dyeing and printing by this class of people is very much liked in large 
parts of Bikaner, Jodhpur and Jaipur divisions. 

Lacquer Work 

Camel hide ktippis of typical design with good decorative goioen 
and other lacquer work on them are manufactured by a few artisans 
in, Bikaner. These articles afford great attraction to the foreigners in 
various Emporia of Rajasthan. 

Wooden Toys 

Gangaur and other wooden toys of typically Rajasthani pattern 
are manufactured only by one or two families in Bikaner. 

Carving 

From the artistic and beautiful stone carvings visible on several 
old palatial'buildings of Bikaner city, it can be surmised that it was a 
popular art in olden times, but this old craft is unfortunately, no 
longer in existence now. 

Papar of Bikaner 

Papar ('iim?) of Bikaner is very famous throughout the country 
for its good taste and digestive qualities. It is a preparation of flour 
of Moong and Moi/i kneaded in sajji water. Papars are exported in 
large quantities to big cities of India like, Bombay,'Calcutta and Delhi. 
Papars arc manufactured by widows at home to ckc out their liveli- 
hood, as also by housewives in a large number of families during leisure 
time. There arc a few organisations also at Bikaner, which, prepare 
Papar and Bari for sale and train women in the art of their 



Industries 


171 


manufacture. These are Mahila Mandal, Bikaner, Nari Shala, 
Bikaner, and Nari Jagriti Parishad, Bikaner, 

Bhnjias Manufacturing 

It is a renowned product of Bikaner and is eaten as a savoury 
snack throughout the country. The Bliujias prepared here have a 
special taste, which it is said, is due to the dry climate and salinity in 
the water of the area. Their crispness, which is the reason for their 
popularity, is unrivalled. 

Handi-Crafts Emporium 

A sub-Emporium was established by the Government of 
Rajasthan at Bikaner in the year 1962 for the display and sale of 
Rajasthan Handicrafts. An exhibition of handicraft goods is organised 
in the month of December every year and prizes are awarded to deserving 
participants. 


INDUSTRIAL POTENTIAL 

The only industrial raw material which is available in good 
quantity in the district, is wool, the annual production of which is 
estimated at 15 to 20 lakh pounds (7 to 8 lakh kg.) There are good 
prospects for the further development of wool processing industry in 
the district. The yield of milk from cattle in the area is also abundant 
and the industries using milk as their basic raw material, can have a 
fair scope. At present, milk is sent to Delhi and Jaipur for sale through 
their respective Milk Supply Schemes. 

There are only a few mines in the district. The Gypsum mines 
of Jamsar pour their supplies to the Sind ri Fertiliser Factory. Some 
small scale industries using Gypsum as raw material have already come 
up but their scope is limited. Other important mines are of fullers’ 
earth and china-clay which can be pul to industrial use Ceramic units 
and activated fullers’ earth industries may have a fair scope. Looking 
to the good number of cattle bred in the district, leather tanning units 
run on modern lines, also have good prospects. 

Sajji plants have .spontaneous growth in pQgal area of Bikaner 
tahsil and an industry using this raw material can be successfully 
established. 

The other economies available for the establishment of industries 
in Bikaner, arc the availability of suiTmient land at reasonable rates 



172 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


and cheap labour. The marketing of the surplus produce also does 
not pose any problem as the district is well served by rail and road 
communication. All the tahsii headquarters are connected by rail as 
well as roads. Bikaner city has a direct rail and road connection with 
towns like Delhi, Jaipur, Jodhpur and Bhatinda etc. 

STATE ASSISTANCE 

The assistance rendered for industrial development by the 
princely State Government was marginal and usually took the form of 
either exemptions from payment of customs duty, grant of monopoly 
rights or allotment of land at concessional rates. There was no 
enterprise aided, managed or owned by the State in the whole of Bikaner 
State territory before its merger into Rajasthan. 

With the commencement of the Second Five Year Plan and the 
declaration of Industrial policy by the Government of India, the 
Government have been providing various types of facilities 
and encouragements for the development of industries, in the form of 
financial assistance by grant of loans and subsidies, factory accommo- 
dation by establishing Industrial Estates, and allotment of land at 
concessional rates in the declared industrial areas. Licences were 
granted for the import of raw material, machinery and spare parts, not 
indigenously available. A price preference of 16 per cent was also 
allowed for Governmental purchases made from the small scale 
industries. 


CREDIT FACILITIES 

The agencies providing credit facilities to small scale industries 
are (i) Scheduled Banks, (ii) Co-operative Banks, (iii) Director of 
Industries & Civil Supply, Government of Rajasthan, (iv) State Financial 
Corporation and (v) Money-Lenders. There are four scheduled 
banks in the district, namely : The Punjab National Bank Ltd., 
The United Commercial Bank Ltd., The Bank of Rajasthan Ltd. and 
State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur. Of these only the last one has 
provided credit facilities to small scale industries. The number of units 
allowed credit facilities as on 3Ist March, 1964 stood at six, as 
compared to four during 1963. The total credit allowed amounted to 
Rs. 2,15,000, The Central Co-operative Bank Ltd,, Bikaner advanced 
Rs. 1 1,000 by way of loans to three Industrial Co-operative Societies 
during the years 1962-63 and 196?-64. The Rajasthan Financial 
Corporation has advanced a loan of Rs, 2,16,000 to only one unit 
namely China Wares & Potteries, Bikaner. 



Industries 


173 


During the First and Second Five Year Plans, the loans advanced 
by the State Government to help the development of industrial units 
and craftsmen (including industrial co-operative societies) were as 
follows 1; 


(Amount in Rupees) 


Period 

Industrial 

Co-operative Societies 

Other Industrial 
Units 

Total 


No. 

Amount 

No. 

Amount 

No. 

Amount 

Js! Plan 

9 

18,348 

I 

4,500 

10 

22,848 

2nd Plan 

17 

55,856 

38 

1,07,150 

55 

1,63,006 

1956-57 

6 

19,316 

4 

12,000 

10 

31,316 

1957-58 

7 

20,040 

1 

2,000 

8 

22,040 

1958-59 

2 

9,000 

9 

30,500 

11 

39,500 

1959-60 

2 

7,500 

15 

36,650 

TP 

-J4,l'50 

1960-61 

- 

«■ 

9 ; 

26,(fb0 

9- 

^ 26,m 


During the Third Five Year Plan, the Goverrrm'enHfurthefJ 
advanced loans under the State Aid''rtoJ''Industries Rules,- 1961, 
to the tunc of Rs. 66,000 in 1961-62, as againk 'thc' tbtal Toans of 
Rs, 1,55,000 asked for by the smalt scale units. Amount of loans 
granted, however, declined to Rs. 6,250 in 1962-63 and Rs. 14,800 in 
1963-64, as against total loan applications for Rs. 1,51,000 and 
Rs. 1,15,000 made by the small scale units during the corresponding 
period. During the years 1964-65 and 1965-66, loans to the extent of 
Rs. 16,000 and Rs. 4,000 were advanced to four and five parties 
respectively. 

Indigenous bankers still play an important role in financing 
small scale units. The rate of interest charged by them, however, is 
very high, ranging from 12 to 36 per cent per annum, according to the 
credit worflu’ncss of the loanees. 

1, Nipam, n.L„ IndmiHal rotcnthitUks am! Oeveloprr.mf in Bikaner, 1961, p. 2|. 


174 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


TECHNICAL EDUCATION 

Facilities of technical education and availability of skilled 
labour are, by far, the most important factors influencing the develop- 
ment of industries in any area. With a view to providing technical 
know-how in the district, the State Government is running a Polytechnic 
an Industrial Training Institute and a Woollen Cottage Industries 
Training Institute, besides a number of training centres for shoe 
making and tailoring. Details of these are given below : 

Government Polytechnic, Bikaner 

Government Polytechnic, Bikaner started functioning in July 1962. 
It imparts training in electrical and mechanical trades besides civil 
engineering, and has an intake capacity of 45, 45 and 30 trainees in these 
branches, respectively. The details of the strength of the institution 
during 1965-66 is given below : 


Class 

Group of Engineering 

Students on roll 
(Number) 

I Year 

Civil 

30 


Mechanical 

45 


Electrical 

47 

11 Year 

Civil 

43 


Mechanical 

51 


Electrical 

54 

III Year 

Civil 

32 


Mechanical 

27 


Electrical 

44 


The period of training is three years. The first batch of the 
students completed their courses in 1965-66. 


Industrial Training Institute, Bikaner 

The Industrial Training Institute, Bikaner was established in 
November, 1959. It has facilities for training persons as black-smiths, 
carpenters, draughtsmen (civilj, electricians, fitters and wiremen. 
Training period for first five trades is one year and for the rest, it is two 
years. The present capacity in each trade and the candidates trained 
during 1961-62 tp 1964-65 arc as follows ; 


Industries 


115 


(Number) 


Name of the trade 

Capacity 


Persons trained 


during 

1964 

1961-62 

1962-63 

1963-64 

1964-05 

1. Blackrsmith.s 

16 

- 

8 

- 

- 

2. Carpenters 

32 

11 

8 

3 

5 

3. Draughtsmen (Civil) 

32 

22 

15 

7 

11 

4, Electricians 

32 

15 

17 

17 

17 

5. Fitters 

32 

12 

16 

9 

4 

6. Moulders 

32 

- 

- 

- 

2 

7. Sheet metal workers 

16 

- 

- 

- 

- 

8. Turners 

24 

24 

- 

15 

9 

9, Welders 

24 

- 

- 

- 

- 

10. Wiremen 

32 

- 

- 

- 

- 


Though it may, at the present moment, be difficult to evaluate the 
part played by the trained persons in the area yet there is no denying 
the fact that the trained labour would make a valuable contribution to 
the development of various industries in the foreseeable future. 

Vi'oollcn Cottage Industries Training Institute, Bikaner 

The Woollen Cottage Industries Training Institute, Bikaner was 
established in 19^0, for the benefit of ex-servicemen and professional 
weavers. Initially, the Institute provided training in lacquer work, 
carpentry, hosiery, weaving and carpet making. It was reorganised 
as Woollen Cottage Industries Training Institute in 1956, after which 
it started imparting training in woollen trades, viz. woollen hoisery, 
woollen weaving, and manufacturing of woollen carpets, felts and 
vanula. Candidates are drawn mainly from the artisan families. The 
total scats provided for trainees is 50, of which 25 are for weaving, 12 
for hosiery and 13 for carpel making. The duration of training is 
one year. The number of candidates trained have been as follows : 


Trade 

im~62 

1962-63 

1963-64 

1964-65 

1965-66 

Hosiery 

15 

17 

17 

8 

10 

Weaving and carpet 

making 

10 

20 

28 

16 

28 


176 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — ^Bikaner 


A stipend of Rs. 30 per month is given to a trainee coming 
from outside the city of Bikaner, whereas Rs. 20 per month is given 
to a local trainee. 


INDUSTRIAL ESTATE 

Land does not pose a problem for starting an industry in the 
district. The State Government has constructed an Industrial Estate 
at Bikaner, at a cost of Rs, 3,19,685. There are 18 sheds in the Estate. 
Area measuring 177 acres has also been earmarked as Industrial Area 
out of which a few allotments have been made to some units. 

LABOUR LAWS & LABOUR WELFARE 

There are no specific wage levels for the labourers but in the 
factories covered under the Minimum Wages Act, there exist three 
catagories of monthly wage rates, which are: 

(a) For skilled workers : Rs. 100 

(b) For semi-skilled workers : Rs. 80 

(c) For unskilled workers : Rs. 60 

The important Acts in force in the district are : 

1. Indian Factories Act, 1948 

2. Minimum Wages Act, 1948 

3. Payment of Wages Act, 1936 

4. Employment of Children Act, 1936 

5. Motor Transport Workers Act, 1961 

6. Working Journalists Act, 1955 

7. Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 

8. Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923 

9. Employees’ Provident Fund Act, 1952 

There were two Government Labour Welfare Centres working in 
the district, one at Bikaner and the other atJfimsar. The Centre at 
Bikaner was opened in 1956 and one at Jumsar in 1958. The facilities 
provided at these centres were confined to provision for adult education, 
and sewing and tailoring classes and recreation through in-door and 
out-door games, library and reading room and music. These centres, 
however, were closed down on reasons of economy on 31.7.1965. 

LABOURERS’ AND EMPLOYEES’ ORGANISATIONS 

There were 35 Trade Unions registered in Bikaner district, at the 
end of the year 1965-66, Their list is given in Appendix 111, 



industries 



177 



Appendix 

I 



Towns and villages electrified in Bikaner district 




till 31st March 

, 1966 


1. 

Akasar 

25. 

Khara 


2. 

Bikaner 

26. 

Kunkunia 


3. 

Bhinasar 

27. 

Kakara 


4. 

Belasar 

28. 

Kadsu 


5. 

Bichhwal 

29. 

Konwalisar 


6. 

Barsingsar 

30. 

Mokam 


7. 

Basi 

31. 

Naukha Mandi 


8. 

Berasar 

32. 

Napasar 


9. 

Chandi 

33. 

Nal Chhola Station (Nal Bari) 

10. 

Chandsar 

34. 

Palana 


11. 

Chanakara 

35. 

Rora 


12. 

Dcshnoke 

36. 

Rirmalsar 


13, 

Devi Kundasagar 

37. 

Rasisar 


14, 

Gangashahr 

38. 

Kolayat 


15. 

Gajner 

39. 

Sinthal 


16. 

Gadhwala 

40. 

Sorpura 


17. 

Gusalnsar 

41. 

Ramsar 


18. 

Hematsar 

42. 

Sranglaniwas 


19. 

Jhajhu 

43. 

Salundia 


20. 

Jasrasar 

44. 

Udramsar 


21. 

Jamsar 

45. 

Udasar 


22. 

Jaimalsar 

46. 

Udsar 


23. 

Koraradcsar 

47. 

Udcsar 


24. 

KarnTsar 






178 


RajasAan District Gazctteers—Blkaner 


Appendix II 

Registered factories in Bikaner district 
as on 31st December, 1966 


S.No, 


1 


Name of thi; factory & address 


2 


No. of Osvnarship 

workers 

employed 

3 4 


Cotton Ginning & Baling 


1. 

M/S Darbari Lai Nathu Ram Sach Dev, 

G.No. 2 Jassusar Gate, Bikaner. 

37 

Private 


Wool Baling, Pressing and Cleaning 


2. 

Bikaner Woollen Press, 

Industrial area, Bikaner. 

16 . 


3. 

Bikaner Wool Pratisthan, Bikaner, 

75 

1 > 

4. 

Rajasthiiti Woollen Press, Bikaner. 

23 

' 

5. 

Walker Angariya & Co., Bikaner. 

50 

9 9 

6 , 

Bikaner Woollen Mills, Industrial 

Area, Rani Bazar, Bikaner. 

no 

H 

7. 

Ganesh Woollen Pressing Co., Bikaner. 

7 


8, 

Modern Woollen Mills, Jassusar Gate, Bikaner. 

10 

99 ■ 

9. 

Walker Angariya & Sons Private Ltd., 

Wool Merchant, Dhamani Godowns, Bikaner. 

80 

99 

10. 

Jugal Kishor Ganeshlal Wool Merchant, 

Daga Cliowk, Bikaner. 

37 

9 * 

II. 

Walker Angariya & Sons Private Ltd., 




Wool MetcRatvl, CJo Skri Ganeslv Wool 
Pressing Co. Ltd,, Bikaner. 

42 

99 

12. 

Bikaner Wool Pratisthan, Songiri Road, 
Bikaner, 

25 

99 

13. 

Khadi Gram Udyog Pratisthan, Gangashahr 
Road, Bikaner. 

45 

99 

14. 

Walkar Angariya & Sons Private Ltd., 

Songiri Godown, Bikaner. 

28 

it 

15. 

Mukand Lai Motilal Wool Merchant, 

Lassusar Gate, Bikaner. 

37 

99 

V6. 

Nathmat Bhussidas, Jassusar Gatc^ Bikaner, 

13 

*9 

17. 

Rajasthan Woollen Mills, Jassusar Gate, 
Bikaner. 

29 

99 

18. 

Jugat Kishor Gancshilal, Wool Merchant, 
Bikaner, 

37 

it 


Industries 


179 


1 


19. 


20 . 

21 . 

22 . 

23. 

24. 

25. 

26. 

27. 

28. 

29. 


30 . 


31. 


32. 

33. 

34. 

35. 

36. 

37. 

38. 

39. 

40. 


41. 


2 


Chhalani Woollen Mills, Lalgarh-Gajner 
Road, Bikaner. 

M/S Shri Mahaveer Wool Merchant, Bikaner, 
Jalchand Lai Ghanshyam Das & Co., Bikaner. 
Nath Mai Bhairon Bux & Co. Wool Merchant, 
Bikaner. 

Vishwa Nath Sharma, Industrial Area, Bikaner. 
Kamal Singh Narindra Singh Bikaner. 

Shri Gopal Gaurishankar, Wool Merchant, 
G.No. 3, Jassusar Gate, Bikaner. , 

Shri Gopal Gauri Shankar, Wool Merchant, 
G.No. 2, Jassusar Gate, Bikaner. 

Ratan Lai Kishan Lai, Wool Merchant, Bikaner. 
M/S Bharat Woollen Mills Ltd., Inside 
Bikaner Press, Rani Bazar, Bikaner. 

Tatters Field Co., Outside Jassusar Gate, 
Bikaner. 

India Wool Textile Fibre Co , Inside Bikaner 
Woollen Press, Rani Bazar, Bikaner. 

Shri Gopal Gaurishanker Wool Cleaning 
Factory, G.No. 3, Mohta Chowk, Bikaner. 
Jugal Kishore Ganeshi Lai, Wool .Merchant, 
Inside Bikaner Woollen Press, Bikaner. 

Walker Angariya & Co., Inside Ganesh Press, 
Naya Shahr, Bikaner. 

Prem Ratan Vijai Shanker & Co , Inside 
Jassusar Gate, Bikaner. 

Ahuja Brolheis Bikaner Woollen Press, Bikaner, 
Shri Gopal Gaurishankar & Co., Wool 
Cleaning Factory, G.No. 2, Bikaner. 

M/S Radha Krishna Manak Lai, Wool 
Merchant, Bikaner. 

Ganga Ram Satya Narayan, Jassusar Gate, 
Bikaner. 

M,S Arjun Das Sc. Co., Rani Bazar, Bikaner 
Jai Chand I-al Ghanshyam Das, Rani 
Bazar, Bikaner, 

Pabudlian Champalal, Wool Merchant, Bikaner, 


3 4 

Private 


33 

)) 

37 

99 

20 

99 

38 

99 

55 

99 

37 

99 

45 

99 

73 

99 

24 

99 

75 

99 

37 

99 

30 

99 

37 

99 

37 

99 

25 

99 

75 

99 

50 

if 

75 

99 

13 . 

99 

37 

99 

75 

39 

37 

*9 

14 

n 


180 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


1 2 3 


4 

42. M/S Gordhan Das Ratan Lai, Wool 

Merchant, Bikaner. 

15 

Private 

43. M/S S.K. Textiles, Gangashahr Road, Bikaner. 

13 


Rice Mills 

44. Rjjasthan Industrial Corporation, Bikaner 

15 


Dal Mills 

45. M/S Ratan Industrial Corporation Dal Mills, 
Sadulpur. 

7 

%9 

Woollen & Knitting Mills 

46. M/S Rajasthan Khadi Gramodyog Board 

Ooni Finishing Plant, Bikaner 

16 


47. The Advance Woollen Mill Private Ltd., 
Industrial Area, Bikaner. 

40 

Sf 

48. Govt. Woollen Production Centre, Bikaner. 

15 

Government 

49. Rajasthan Hosiery Mills, Gajner Road, 

Inside Compound of Rajasthan Woollen 

Mills, Bikaner. 

50 

Private 

Saw Mills 

50. M/S Chhote Lai Ram Dev Saw Mills, Bikaner. 3 

51. Rajasthan Timber Supply Co., Bikaner, 3 

99 

52. Bikaner Bend Saw Mills, Bikaner. 

4 

99 

53. Bhunesh Ara Machine, Pratapmal Wei), Bikaner. 3 

99 

54, Bhanwar Lai Arora Ara Machine, Bikaner. 

2 

99 

55. Chunni Lai Sohanlal Ara Machine, Sadar 
Bazar, Bikaner. 

2 

99 

56. Badri Narain Jeth Mai Ara Machine, 
Deshnoke. 

2 

99 

57. Shri Mohan Flour Mills, Naukha Mandi. 

1 

99 

58. Bhanru Ram Mohanlal, Inside Kot Gate, 
near Phul Bai Well, Bikaner. 

6 

99 

59. Shri Vishwakarma Engineering Works, 
near Power House, Bikaner. 

7 

99 

60, M/S Saranjam Karyalaya Khadi Mandir, 
Bikaner. 

14 


61. M/S Udho Ram Suthar Saw Machine, 

St. Road, Naukha, 

3 

19 


Industries 


I8I 


1 2 

62. M/s Chunnilal Ramchand, Naukha. 

63. Vishwa Kartna Furniture House, Phul Bai 
ka Niwas, Bikaner. 

64. M/S Napasar Wool and Dal Industry, 
Industrial Area, Bikaner. 

65. Mahavir Wooden Industries, Rani Bazar, 
Bikaner. 


3 4 


3 Private 


5 


>1 


4 


IS 


9 


M 


Wooden Indnstrics 

66. Sadhna Industry, Far Bazar, Bikaner. 3 


Letter Press & Lithograpliy, Printing and 
Book Binding 

67. Government Press, Bikaner. 75 

68. Educational Press, Bikaner. 5 

69. Mangal Mudranalaya, Bikaner. 3 

70. Jai Shri Mahapress, Masjid Road, Bikaner. 3 

7 1 . M/S Lalkar Press, Bikaner. 3 

72. Laxmi Printing Press, Bikaner. 9 

73. M/S Shiv Printing Press, Bikaner 6 

74. Maheshwari Printing Press, Bikaner. 7 

75. Rajasthan Mudranalya, Bikaner. 2 

76. Satish Printing Press, Bikaner. 2 

77. Lokmat Press, Hospital Road, Bikaner. 7 

78. Chand Printing Press, Bikaner. 3 

79. Gopal printing Press, Bikaner. 3 

80. Javvahar Press, Jail Road, Bikaner 3 

81. Adarsh Mudranalaya, near Dangi Temple 

Bikaner. 3 

82. RamKishan Printing Press, Naukha. 2 

83. Pawan Art Press, Bikaner. 3 

S4. Pclhal Mudran Mandir, near Chowtina Well, 

Bikaner, I 

85. M/S Swasth Sarita Press, inside Kot Gate, 

Bikaner. 3 

86. Time of Rajasthan Press, Kot Gate, Bikaner. 3 

87. Bikaner Art Publisher Ltd.. Fort, Bikaner. 9 

8S. Shri Ratan Fine Art Press, Bikaner. P 

’ - t ' ^ 


Government 

Private 

» 

11 

>> 

>1 

>9 

Sf 

99 


99 

99 

ff 


9f 


99 

99 

99 

if 


182 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


1 

2 

3 

4 

89. 

Fine &, Pharmaceutical, Chemical etc. 
Mohta Ayurvedic Rasayanshala, Station 

Road, Bikaner. 

25 

Private 

90. 

Rolling into Basic Form 

Bharat Metal Iron Works, Bikaner. 

25 


91, 

Rough Castings 

Mundra Metal Works, Bikaner. 

20 

99 

92. 

Railway Workshop 

Loco Carriage and Wagon Workshop, Bikaner. 

1398 

Govt. 

93. 

Manufacturing of Bicycles 

R.C.A, Industries, Dhan Ka Phar, Bikaner. 

15 

Private 

94. 

Manufacturing of Ice 

The Rampuria Ice Factory, Bikaner. 

6 

99 

95. 

Plastic Articles 

M/S Bikaner Polythene Products, Bikaner. ’ 

10 

99 

96. 

Others 

Friends Engineering Works, Bikaner. 

18 

99 

97. 

Workshop, Electrical Mechanical Deptt., 
Bikaner. 

75 

Govt. 

98. 

Rajasthan Engineering Products, Bikaner. 

10 

Private 

99. 

M/S Udai Electric Industries, Metre House, 
Industrial Estate, Bikaner. 

75 . 

99 

100. 

Rajasthan State Electricity Board, Bikaner; 

287 

Local Fund 


Source : List of Factories & Biolcrs issued by Chief Inspector of Factories & 


Boilers, Rajasthan, Jaipur, 


Industries 


i83 


Appendix ill 


Trade Unions in Bikaner District 


S.No. 

Name of the Union Date of 

Member- 


Registration 

ship 

1 

2 

3 

4 

1 . 

Palana Colliery Mazdoor Union, Palana. 

N.A. 

N.A. 

2. 

Bikaner Division P.W.D. Mazdoor Union, 
Bikaner. 

7.1.57 

58 

3. 

Gypsum Mine Workers Union, Jamsar. 

8.7.58 

704 

4. 

Palana Colliery Karmachari Union, Palana. 

2.9.58 

80 

5. 

Bikaner Press Employees’ Union, Bikaner. 

15.9.58 

30 

6. 

Sindri Fertilisers Jamsar Workers Union, 
Jamsar. 

30.6.59 

29 

7. 

Rajasthan Govt. Press Karmachari Union, 
Bikaner. 

1.7.60 

35 

8. 

Bikaner Govt. Press Employees Union, 
Sakhlacha, Katla, Bikaner. 

6.10.60 

60 

9. 

Bikaner Municipal Karmachari Sangh, 
Khajanchi Building, Bikaner. 

27.1.61 

400 

10. 

Bikaner Division Trade Union Council, 
Khajanchi Building, Bikaner. 

14.4.61 

8 

11. 

Water Works Employees Union, Khajanchi 
Building, Bikaner. 

1 0.7.6 1 

300 

12. 

Garden Labour Union, Khajanchi Building, 
Bikaner. 

2.8.61 

119 

13. 

Bikaner Upwan Mazdoor Sangh, Bikaner. 

14.8.61 

30 

14. 

Rashiriya Jal Mazdoor Union, Bikaner. 

23.8.61 

50 

15. 

Power House Mazdoor Union, Bikaner. 

9.9.61 

350 

16. 

Bcgayat Karmachari Union, Bikaner. 

5.9.62 

20 

17. 

Palrma Colliery Workers Union, Bikaner. 

31.5.65 

86 

18. 

Bikaner Cinema Karmachari Union, Bikaner. 

26.8.63 

25 

19. 

Bikaner M.E.S. Workers Union, Bikaner. 

30.8.63 

36 

20. 

Metal & EnginecringWorkers Union, Bikaner. 

26.10.63 

25 

21. 

Raslitriya Gypsum Karmachari Sangh, Jamsar. 

29.1.64 

300 




184 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— fiikanel 


1 

2 

3 

4 

22. 

Hospital Employees Union, Bikaner. 

22.5.64 

43 

23. 

Rajasthan Bijli Board Karmachari Sangh, 
Bikaner. 

17.6.64 

43 

24, 

Motor Mazdoor Sangh, Bikaner. 

23.11.64 

70 

25, 

P.B.M. Hospital Karmachari Union, Bikaner. 

23.11.65 

40 

26. 

P.W.D. Employees Union, Bikaner. 

11.8.65 

150 

27. 

Rashtriya Oonth Chalak Congress, Bikaner. 

31.8.65 

25 

28. 

Rashtriya Tonga Chalak Congress, Bikaner. 

31.8.65 

35 

29. 

Tonga Union, Bikaner. 

2.9.65 

565 

30. 

Gada Thela Union, Bikaner. 

20.11.65 

LOO 

31. 

Wool Labour Union, Bikaner. 

25.11.65 

40 

32. 

Rajasthan Oon Mazdoor Congress, Bikaner. 

17.12.65 

150 

33. 

Camelmen & Mines Workers Union, Bikaner. 

17.12.65 

100 

34. 

Rashtriya Nagar Parishad Karmachari 
Congress, Bikaner. 

17.12.65 

43 

35. 

Rajasthan Zila Factories Workers Union, 
Bikaner. 

21.12.66 

50 


Chapter vi 


BANKING, TRADE AND COMMERCE 

BANKING AND FINANCE 

Historical Aspect 

Before the advent of modern joint stock banking, the Shroffs and 
Mahajans were carrying on the business of banking on indigenous lines, 
but the scope for their business was limited in the then Bikaner State 
on account of low agricultural productivity and the consequential 
paucity of industrial raw material. 

With the beginning of canal irrigation in the northern parts of 
the then Bikaner State, new avenues of financing agriculture opened up 
for bankers and money lenders and the bulk of the credit in the canal 
area, as in other parts of the State, was handled by them. 

A committee was appointed by the State Government in 1929 
to enquire into the banking conditions in the then Bikaner State, which 
comprised the present Bikaner, Ganganagar and Churu districts, on 
the lines followed by the Banking Enquiry Committe, formed for 
British India. According to the Report of the Bikaner Banking 
Enquiry Committee, published in 1930, the following credit agencies 
were then in existence ; 

1. Indigenous bankers and money lenders 

2. Co-operative Societies 

3. Bikaner Government 

The indigenous bankers and money lenders played a very 
important part in the State’s rural and urban economies. Next came the 
co-operative societies, wherever formed. The Government of Bikaner 
also advanced taccavi loans. 

The agriculturist was thus able to borrow money from money 
lenders, co-operative societies and the Government of Bikaner. The 
indigenous money lenders advanced loans either on personal security 
or guarantee or on the security of crops or some other collateral securi- 
ties, These indigenous bankers mixed transactions in money with their 
business as commission agents and grain and cattle merchants. They 
enabled cultivators to buy livestock, grain, seed and hay from them on 



l86 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


credit, on the condition that their crops, when raised, would be sold to 
the money lender, who would also charge interest. This often resulted 
in the farmer having to pay more with little choice in accepting the 
creditor’s price for his produce. The actual terms of such financial 
arrangements varied with individual debtors, depending on their relative 
bargaining strength. 

The money lenders often made advances on standing crops, 
estimating the contribution of the cultivator in terms of his labour, the 
cost of seed and other accessories being borne by the money lender 
himself. The cultivator was then guaranteed a small profit. According 
to the Banking Enquiry Committee, 1929, such money lenders were 
naturally more concerned with their own business rather than assisting 
the cultivators, but there is no denying the fact that substantial measure 
of assistance was often given by these money lenders, nor was it- a 
wholesale truth that it always led to victimisation of the farmer. 

The functions of the indigenous bankers and money lenders were 
discharged by persons belonging to Agarwal, Maheshwari, Oswal, 
Saraogi, Modi, Brahmin and Sikh communities, as also by Zamindars 
(Rajputs and Jats) in the then Bikaner State.i According to 1921 Census 
of Bikaner State, it was found that number of the money lenders and 
indigenous bankers, engaged solely in banking and money lending, was 
4734. 


The system of indigenous money-lending and banking was not 
an organised one, as different people followed different practices. Almost 
the whole of the business of advancing agricultural credit was carried 
on by these indigenous bankers and money lenders while the landlords 
played little part in it. These two agencies granted loans for every 
requirement of the cultivator while co-operative societies, wherever 
formed, rendered only small help. They granted loans for purchase of 
seeds, repayable in six months, for purchase of cattle and ploughs, 
repayable in two years and one year respectively and for other miscella- 
neous requirements, repayable at the time of next harvest. Normally, the 
period of maturity of a loan was till the next harvesting time, but it was 
often extended when the debtor was not in a position to repay. Indigenous 
money lenders were thus flexible in their dealings provided they were 
convinced that their money was safe. The co-operative societies would 
suspend recovery during a period of adversity and this was a distinct 

1. Report of Bikaner Banking Enquiry Committee, 1929. 



Banking, Trade and Commerce 


187 


advantage over the terms of money lenders. However, the co-operative 
movement had limited operational area before 1930. In the case of 
government loans, people resented repayment of taccavi, if recovered 
inspite of a failure of crops. 

The rate of interest charged by the money lenders ranged from 
18| to 75 per cent per annum, while that charged by the landlords was 
24 per cent, by the co-operative societies, 12 J per cent and by the 
Government 6 per cent per annum. 

The money lenders were classified into the following three cate- 
gories according to their area of operation ; 

1- Village money lenders 

2. Town money lenders 

3. Big indigenous bankers. 

The village money lenders were at the lowest rung of the ladder 
and lent money to the agriculturists and other villagers and sold grain, 
seeds, cattle etc., on credit, to the cultivators. These money lenders could 
be divided into two groups : (i) those who owned land and advanced 
money to their less fortunate brethren and (ii) those whose exclusive 
professional. business was money lending. 

Next in importance were the town money lenders. They could 
again be divided into two groups, viz., those whose business was limited 
to the area of the town and neighbouring suburbs and others who 
practised this hereditary profession on a large , scale and had business 
arrangements in various towns and cities of India. 

The indigenous bankers were more or less organised like joint- 
stock banking system. They received deposits, allowed withdrawals on 
current accounts, dealt in negotiable instruments (Miiddaii and Darshani 
Htindis) and commercial documents e.g. Railway Receipts, and the like. 
But even these indigenous bankers lacked organisation to cope with the 
growing and complex financial needs of trade, run on modern lines. 

The following practices were generally followed by the indigenous 
bankers : 


1. Advancing loans against rnoMissoRV, notes— This w'as the 
simplest form of advance. Some, bankers and money lenders got a 
separate pronotc executed for the loans advanced, while others were 



188 


Rajasthan District Gazettecrs—Blkaner 


satisfied with only a receipt for the loan or would get the signatures 
the borrower in their account books called bahis. 

2. MORTGAGING-This was also a common mode of advancing 
loans. The debtor offered to mortgage his piece of land, house or 
shop against the desired loan. The money lenders generally advancea 
money to such borrowers upto the extent of 50 per cent of the curren 
market value of the property or as may be negotiated between them. 

3. Dastawez — This was another mode of granting loans. The 
only difference between a pronote and a Dastawez was that, in case o 
pronote, the loan was repayable on demand, though there was usua y a 
tacit understanding about the period of the loan, while in case o s. as 
wez, the creditor could not ask for repayment before the stipulated time. 

A. Khandi— This type, of loan was granted to people of mode- 
rate means e.g. clerks, artisans and petty merchants and, was repayable 
in convenient instalments. 

5. Pawning— Under this system, gold and silver ornaments 
were pawned with the money lenders against the money advanced by 
them. 

Other type of loans were known as Khata Feta and Hath Udltar. 
In the Kbata Feta system the entry of the borrowed money was made 
in the account books {Khata) while Hath-udhar loans were raised for 
very short periods and the transaction was not entered in any commercial 
book, the amount being carried over as cash balance and an informal 
note to this effect made thereof. 


Some money lenders in villages and the neighbouring mandis 
advanced loans in kind to cultivators in" the form of seeds, cattle, manure 
etc. This was generally done when the crop was sown. 

There were itinerant money lenders also who were generally 


called banjaras or Fheriwalas. 
their camels or bullocks lad 
tobacco and, sometimes, cl 
converting the price into a dc 
reappeared to recover it wher 


t from village to village with 
It, spices, oil, jaggery, sugar, 
sold these articles on credit, 
a certain rate of interest and 
verc ready. 


According to the Bikai 
indigenous bankers and m 
agricultural operations from 


; Enquiry Committee, 1929, the 
s financed the whole of the 
nd so\ving to harvc 5 ting. Tliey 



Banking, Trade and Commerce 


189 


marketed the agriculturists’ produce, provided money for even their 
daily needs, did commission agency business, imported into the area 
cereals, cloth and other necessaries of life and thus played a very 
important part in the economic life of the people. They also financed 
the subsidiary industries and trade of the State. 

Government loans — Taccavi loans, granted by the erstwhile 
State of Bikaner, were restricted to the owners and occupiers of arable 
land and the purposes of these loans were to provide relief from distress 
caused by famines etc., the purchase of seeds or cattle and any other 
agricultural purpose. Taccavi loans were disbursed to the Kliatedars 
through the tahsildars. The amount was to be reimbursed by the 
debtor when the crop had been harvested, if it was advanced for the 
purchase of seed. If it was for the purchase of cattle, repayment 
fell due after a year. In case of failure of crop, however, the recovery 
was generally suspended till the next harvest. Ever since this system 
came into force, it proved of immense value in times of distress 
caused by drought or epidemics and also met the cultivators’ current 
needs. It was being gradually replaced by the co-operative credit 
system which assured more capital than could be spared by the 
Government. 

Indebtedness 

According to the findings of the Banking Enquiry Committee, 
1929, the extent of agricultural indebtedness was of the order of 
Rs. 174 per head while the non-agricultural indebtedness stood at 
E.S. 290 per head. As per Rural Credit Survey (1956-57), conducted 
by the Reserve Bank of India, it was observcdi that 60'7 per cent of 
the. rural families were under debt at the end of April 1957. The 
average debt per family as on 1st May, 1956 was reckoned at Rs. 442, 
which increased to Rs. 702 at the end of April, 1957. A further 
analysis of these figures indicated that 59.9 per cent of the debt was 
taken for consumption purposes, 27*6 per cent for agricultural purposes, 
7*6 per cent for non-farming business purposes, 3.5 per cent for the 
repayment of old debts and 1‘4 per cent for other purposes.^ 

Causes or Indhbtedness— The Bikaner Banking Enquiry Com- 
mittee, 1929, listed the following as the main purposes of agricultural 
debts ; 

1. R'tral Credit Fcthw-tip Surrey (1956-57^, Genera! Report^ Reserve Bank of India, 
r- 3S. 

2. ibid., p. 59. 



190 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bllcaner 


1 . Repayment of ancestral debts, 

2. Marriage, death feasts and other social cefemonies, 

3. Famine and other kinds of distress caused by the failure of 
crops, 

4. Purchase of seeds, ploughs and manures, 

5. Litigation, 

6. Purchase of cattle, and 

7. Growth of the debt, with compound interest, not having 
been paid. 

The basic reason of a considerable extent of rural indebtedness 
lies even now in the poverty of the people, resulting from poor quality 
of soil, lack of irrigation facilities and scanty apd erratic rainfall. 
A..VQidable aad imptudewt sadal cus.tQm& also make a heavy dent in 
their meagre resources, further strained by the brunt of periodical 
visitations of drought and famine. 

Co-operative Movement 

Co-operative movement was introduced iP the district in 
1920, with a view to diminishing rural indebtedness, promoting thrift 
and self help among agriculturists, artisans and other persons of 
limited means and bringing credit facilities within their reach. In 
March 1920, Co-operative Societies Act was passed and the first 
Registrar of Co-operative Societies of Bikaner State appointed. In 
1924, a qualified Co-operative Inspector was appointed. The first 
co-operative credit society was formed for tha Jodhpur-Bikaner 
Railway employees, but after the break-up of the joint adminis- 
tration of Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway from 1st November, 1924, a 
separate Bikaner State Railway Employees’ Co-operative Society was 
registered in the month of July, 1925. It started working on 1st 
September, 1926, with a membership of 140 and paid-up share capital 
of Rs. 6,290. It made a steady progress and its share capital stood at 
Rs. 47,090 and working capital at Rs. 1,18,533, with membership of 
762, at the end of 1941-42, In 1946-47, its share capital came 
down to Rs. 44,980 and membership to 740.- The movement showed 
signs of progress in other fields also. At the end of October, 1936, 
the total number of primary co-operative societies in all fields was 
106, with membership of 2338j share capital of Rs. 54,217 and 
working capital, including deposits and loans from the Co-operative 



Banking, Trade and Commerce 


191 


Union, of Rs. 5,52,083. In order to encourage the movement it was 
decided to exempt societies registered under the Co-operative Societies 
Act, from stamp duty and Registration fees. 

The following table indicates the progress of co-operative 
movement during the period 1925-26 to 1930-31 ; 


Year 

No. of 
Co-operative 
Societies 

Membership 

Share 

Capital 

(Rs.) 

Working 

Capital 

(Rs.) 

1925-26 

27 

651 

1,625 

— 

1926-27 

48 

1,056 

21,124 

96,544 

1927-28 

64 

1,434 

40,872 

201,226 

1928-29 

77 

1,724 

43,330 

249,302 

1929-30 

89 

1,942 

45,866 

320,290 

1930-31 

102 

2,229 

50,751 

457,705 


' ^"*eld‘ oT CO- 


Nothing spectacular, however, happe^pd^^^ ^ 

operation in the region which is now inclu^eSjy rf^^tafiv^di^tricti Tro'm- 
the year 1936 till Independence. In the,5y§af^^.^8yW JDrdihahTcr'v^s 
promulgated which repealed the Bikane?' Stat^ Co-operative Socie.ids' 
Act, 1920. The former was replaced -by the ^ Rajasthan Co-operative 
Societies Act 1953, substituted later 'by, thp R~ajasthan -Co-operative' 
Societies Act, 1965. After the formatibnX^CR^jastlian'^'^’the district 
ofBce of the Assistant Registrar Co-operaliVe Societies ;was established 
at Bikaner on 8.5.1957. Prior to this, Assistant Registrar, Co-operative 
Societies, headquartered at Ganganagar was concurrently looking 
after Bikaner district. Co-operative credit societies advance loans to 
their members for the purchase of seeds, fertilisers, implements etc. 


During the year 1956-57, there were 63 co-operative societies 
with a membership of 6, 74S, in the district. Their share capital was 
Rs. 32.0S1 and loans of the order of Rs, 8,07,347 were advanced by 
them during the year. The number of co-operatwe societies increased 
to 342 and their membership to 23,822 till 1961-62, Their share 
capital stood at Rs. 11,60,926 and the loans advanced increased to 
Rs. 19,27,301. There were in all 431 co-operative institutions with 
a membership of 43,669 as on 30.6.67. Their paid-up share capital 
w.as Rs. 24.36,063 and loans advanced by them during the year 1966-67 



\92 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers—Bikaner 


amounted to Rs. 34,98,578. The following table indicates the cate- 
gon'-wise position of co-operative institutions at the end of June 1967^ . 


S No. Type Number ' Member- Paid-up Loans advan* 

ship share ced during 
capital the year 
(No.) (Rs.) (Rs .) 


I. Central Co-operative Bank 

1 

272 

4,81,700 

10,47,619 

2. Agricultural Credit Societies 

186 

18,668 

3,96,283 

8,46,773 

3. Non-Agricultural Credit 
Societies 

10 

9,332 

6,88,001 

15,96,079 

4. Primary Marketing Societies 

3 

484 

41,870 

— _ 

5. Milk Supply Societies 

8 

182 

13,010 


6. Sheep Bleeding Societies 

13 

155 

15,815 

' — 

7. Farming Societies 

2 

30 

4,710 


8. Non-Agricultural Non. Credit 
Societies 

44 

1,355 

1,24,264 

38,242 

9. Central Consumers’ Store 

1 

569 

1,86,790 

— • 

10. Primary Consumers’ Stores 

52 

7,384 

1,65,220 

— 

11. Housing Societies 

3 

59 

2,910 

— 

1 2. Weavers’ Societies 

36 

1,464 

1,57,125 

— 

13. Other Industrial Societies 

40 

992 

1,04,171 

— 

14. District Institute 

1 

175 

— 

— 

15. Societies under liquidation 

31 

2,548 

— 



Scheduled Banks 

State Savings Bank, Bikaner — In order to promote the habit of 
thrift among (he State employees and other members of the public, the 
Princely Government of Bikaner started a Savings Bank on ISth July, 
1928. The Bank, while promoting a voluntary habit of thrift, offered more 
lucrative rates of interest, on investments, than the Postal Savings Bank. 
The scope of business of this bank enlarged when it was allowed to 
finance the development of industries, as well as to afford facilities to the 

). Source ; Oflice of the Registrar, Co-operative Societies, RSjasthSn, Jaipur." 


Banking, Trade and Commerce 


193 


generai public in the conduct of their daily business The business of 
the State Savings Bank made exceptionally rapid progress within a short 
time of its existence and the working of the bank had been attended by 
exceedingly good results, which was the direct outcome of the several 
facilities offered by it to the public. The following figures give some 
idea of the transactions carried out by it : 


(Rs. in ’000) 




1929-30 

1 930-31 

1931-32 


Deposits 

With- 

drawals 

Deposits 

With- 

drawals 

Deposits 

With- 

drawals 

1. 

Fixed 

Deposits 

4,780 

1.297 

16,485 

5,923 

30,285 

14,700 

2. 

Savings Bank 
Accounts 

310 

163 

805 

603 

985 

544 

3. 

Current 

Accounts 

527 

438 

1,354 

1,314 

2,9B2 

2,577 


The Bank added six branches in 1929, of which one was at 
Bikaner city and five at other important towns of the State. During 
the year 1930-31, on the pressing demand from the public, five more 
branches were opend, one at Railway Workshop, Bikaner and the other 
four at important places in Canal area. The Railway Workshop branch 
afforded all the postal facilities also to the inhabitants since there was 
no post office in the vicinity. During the year 1935-36, the scope of 
activities of the bank was very much widened and it was permitted to 
transact all descriptions of banking business, with special regard to 
(1) Savings bank accounts, (2) Current accounts, (3) Fixed deposits, 
(4) Loans, ovcrdrafis and cash credits, (5) Collections and Remittances, 
(6) Sale and Purchase orSccuritics,(7) Safe custody of articles, (8) Letters 
of credit and travellers’ cheques and (9) S.ifc deposit Boxes, available to 
the public at a nominal rent. 

The Bank acted as a representative in Bikaner for encashing letters 
of credit and iraYcliers’ cheques of a number of banks of high standing 
in and outside the country. It also acted as an agent for ten premier 
insurance companies for payment of premium free of any charge. 

With the opening of the Bank of Bikaner Ltd., on 31st January, 
1945, the State Savings Bank stopped functioning. Its management was 
transferred to the former with effect from 3ist December. 1945. 


194 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


The particulars of joint stock banks presently functioning in the 
district are given below : 


Name of the Bank 

Name of the branch 

Date of 
establishment 

1. The Central Bank of 

The Central Bank of India Ltd. 


India Ltd. 

Bikaner 

5.9.1964 

2. The Bank of Rajasthan 

The Bank of Rajasthan Ltd., 

7.9. 1 96 1 

Ltd. 

Bikaner 

3. State Bank ofBikaner 

1, State Bank of Bikaner and 


& Jaipur 

Jaipur, Public Park, Bikaner 

31.1.1945 


2. State Bank of Bikaner and 
Jaipur, Kote Gate, Bikaner 

3. State Bank of Bikaner and 

25.11.1946 


Jaipur, City Branch, Bikaner 

15.2.1945 


4, State Bank of Bikaner and 
Jaipur, Lnnkaransar 

5. State Bank of Bikaner and 

24.2.196 > 


Jaipur, Naukha 

2.1.1961 

4. The United Commer- 

The United Commercial Bank 


cial Bank Ltd. 

Ltd., Bikaner 

28.9.1958 

5. The Punjab National 

The Punjab National Bank 


Bank Ltd. 

Ltd., Bikaner 

26.10.19i6 

6. The Central Co-ope- 

The Central Co-operative 


rative Bank Ltd. 

Bank Ltd., Bikaner 

19.5.1951 


Rajasthan Financial Corporation 

To assist the industries by grant of long term loans, the Rajas- 
than Financial Corporation was established in 1955, with its head- 
quarter at Jaipur. Till the end of 1965-66, two concerns from the district 
applied for loans of a total of Rs. 3,00,000 of which one, viz. The China 
Ware and Potteries was sanctioned Rs. 2,16,000. 

Insurance 

Before the nationalisation of life insurance, ten well known 
insurance companies were functioning in the then Bikaner State. Most 



Banking, Trade and Commerce 


195 


of these companies were dealing in both life and general insurance 
business. Life insurance business has now been taken over by the Life 
Insurance Corporation of India. The field ofiicers of the Corporation 
who are known as Development Officers, are assigned the task of 
developing the field organisation.^They appoint agents, educate them and 
supervise their working for maximum new business and render on the 
spot help to the policy holders in the area. These development officers 
are posted at practically all the tahsil headquarters in the district. 

State Insurance — During the year 1927-28, the then Bikaner 
State Government introduced a scheme of life insurance and endow- 
ment assurance in order to promote the habit of thrift among the State 
government employees. The scheme was kept optional initially for two 
years and then for another year. It was, thereafter made compulsory. 
The rates of premium were comparatively lower than those fixed by 
other reputed private insurance companies and these were exempted 
from tax. Policy holders in need could get short loans against the 
amounts deposited as premiums. Policies were neither alienable nor 
could be attached in execution of decrees of civil courts or realisation 
of State claims. These benefits were later extended to the general public 
when the operational area of the state insurance was widened. 

The 1953 Compulsory State Insurance Scheme for all the emplo- 
yees of Rajasthan, was made applicable in Bikaner district with effect 
from 1st March, 1954. The scheme was extended in three stages. In 
the first stage, it applied to all the permanent government employees 
drawing a pay of Rs. 51 and above. In the second stage, it was also 
extended to all the permanent employees drawing a pay between Rs. 35 
and Rs. 50. Finally, the scheme brought into its purview all the perma- 
nent employees of the State Government. It also covered employees of 
the Panchayat Samltis and Zila Parishads, but later exempted them with 
effect from 1st February, 1962, continuing, however, for officials covered 
by it prior to that date. In I960, the scheme was made applicable also to 
all the temporary state emplojecs who had put in one year’s service 
with the exception of those who were not likely to be made permanent. 
An Insurance Supervisor, with other siaff, has been posted at Bikaner 
to look after the work in the district. 

National Savings 

PnVr to the merger of the State into Rajaslhrm savings could be 
invested in Post office deposits and Postal Certificates, Bikaner 'State 



196 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Savings Bank, co-operative societies and Government loans. According 
to the observations of the Bikaner Banking Enquiry Committee, 1929, 
certain people did not resort to any of the above modes of investment 
but purchased gold and silver with whatever- they saved, compelled, as 
they felt, by social customs which considered ornaments essential to 
keep the prestige of the family and for dowry.as stridhan. 

Before 1948, the administrative control of working of the small 
savings schemes was with the State Government. Authorised agents 
for the sale of National Savings Certificates on 2i per cent commission, 
were appointed. For Bikaner State the work was being supervised by 
the State’s National Savings Adviser, who was headquartered at 
Jodhpur. An ofBce of National Savings Organisation was established 
in the district in 1949. At present, the organisation of the National 
Small Savings Scheme consists of one Assistant Regional Director, 
in-charge of Bikaner, Ganganagar, Churu and Nagaur districts, 
who is assisted by one District Organiser and one upper division clerk, 
for Bikaner. The following figures show the total gross collections 
made under various schemes during the last five years : 

(Rs. in thousand) 


Year 


Schemes 




N. S. Cs.i 

T.S.D.C./A.C.2 

P.O S.B.S 

C.T.D.4 

Total 

1961-62 

380 

5 

1,223 

76 

1,684 

1962-63 

200 

61 

1,063 

94 

1,418 

1963-64 

188 

— 

1,045 

132 

1,365 

1964-65 

342 

40 

1,179 

100 

1,661 

1965-66 

315 

1 

1,404 

119 

1,839 


/i 


•' "'The following measures were taken to intensify the progress of 
Small Savings Scheme in Bikaner district. 

1. Organisation of training camps of extra-departmental branch 
Post Masters and agents, 

2. Launching of Savings drives. 


J. N. S. Cs. — National Savings Certificates. 

2. T. S. D. C./A. Cs. — Tteasury Savings Deposits Certirlcatcs/^nnuity Certificates. 

3. P. O. S. B. — Post Office Savings Bank. 

4. C. T. D. — Cumulative Time Deposits. 



Banking, Trade and Commerce 


197 


3, Seeking the help of various Heads of Offices/Departments, 
Local Bodies and associations etc., to promote the scheme in their 
respective spheres to secure investments, appoint agents, form pay-rolls 
and savings groups and invest provident funds of the employees in 
savings certificates. 

4, Introduction of Pay-rolls Savings Group in Railway workshop 
at Bikaner. At the end of the year 1965-66, there were about 375 
members of the group. Pay-rolls Saving Groups were also functioning 
in Panchayat Samitis,. Ltinkaransar and Bikaner. 

Bikaner Coins 

There are no coins extant which may have been struck by the 
rulers of Bikaner before they acknowledged the vassalage of the Delhi 
Empire. No coins have been found which could be attributed to the 
early rulers of the area. Before the opening of the mint by Maharaja 
Gaj Singh, the Farruk S/talii rupee (coin of the Emperor Farruk Siyar), 
was in currency, Maharaja Gaj Singh obtained a Sanad from Emperor 
Alamgir II permitting him to strike coins. Although it is claimed that 
this privilege was granted in Samvat 1809 (a. d, 1753), no record is 
available to substantiate this claim. It appears that coins were struck 
only after the year 1759, the first year of Shah Alam’s reign. From the 
time of Maharaja Gaj Singh, all coins of the State were struck in the 
name of Shah Alam, till 1859, when the name of the Queen of England 
was first cut on the die. 

Each ruler adopted a special device to distinguish his coins from 
the others. This was done by means of difTcrent symbols marked on 
the coins. For instance. Pataka, Dlivaja or Flag stood a symbol for 
Maharaja Gaj Singh, Tristile or Trident for Maharaja Surat Singh and 
Kirnia or a turban star for Maharaja Ratan Singh while for Maharaja 
Sardar Singh it was a Cbhata or Umbrella, for Maharaja Dungar Singh, 
a Cbaiiri or Fly-mask and for Maharaja Ganga Singh, a Morcbbal or 
Peacock feather fly-whisk. 

Gold coins had never been struck in the State and each of these 
rulers issued only silver and copper coins. Both the mzr (especially 
fine and of full weight) and ordinary rupees were issued. Maharajas 
Sardar Singh and Dungar Singh issued smaller silver coins of the value 
of a half, a quarter, and one eighth of a rupee also. The weight of a 
Bikaner rupee was reported to be 174 grains, vdth purity content of 
\(uAl grains. Prior to the days of Maharaja Sardar Singh, the copper 



198 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


coins were very poorly struck and also varied a good deal in weight. 
The copper coins of Maharajas Sardar Singh and Dungar Singli are 
reported to be very fairly stamped and those of Maharaja Ganga 
Singh, the best executed in Rajputana States. 

The coins of both these metals were called after the name of the 
respective Maharaja, proceeded by the word Shalii. The Durbar did not 
issue the coins but merely kept the Sikka or die and minted the coins 
after purifying the metal, when Sabukars (merchants) or other people 
brought them. 1,025 masbas of silver had to be provided for getting every 
100 rupees each weighting 10 masbas, struck, the extra 25 masbas 
accounted for wastage in melting, custom duty, cleaning charges 
assaying and weighing charges etc.i 

TRADE AND COMMERCE 

The export- and import trade of the then Bikaner State, steadily 
kept pace with the introduction of improved means of communication 
and specially after the spread of a net-work of Railway lines A separate 
Department of Commerce and Industry was created in 1920. An 
Industrial Exhibition was organised in the State during the Pfeace 
Celebrations, in December 1919, in which agricultural, mineral and' other 
products of the State were exhibited. The exhibition created widespread 
interest and gave an impetus to industrial production in the State. The 
State Government took an active part in the British Empire Exhibition; 
wherein Bikaner indigenous arts and crafts articles ’were exhibited. Most 
of the exhibits elicited general appreciation and led to large demand 
for them from outside the State. 

Imports and Exports 

The major items of import were xicc, kiraiia, cloth, salt, sbisbam- 
wood perfumery, ghee, oils of all kinds, country tobacco for smoking, 
gold and gold ornaments, silver and silver, ornaments, lead, zinc, tin 
fur, molasses, unrefined sugar, fancy goods and coal. The main 
items of export were wool, hides, sarson, taramira and bones. 

Marketing 

Before the introduction of railways,- distances were large and 
means of communication meagre and the villages were almost self- 
sufficient economic units. The distribution of occupations was simple 

j. Webb, W. W., 77ie Currencies of Hindu Slates of li&jput'Sna, 1893, pp. 55 to <53. 



banking, Trade and Commerce 


199 


and each village produced most of its food requirements and obtained 
other articles of daily necessity, from places nearby. But after the 
development of the means of communication, a few inamlis came into 
existence. At present, there are three manclis in this district viz. Bikaner, 
Naukha and Lankaransar. These are discussed in detail in subsequent 
paragraphs. In addition, there are weekly markets in each village 
known as Painths or hats, whete food and other articles are brought 
and sold. Bulk of the village produce, however, is either sold in the 
village itself or purchased by the village money-lender. For want of 
quick means of transport, primitive carriages are used, resulting is 
belated arrivals in the mandis and wastage in transit, due to leakage. 

The village money-lenders, merchants and the dealers are the 
major agencies who arrange marketing of the produce from the village 
to the mandis and from there further to fthe consumption and 
exporting centres. They provide necessary finance, enter into necessary 
negotiations for the sale of the produce and finally arrange its carriage 
from place to place according to the requirements of the trade. 

Storage 

There has been a general dearth of good storage accommodation 
for village produce. At the mandi centres the traders take godowus on 
rent, for the storage of grain, cotton and wool (called beaches), with no 
provision for insurance against loss by fire or theft. 

Rajasth^k State Warehousing Corporation— A centre of the 
Rajjisthan State Warehousing Corporation was established at Bikaner 
in April, 1960, The year-wise figures of produce, offered for storage at 
Bikaner, are given below : 


Year 

Produce offered 


(Tonnes) 

1961-62 

100 

1962-63 

355 

1963-04 

1423 

1964-65 

139 


The articles stored were Moons, Wheat, Gram, Barley, Bajra, 
Moth, Jowar, Gur, Mcthi, Cotton seed, Linseed and Oil, Chillies 
and Vegetable Ghee. The Corporation had been running this Centre 
in a hired building. Owing to small arrivals since 1964-65, the staff of 
State Warehouse. Bikaner was temporarily withdrawn. 



20U 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — -Bikaner 


Mandis 

Bikaner — Bikaner Mandi is a state regulated market, since July 
1956. The main commodities brought to this Mandi for purchase and 
sale are Wheat, Bajra, Barely, Jowar, Gram, Moong, Groundnut, Til, 
Chillies and Wool. Bikaner is a Northern Railway junction station, 
an important distribution centre, as well as the biggest wool market of 
Rajasthan. The hinterland of the market extends to the area of Bikaner 
Panchayat Saraiti and about 30 villages of Panchayat Samiti Kolayat. 
The approximate annual arrivals of these commodities in the market 
area are 3,78,080 quintals, valued at Rs. 420.65 lakhs. Eighty per cent 
of the produce is brought to the market by the producers. The total 
number of functionaries, operating in the market, is 696, consisting of 39 
wholesalers-cum-general commission agents, 339 retailers, 112 traders 
of wool, four brokers, 200 Hamals and weighmeo, one co-operativ“ 
marketing society and one Warehouse man. 

Market charges, operating in the Mandi before and after its 
regulation, are given in the following table : 

(Rs.) 





Market charges for produce worth Rs. 100 

Kind of (he 

Prior to Regulation 

After Regulation 

Market Charges i 

Cereals 

Oil- 

seeds 

Wool 

Cereals 

Oil- 

seeds 

Wool 

1, 

Commission 

2.00 

2.00 

1.75 

1.25 

1.25 

1.25 

2. 

Dalali 

0.07 

0.07 

0.08 

0.07 

0.07 

0.05 

3. 

Hainan 

0.07 

0.07 

— 

0.07 

0.07 

0.04 

4. 

Weighment 

0.07 

0.07 

0.15 

0*07 

0.07 

0.03 

5. 

Cartage (from station 
to mandi 

0.20 

0.20 

0.10 

0.18 

0.18 

0.10 

6, 

Unloading from cart 

0.04 

0.04 

— 






7. 

Excess weight 

0.20 

0.20 

3.75 



— 

8. 

Insurance of godown 

0.06 

0.06 

— 


.... 

.... 

9. 

Godown Rent 

0.10 

O.IO 

0.15 

0.10 

0.10 

0.05 

10. 

Goshala 

O.Ol 

0.01 

' 

..... 

--JI 


11. 

Dharmada 

0.06 

0.06 

0.03 

— 

; , 

. — , 

12. 

Brahmacharya Ashram 

0.06 

0.06 



j- -- 


13. 

Muddat 

0.35 

0.30 

0.31 

.... 



14, 

Association charges 

— 

— 

0.03 

.... 

— 


15. 

Postage 

0.01 

0.01 

0.02 

.... 




16, 

Cost of Bora 



1.50 



_ ■ . 

17. 

Refilling «& stitching 
of Bora 

— 

— 




0.10 


Total 

3.30 

3.25 

7.87 

1.74 

1.74 . 

1.62 


Banking, Trade and Commerce 


201 


A Market Committee, consisting of the representatives of agricul- 
turists, traders, co-operative organisation, Panchayat Samiti and the 
Government, looks after the regulation of buying and selling of agri- 
cultural produce, in the mandi. Market regulations are designed to 
•prevent exploitation of the farmers or other small traders by merchants 
and commission agents. The law seeks to make marketing more efficient, 
so that farm produce brings better yields to the producers and is made 
available to consumers through the regular distribution system. A 
Marketing Inspector at Bikaner looks after the working of the market. 

Naukha — Naukha is one of the biggest and the oldest grain 
mandis of Bikaner district. The approximate annual arrivals in the 
market are 1,00,000 quintals of goods valued at about Rs, 60.68 lakhs. 
The number of market functionaries, operating in the market, is 80, 
consisting of 14 .traders and wholesalers, 26 retailers and 40 weighmen 
and Hamah. 

Market charges, in this mandi, for commodities worth Rs. 100, 
before and after regulation, are given in the following table : 


(Amount in Rs.) 



Before regulation 

After 

regulation 

Type of Charges 

Cereals 

Oilseeds 

Cereals 

Oilseeds 

I. Commission 

— 

— 

1.00 

1.00 

2. Dlialta 

1.30 

1.30 

— 

— 

3. Hamali 

0.30 

0.30 

0.30 

0.30 

4, Weighment 

— 

— 

0.05 

0.05 

5. Goshaia 

0-10 

0.10 

— 

— 

Total 

1.70 

1.70 

1.35 

1.35 


The regulated commodities arc Bajra, Jowar, Moong, Moth, Guar, 
Arhar and til, within the areas of Panchayat Samiti, Naukha and Naukha 
Municipal Board. A market committee, consisting of Government 
representatives and the representatives of the co-operative organisation, 
regulates the functioning of the mandi. 

U!NKARANSAR--This/«^7w//i> located at a distance of approxima- 
tely til km. by rail frum Bikaner. There arc 25 market functionaries, 
operating in the market, consisting ot five wholesalers and 20 retailers. 


202 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


The following table indicates the approximate annual arrivals 
of the commodities, in the three mandis of the district and the places 
wherefrom these arc imported and where to these are exported : 


Commodity Annual Arrivals 

(in quintals) 

Places wherefrom 
imported 

Places where 
to exported 

Bikaner 

1. Wool 

150,000 

Churu, Beawar 

Uttar Pradesh, 
Punjab, Bombay 

2. Wheat 

200,000 

Ganganagar, 

Punjab 

— 

3. Bajra 

125,000 

Nagaur, Jaipur 

— 

4. Gram 

50,000 

Ganganagar 

Madras 

5. Jowar 

5,000 

Punjab, Nagaur 

— 

6. Moong 

10,000 

Nagaur, Churu, 
Ganganagar 

— 

7. Guar 

100,000 

Nagaur, Churu, 
Ganganagar 

Punjab 

8. Cotton seed 

25,000 

Ganganagar, Ajmer 

— 

9. Groundnut 

10,000 

Uttar Pradesh, Merta 

— 

10. Barley 

20,000- 

Punjab 

— 

11. Rice 

100,000 

Punjab, Udaipur, 
Kota, Bassi, 
Ganganagar 


12. Til 

50,000 

Nagaur 

Madras 

13. Chillies 
Naukha 

10,000 

Pali, Beawar 

— 

1. Moth 

50,000 

— 

Punjab, Bombay, 
Gujrat, Madras 

2. Bajra 

25,000 

— 

Gujrat, Madras, 
Bombay, Punjab 

3. Guar 

10,000 


Madras, Bombay, 
Gujrat, Punjab 

4. Til 

10,000 

~ 

Madras, Bombay, 
Gujrat, Punjab 

5. Wheat 

10,000 

Ganganagar 

— 

Lunkaransar 

1. Bajra 

10,000 

— 


2. Wheat 

8,000 

Ganganagar 


3. Guar 

7,000 

— 

- 

4. Cotton 

2,600 

— 


5. Ttl 

7,500 

— 

Madras, Bombay 

6. Moth 

11,200 

— 

Punjab, Bombay 


Banking, Trade and Commerce 


203 


Traders’ and Merchants’ Associations 

Following are the important traders’ and merchants’ associations 
in the district : 

1. Bikaner Vyapar Mandal, K. E. M. Road, Bikaner. 

, 2. The Bikaner Pan Traders Association, Bikaner. 

3. Cloth Merchants’ Association, Bikaner. 

4. United Chamber of Commerce, Bikaner. 

5. Iron and Steel Merchants Association, Bikaner. 

6. Bullion Association, Bikaner. 

7. Bikaner Flour Mills Association, Bikaner. 

8. Shri Bikaner Purchuni Anaj Committee, Bikaner. 

9. Lohar Association, Bikaner. 

10. Cycle Merchants Association, Bikaner. 

11. Purchuni Vyapar Sangh, Bikaner. 

12. Bikaner Anaj Committee, Bikaner. 

13; Halwai Association, Bikaner. 

These associations look after the interests of their members and 
collectively deal with the Government Departments and Railways, to 
help run the business of their members smoothly. They negotiate with 
the municipal authorities, with regard to the levy of octroi duty, etc., 
and other matters of common interest. They also collect statistics 
about their respective trades and look after the charitable institutions run 
with the help of the donations made by sellers and buyers in the mandis. 

State Trading 

During the Second World War, the prices of essential commo- 
dities showed a rising trend. In order to control the supply and prices 
of foodgrains, the Food Grains Control Order, 1942, was promulgated 
in the erstwhile Bikaner State, on 25th July, 1942, under which it was 
made incumbent upon the wholesale dealers to obtain licenses for the 
purchase, sale and storage of foodgrains. The export of specified 
foodgrains, outside the then Bikaner State, was banned. Kerosene oil 
and salt also came under the purview of this Central measure. Further, 
the Bikaner State Motor Spirit Rationing Order, 1941 and the Tyre 
Rationing Order 1942, were also promulgated in the State w.c.f. 15lh 
August, 1941 and 15th August, 1942 respectively. The office of the 
Controller of Prices was separated from that of Inspector General of 
Customs and Excise, wito used to hold the charge of both the depart- 
ments. A post of the Director of Civil SuddHcs v/as created in June. 
1141 



204 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


Similarly, in order to control the prices of cotton cloth and yarn, 
the Cotton Cloth and Yarn (Control) Order, 1943 was promulgated, 
under which all the dealers in cloth were required to take licenses. A 
Textile Merchants Committee was formed for the procurement and 
distribution of cloth, allotted to the State by the Textile Commissioner, 
Bombay. Depots were opened in the capital and Advisory Committees 
were formed to ensure an equitable and quick distribution to the general 
public. 

After the formation of greater Rajasthan, state control over the 
supply and distribution of essential commodities continued in one form 
or the other. There were 199 fair price shops (of which 86 in rural 
areas) functioning in the district, for the distribution of wheat and 
sugar, in 1965-66. 

The following figures indicate the quantities of imported wheat, 
allotted to thcdistriet, during the last 15 months, ending March 1966; 

(Tonnes) 


u Month 

Wheat 

January, 1965 

1,935 

February, 1965 

1,590 

March, 1965 

1,560 

April, 1965 

1,590 

May, 1965 

1,590 

June, 1965 

1,575 

July, 1965 

1,575 

August, 1965 

1,268 

September, 1965 

736 

October, 1965 

1,920 

November, 1965 

1,040 

December, 1965 

2,112 

January, 1966 

4,326 

February, 1966 

3,440 

March, 1966 

3,388 


The allotment of Millo was started from the month of March, 
1966 and 896 tonnes of it were allotted to the district, during that month. 


Banking, Trade and Commerce 


205 


Weights and Measures 

To provide uniform weights and measures and check fraud, the 
Government of the then Bikaner State introduced Bikaner State 
Weights and Measures Act, 1934. Under the act, the primary standard of 
weight, except for gold and silver.was a seer equal to 80 iohs. It conform- 
ed to the standard seer of British India. Standard of weight for gold was 
called a ro/cT, equivalent to twelve standard /ncs/ms of British India. The 
standard of weight for silver was a silver tola, equivalent to ten standard 
Ml as/ms of British India. For the linear measure, the standard yard of 
British India, equivalent to 3 standard feet or 36 inches, was adopted. 
However, the existing 2 standard-feet-yard of Maimandi Department 
was permitted to continue as a measure of residential land in towns 
under the new Act. For measuring capacity, a measure containing 
one seer of water, at its maximum density, weighed in vacuume, was 
adopted. 

Under the provisions of the 1934 Act, every standard weight and 
measure was to bear a State stamp and was to be registered, in the 
manner prescribed by the Government. Use of unregistered w'eights 
and measures was punishable with a fine, upto Rs. 50 for first offence 
and Rs. 100 for every subsequent offence. Approved standard weights 
and measures models were kept in the offices of the tahsildars or 
other such places, determined by the Government. Inspectors were 
appointed for enforcing, stamping, registering and c;rtifying standard 
weights and measures. 

Metric System OF Weights aiNb Measures— Rajasthan Weights 
and Measures Act, 1954, made operative with effect from 1st September, 
1956, enforced the adoption of standardised and uniform weights and 
measures of seer, maund etc., throughout the territory of Rajasthan, 
Rajasthan Weights and Measures (Enforcement) Act, 1958, enacted 
on the lines of the Central law, replaced the old act and introduced 
the metric system in six districts of Rajasthan, including Bikaner, with 
effect from 1st October, 1958. After the expiry of two transitional 
years, during which both old and new weights were to continue side by 
side, new weights were made compulsory, from 1st October, I960. New 
capacity measures were also introduced from 1st April, I960 and made 
compulsory with effect from 1st April, 1962. New linear measures were 
introduced in the whole of the State with effect from 1st October, 1961 
•and made compulsory on 1st October, 1962. 



206 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Wide publicity was organised by the Department of Industries 
to acquaint the public with the new system of weights and measures. 
There is one Weights and Measures office at Bikaner, With laboratories 
at Bikaner and Naukha. There are four Inspectors and one Assistant 
Inspector (posted at Naukha), looking after the work in Bikaner 
district. To assist them, are two lower division clerks, five manual 
assistants and two peons. Dealers are granted licences liberally for 
the sale of metric weights and measures and they are required to main- 
tain a stipulated minimum stock of weights etc. 



CHAPTER VII 


COMMUNICATIONS 

OLD ROUTES 

SufScient information is not available about tbe old routes 
except what can be gathered from the old Gazetteers and the writings 
of early foreign travellers who visited this area. Lieutenant A. H. E. 
Boileau has mentioned the following trade routes in his report publi- 
shed in 19371. 



208 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Some mention has also been made by Captain Burtoni about the 
trade routes in his report for the year 1872-73 which says that a 
principal trade route ran from Delhi via Bhivsfani, in Hisar. to 
Rajgarh in Bikaner, whence one line proceeded to Bikaner city via 
Reni. The other important trade route mentioned was from Baha- 
walpur (now in Pakistan) via Majgarh and Pngal to the city of Bikaner. 

Captain P. W. Powlett mentioned that there were practically no 
roads in Bikaner except a mile or so near the city towards Gajner. 
The journey through carts and camels was very irksome in the heavy 
sand. Goods were carried by camels but the rich people used to 
maintain Raths or light travelling carts. 

The details of principal old routes within the Bikaner State 


territory, as given by Powlett were as follows^ ; 

1. Bikaner to Ajmer Route — (Total length) 150 miles 

( i ) Bikaner to Deshnoke 1^ » 

(ii ) Deshnoke to Charkara 20 „ 

2. Bikaner to Bahawalpur Route — (Total length) 150 „ 

(i) Bikaner to Bardrasar 15 „ 

(ii ) Badrasar to Karnisar 14 „ 

(iii) Karnisar to Pngal 20 „ 

(iv) Pngal to Miinjgarh in Bahawalpur territory 60 „ 

3. Bikaner to Bhiwani Route — (Total length) 180 „ 

(i) Bikaner to Karnisar 12 Kos 

(ii ) Karnisar to Kalu 12 „ 

(iii) Kalu to Bahadursar 16 

(iv) Bahadursar to Sardarearb 8 „ 

( Vi Sardargarh to Reni 14 „ 

(vi) Reni to Rajgarh 14 „ 

(vii) Rajgarh to Khurd Kot ■ 8 „ 

4. Bikaner to Sirsa Route — (Total length) 160 miles 

( i ) Bikaner to Malhasar . 1 0 Kos 

(h ) Malhasar to Khari 12 „ 

(iii) Khari to Nathwan 8 „ 

(iv) Nathwan to Sai 14. „ 

( v) Sai to Shekhsar 16 „ 

(vi) Shekhsar to Pain 16 „ 

(vii) Palu to Nohar )8 

(viii) Nohar to Jamalki 10 „ 


}. Poivtcit Ctyp\timV.SS/.,Ca!ettecr of the Dtkarter State, p. 
2. il’id. pp. 9C"97. 



Communications 


209 


Major K. D. Erskinet writing about 35 years after Powlett also 
mentioned that the metalled roads existed only at or in the vicinity of 
the Capital (Bikaner) and their total length was 21^ miles (34. 8 km.) 
in 1896, which increased to 35i miles (57.1 km.) in 1901 and to 51.14 
miles (82.3 km.) in 1905-06. 

ROADS AND ROAD TRANSPORT 

Roads 

Due to sandy nature of the soil and the frequency of dust- 
storms and high winds, the feasibility of making roads is obviously 
limited. The sparseness of population also does not warrant heavy 
expenditure on these projects. Nevertheless, the road mileage has 
increased since Independence and now the district is considerably better 
served by good roads. 

At the time of the launching of the First Five Year Plans, the 
total length of roads in Bikaner District was only 183 km. (114 miles). 
This increased to 753 km. (468 miles) at the end of 1955-56. 

During the Second Five Year Plan, the Blkaner-Lonkaransar 
road was completed and construction work was also taken up on 
Blkaner-Chhattargarh and Bikaner-Dungargarh roads. The total 
expenditure on the construction and repair of roads amounted to 
Rs. 16.42 lakhs during the Second Five Year Plan, after which the road 
length increased to 913 km. During the Third Five Year Plan, a sum 
of Rs. 9.66 lakhs was spent on the construction and repair of various 
roads. The length of roads at the end of the year 1965-66 was 1,037 
kilometres. The following table indicates the length of various types 
of roads from 1958-59 to 1965-663, 

(Kilometres) 


Type of roads m58-59 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66 


1 . 

Cement 

concrete 

■ — _ _ 






1 

2 

2. 

Painted 

220 

259 

259 

293 

296 

315 

332 

343 

3. 

Metalled 

150 

159 

196 

161 

132 

140 

114 

T-4 

4. 

Grave lied 

■ 84 

230 

188 

192 

156 

195 

178 

188 

5. 

Fair-weather 
dressed up 
tracks 352 

219 

270 

320 

352 

312 

343 

370 


Total 

S06 

867 

913 

966 

936 

962 

968 . 

1037 


1. Ersltine, M.njor K. D„ TOe R-lJputSna GaxitecrSy^ Volume Hf-A. 1909, p. 353. 

2. Bikamr Pra?tl ke Fa:h pr.r. the Public Relations Diparlment. Blk.-jner, 

3. StaisU’ea! Al’Sfract, M'Siasi/r&’i, ysarly volumes for various years. 




210 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


At the end of Third Five Year Plan, the road length in the 
district in terms of populationi, was greater, being 2.33 km. per 1000 of 
population, than the average of 1.52 km, for the State as a whole. 

Road Transport 

Motor vehicles— The following table shows motor vehicles on 
road in the district, from 1957 tol9662. 


(Number) 


Type of vehicles 

1957 

1958 

1959 

1960 

1961 

1962 

1963 

1964’ 

1965 '1966 

1. Privates Cars 
& Jeeps 

525 

551 

580 

611 

620 

651 

668 

698 

727 

765 

2. Private Buses 

20 

20 

21 

34 

35 

35 

35 

36 

36 

■36 

3. Motor Cycles, 
Tricycles & 
Rikshaws 

137 

165 

180 

194 

213 

211 

230 

244 

266 

’ 292 

4. Contract & 
taxi carriages 

3 

3 

3 


10 

10 

10 

12 

12 

12 

5, Stage Carriages 

53 

64 

71 

105 

109 

117 

128 

138 

144 

150 

6. Public Carriers 

116 

125 

.129 

154 

156 

170 

197 

220 

238 

256 

7. Private Carriers 36 

36 

40 

43 

47 

67 

68 

70 

74 

89 

8. Tractors 

24 

26 

30 

31 

34 

36 

36 

39 

43 

46 

9. Others 

69 

74 

78 

89 

88 

92 

95 

,108 

110 

110 

Total 

983 

1064 

1132 1262 

1312 

1389 1467 1565 

1650 

1756 


Thus, out of the total of 1 756 vehicles on road in 1966, the largest 
number i.e 765 was of privately owned c^sjnd j^ps, followed by motor 
I cycles, tricycles and rikshaws, numbering 292. The public carriers and 
stage carriages came next, their number being 256 and lSO respectively. 

Besides the motor vehicles registration of other vehicles like 
bicycles, /ongnj and bullock-carts is done by -municipal boards and 
some of the panchayat samitis, by charging a nominal registration fee. 

Bicycle is used both in towns and the rural areas .by the common 
man. In Bikaner city taxis are available at 50 paise per mile in addition 


1. Tratiya Fanchvarshiya Yojna Pragati Prativedan, 1961-66, p. 290.' 

2. Statistical Abstract, PSJasthSn, yearlj' volumes for various years. 



Communications 


211 


to haltage charges of Re. 1 per hour, while tongas afe available both 
on the distance basis and Re. 1 per hour. 

Public transport— No route in Bikaner district has so far been 
nationalised and private buses ply on all routes within the district. 36 
such private buses were on road during 1966. No inter-State bus 
service operates from anywhere in the district. 

Fare and freight — After the formation of Rajasthan, the State 
government fixed* maximum fare and freight rates for stage carriages 
and public carriers on all routes throughout the State. These were as 
follows : — 


1, Stage carriages — for single journey per person on : 


( i ) A Class routes 

(ii ) B Class routes 

(iii) C Class routes 


8 pies per mile 
11 pies „ „ 
14 pics „ „ 


These rates were revised as under with effect from 25.10.66 and 
were exclusive of Passenger Tax leviable under the Rajasthan Passengers 
and Goods Taxation Act, 19592 : 


(i) 


(ii) 

(iii) 


A Class routesS 

(a) Ordinary 

(b) Express or Mail 
First 100 km. 
Beyond 100 km. 

B Class routes 
C Class routes 


3 pies per km. 


4 

3 


» . 

t> 99 


4 

5 


fy 99 

99 9t 


The 'minimum permissible fare was for 10 km. 

2. Public Carriers — freight rates per single trip on : 


( i ) A Class routes 
(li ) B Class routes 
(iii) C Class routes 


3 pies per mile 

‘'a yy »> 

5 »> »» 


1. Vide Noiificatlon No. R. D./!0495/TC/50,'XX dated 29th March 1951 under the 
Rajasthan Motor Vehicles Act (Adoption) Ordinance, 1950. 

2. Source — Director of Transport, Rdjasthiln, Jaipur. 

3. Routes classification acajrding to road condition was ; 

A Class for cemented, tarred or roctalicd roads. 

B Class for Gravelled or A'celrcrred roads. 

C Class for all tradrs, fair weather and other roads not included in A and B 
classes of routes. 



212 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


There were 345 goods transport vehicles registered in the district 
in 1966 of which 89 were private carriers. The following 11 Goods 
Transport Companies are functioning in Bikaner ; 

1. Bikaner Globe Transport, Gangashahr Road, Bikaner. 

2. New Bikaner Bombay Goods Transport Co., Gangashahr 
Road, Bikaner. 

3. Agarwal Golden Transport Co. Pvt. Ltd., K. E. M. Road, 
Bikaner. 

4. Jaipur Golden Transport Co. Pvt. Ltd., K. E. M. Road, 
Bikaner. 

5. New Prem Krishana Transport Co., Gangashahr Road, 
Bikaner. 

6. Delhi Public Goods Transport Co., Gangashahr Road, 
Bikaner. 

7. Chand Transport Co., Gangashahr Road, Bikaner. 

8. Laxmi Transport Co,, Gangashahr Road, Bikaner. 

9. Onkar Goods Transport Co., Gangashahr Road, Bikaner. 

10. Gurunank Goods Transport Co., Gangashahr Road, 
Bikaner. 

11. South Eastern Roadways Goods Co„ Gangashahr Road, 
Bikaner. 

Road Accidents 

The table below indicates the number of accidents, persons 


injured and killed and the number of vehicles involved for each year 
separately during the years 1957 to 19661. 

Year 

No. of 
accideuts 

Persons 

killed 

Persons 

injured 

Vehicles 

involved 

1957 

14 

1 

24 

14 

1958 

18 

4 

19 

18 

-1959 

16 

5 

10 

17 


28 

1 

23 . 

30 

1961 

33 

11 

41 

32 

1962 

33 

13 ■ 

26 

32 

1963 

42 

5 

32 

38 

1964’ 

32 

7 

40 

31 

19f.5 

29 

13 

52 

30 

1966 

32 

7 

80 

29 


1. Statistical Abstract, Rajasthan, yearly volumes for various years. 



Communications 


213 


RAILWAYS 

The first railway section from Marwari to Bikaner city was opened 
in December, 1891, with a mileage of 43.65 (70 km.) and the exten- 
sions to Dulmera, Soratgarh and Bhatinda were completed in 1898, 
1901 and 1902, respectively. The administration of the Jodhpur-Bikaner 
Railway was run under the joint auspices of the then States of Bikaner 
and Jodhpur. It was separated from 1st November, 1924. 


The table below indicates the progress of Railways in the 
Bikaner State territory from time to time. 



Sections 

Date of opening 

Distance within 
Bikaner Territory 
(in miles) 

1. 

Blkaner-Marwar Frontier 
Section 

9 th December, 1891 

47.752 

2. 

Bikaner-Dulmera Section 

2nd June, 1898 

41.50 

3. 

Dulmcra-Saratgarh Section 

1st January, 1901 

71.85 

4. 

Blkaner-Ratangarh Chord 
Line 

24th November, 1912 84.97 

5. 

Bikaner-Kolayat Branch 

Line 

30th October, 1922 

27.29 


The first two sections provided important metre-gauge links 
between Bombay Presidency and the Punjab via Marwar Junction and 
Bhatinda. The Blkaner-Ratangarh chord linked the two important 
systems of the Bikaner Railway, running practically north and south, in 
the central and eastern parts of the erstwhile Bikaner State and provi- 
ded direct connections between Bikaner city and important towns like 
Churu, Sardarshahr, Ratangaih, Sujangarh and Sadulpur. 

In 1963, the total railway route mileage in the district was 307, 
which worked out to 3.2 miles per 100 sq. miles of area, as compared 
to 3.1 miles for Rajasthan as a whole. 

Railway Stations and Trains 

The district has direct rail connections with Delhi, Jodhpur, 

1. Fmir Dccoihs of Progress in Dtkar.sr, p. 98. 

2. Length increased by 4.1 miles owing to diversion made in 1908-09. 




214 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Jaipur, Ganganagar and the Punjab. The following are the Railway 
Stations in the district ; 


1. 

Bikaner 

12. 

Malkisar 

2. 

Napasar 

13. 

Jagdevwala 

3. 

Palana 

14, 

Jamsar 

4. 

Deshnoke 

15. 

Kanasar 

5. 

SOrpura 

16. 

Lalgarh 

6. 

Chlla 

17. 

Nal Bari 

7. 

Ltlnkaransar 

18. 

Durbari 

8. 

Mahajan 

19. 

Gajner 

9. 

Arjansar 

20. 

Kolayat 

10. 

Dulmera 

21. 

Gadhwala 

11. 

Dhlrera 

22. 

Naukha 


The following are the details of up and down passenger trains 
running between Bikaner and other important stations : 


S. No. 

Between 

Distance 

(km.) 

Number of 
'Up and 
down ' 
trains 

1. 

BIkaner-Bhatinda 

324 

4 

2. 

Blkaner-Marwar Jn. 

404 

2 

3. 

Bikaner-Delhi 

463 

4 • 

4. 

Blkaner-Kolayat 

50 

2 

5. 

Blkaner-Rewari 

380 

2 

6. 

Bikaner-Merta Road 

172 

2 


Economic Importance of Railways 

The rigours of frequent famines in the district have greatly been 
minimised by the improved means of communications, through rail lines, 
which enable speedy despatch of relief to the effected areas. Even 
water is supplied to scarcity areas in rail-borne tanks. The railways 
play a vital role in the economic life of the district, in that they help 
the export of surplus commodities like minerals and woollen goods and 
bring in food, fodder and other goods of daily use, not. produced in the 
district. Besides, railways have afforded considerable employment 
opportunities to the people of Bikaner and have proved a veritable 
boon for the district. 


Communications 


215 


AIR SERVICES 

There is an aerodrome at Nal near Bikaner but there is no 
regular air service. 

TRAVEL AND TOURIST FACILITIES 

Dbaramsbalas 

In the days of caravan traffic, dharamshalas used to be main- 
tained as halting places along the main trade routes. Many of these 
dharamshalas still exist at important places where passengers can stay 
without payment of rent. 

Rest Houses 

There is a Circuit House at Bikaner situated outside the Public 
Park. It has ten single and 3 double bed rooms. Both Government 
officers and private individuals are entitled to stay in the Circuit House 
on payment of the prescribed charges.^ Facilities for food, both Indian 
and Western, electricity and piped water supply are available. 

The State Public Works Department maintains a Dak Bungalow 
also, at Bikaner and Rest Houses at Kolayat, Lunkaransar and Dea (in 
(Kolayat tahsil). In Bikaner Dak Bungalow, there are seven single bed 
rooms and one dining room, with facilities of electric lights piped 
water supply and attached flush latrines. There is no provision for 
boarding. There are two double bed rooms each in Rest Houses at 
Lunkaransar, Kolayat and Dea. Kolayat Rest House only is electrified. 
There is no facility of boarding in any of these rest houses. The 
staying charges^ are the same as in Dak Bungalow, Bikaner. 

Hotels 

There arc several hotels in the district but only Anand, Green 
and Deluxe Hotels, at Bikaner, are worthy of mention. 

1. Daily CbargM for 

non-ofTicials arc : ( i ) Single person in a double room— Rs. 25.00 
(ii )Two persons in a double room— Rs 40.00. 

(ili) Bed and Breakfast— Rs. 10.00. 

(iv) Extra charges for air conditioned single room- Rs. 10,00. 
and Double room Rs. 12.00. The charges arc Rs. 7.00 
less for each additional person in the room. 

(v) Single room— Rs, 22.00 per head. 

2 Charges for rriv.’.tc persons per head arc Rs. 2.50 in Winter and Rs. 3.00 in 
Sum ner, while for Govt. Ofrioers, 50 paise in ttlnler and Re. 1.00 in Summer. 



216 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


POST AND TELEGRAPHS 

In former times, the Bikaner State maintained its own establishment 
of postal runners called i&sWj. These runners covered long distances 
on foot, with amazing speed. Major Erskine, writing in the Rajputana 
Gazetteer in 1909, mentioned that, assisted by a camel for only one 
fourth of the distance, these runners regularly travelled 170 miles {212 
hm.) between Bikaner and Jaipur in three days and three nights, for 
which they received Rs. 9 for a single journey. They could, however, 
undertake this journey in forty-two hours, if necessary, and in such a 
case would be paid Rs. 32. Two of them usually travelled together, 
in case one should break down. Captain Burton, who was Political 
Officer to the ruler of Bikaner during the later part of the nineteenth 
century, wrote on the authority of the Jamadars of the Postal establish- 
ment that the quickest pace at which a Kasid on foot had been known 
to travel in this country, was fifty kos (85 miles) in eight Pahars 
(twenty four hours), The average non-stop journey on foot extended 
over forty five miles. 

An .Imperial Post Office was first opened at Bikaner in July, 1884. , 
The State adopted Imperial Postal Unity in January, 1904. By 1908 
there were in all 29 Government Post Offices and 4 Telegraph Offices 
besides telegraph offices at Railway Stations in the State. The Post 
Offices within the present Bikaner district area were located at Bikaner, 
Deshnoke, Gangashahr, Lunkaransar, Marh (Madh) (closed in Feb- 
ruary 1908), Mahajah, Napasar, Pogal, Surpura and Udaisar, The 
establishment, maintained for escorting the mails, cost the State-exchequer 
Rs. 5,000 to Rs. 6,000 a year. 

In 19511, there were 30 Post Offices in Bikaner, District. By 
March, 1966 their number had gone up to 91, including 20 sub- 
post-offices and 70 branch offices, besides one Head Office at Bikaner, 
Their names are given in Appendix I. 

A Central Telegraph Office at Bikaner and 13 other Telegraph 
Offices and 15 Public Call Offices were working in the district on 3 1st 
March, 1966. • The names of these are given in Appendix II. 

TELEPHONES 

The first telephone exchange was installed at Bikaner in 1905, for 
connecting important buildings and institutions in the city. 

1. Census 1951, Rajasthan and Ajmer-Dis-trict Census Hand Book, Bikaner, Part 1, 
General Description and Census tables, p. xxvii. 



Communications 


217 


There is now a Central Battery Multiple Telephone Exchange at 
Bikaner. On 31st March, 1966, its working capacity was 720 connections 
while the actual number of working connections was 610 with 99 
extensions. 


RADIO STATION 

A Radio Station was established at Bikaner on 28th April, 1963, 
to serve as a relaying centre for the programmes broadcast from 
Jaipur Station. Bikaner Station has one transmitter of 10 K.w. power 
and operates at 225.6 metres or 1330 kilo-cycles on the medium wave 
band. It serves an area coming, approximately, within 160 km. (100 
miles) radius around it. 

ORGANISATIONS IN THE FIELD OF COMMUNICATION 
There were two associations, namely, Motor Services Association 
and Railway and Transport Passengers Association, working in Bikaner 
at the end of the year, 1963. The number of registered trade unions in 
the district on 31st Match, 1966, stood at seven. The detailed particulars 
of these are given below : 


Name of the Trade Union 

Date of 
registration 

Membership 

1. Motor Mazdoor Sangh, Gangashahr, 



Bikaner 

23.11.64 

70 

2. Rashtriya Oonth Chalak Congress, 



Bikaner 

31.8.65 

25 

3. Rashtriya Tonga Chalak Congress 



Bikaner 

31.8.65 

35 

4, Tonga Union, Bikaner 

2.9.65 

365 

5. Gada Thela Union, Bikaner 

20.11.65 

100 

6. Camclmcn & Mines Workers Union, Bilcancr 

17.12.65 

100 

7. Riljasthan ZiJa Factory Workers Union, 



Bikaner 

21.12.66. 

50 



5 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Appendix I 


Post Offices in 

ler Bikaner Head Office 

Akhasar 
Bamblu 
Barsisar 
Gersar 
Jaimalsar 
Jamsar 
Kanasar 
Karnlsar 
Kolasar 
Nal Bari 
Palana 
Pagal 
Rirmalsar 
Sarera 
Sheo Bari 
Udasar . 

, Dhirera 
, Bhinasar 
. Bikaner City 
, Bikaner Kutchery 
. Deshnoke 
Desilsar 
1. Jensindesar 
1. Janglu 
).; Kesardesar 
j. Rasisar 
7. Shinjguru, 

B. Sorpura 
9. Gajner Palace 

0. Gandhi Vidhya Mandir, Bikaner 

1. Gangashahr ' 

2. Udrainsar 

3. Goswami Chowk, Bikaner 

14. Jassusar Gate, Bikaner 

15. Kote Gate, Bikaner 
36. Lalkar 


Bikaner District 

37. Lalgarh Palace, Bikaner 

38. Lalgarh Road 

39. Lonkaransar 

40. Dulmera 

41. Jaitpura 

42. Kalu 

43. Kapnrisar 

44. Kumasa 

45. Mahajan 

46. Malkisar 
47 Shejarasar 

48. Sfiaikhsar 

49. Napasar 

50. Belasar 

51. Gusainsar 

52. Kuchor 

53. Mudsar 

54. Sintal 

55. Railway Workshop, Bikaner 

56. Rani Bazar, Bikaner 

57. Sadul Colony, Bikaner 

58. Kolayat 

59. Bajju 

60. Diyatra 

61. Dadiyala 

62. Gura 

63. Jhajhu 

64. Khindasar 

65. Station Road, Bikaner 

Under NSgaur Head Office 

66. Bhandra 

67. Dawa 

68. Kaku 

69. Saruda 

70. Naukha 

71. Berasar 


Communications 


219 


72. Bhadla 

73. Bikasar 

74. Charkara 

75. Dharong 

76. Dhingsari 

77. Gajsukhdesar 

78. Gondusar 

79. Hematsar 

80. Jasrasar 

81. Jasalsar 

82. Kakra 


83. Mensar 

84. Nathasar 

85. Nokh village 

86. Panchan 

87. Raisar 

88. Rora 

89. Udasa 

90. Udasar 

Under Ganganagar Head Office 

91. Khanisar 



27,1 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


Appendix II 

Telegraph Offices and Public Call Offices in Bikaner District 

Telegraph Offices 

1. Head Post Office, Bikaner 

2. City Post Office, Bikaner 

3. Departmental Telegraph Office, Bikaner 

4. Kote Gate, Bikaner 

5. Lalgarh Palace, Bikaner 

6. Bhinasar 

7. Deshnoke 

8. Gangashahr 

9. Gajner Palace 

10 . Lankaraasar 

11. Napasar 

12. Naukha 

13. Rani Bazar, Bikaner 

14. Kolayat 

Public Call Offices 

1. Railway Goods Shed, Bikaner 

2. City Post Office, Bikaner 

3. Departmental Telegraph Office, Bikaner 

4. Head Post Office, Bikaner 

5. Kote Gate, Bikaner 

6. Railway Station Bikaner 

7. Mall Sorting Office, Bikaner 

8. Bhinasar 

9. Deshnoke 

10. Gajner Palace 

11. Gangashahr 

12. Lnnkaransar 

13. Napasar 

14. Naukha 

15. Kolayat 



CHAPTER VIII 


MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATIONS 

According to 1961 Census, the working population of the district 
was 1,75,406 consisting of 1,20,652 males and 54,754 females. Of this, 
1,28,156 persons (78,890 males and 49,266 females) lived in rural areas 
and 47,250 persons (41,762 males and 5,488 females) in urban areas 
The non-working population was 2,69,109 consisting of 1,12,047 males 
and 1,57,062 females. Of this 1,28,333 persons(55,649 males and 72,684 
females) lived in rural areas while 1,40,776 (56,398 males and 84,378 
females) in urban areas. The female non-workers outnumbered male 
non-workers in both the rural and urban areas. This is evident from 
the table given belowi : 


(Number) 




Rural 



Urban 


Item 

Males 

Females 

Total 

.Males 

Females 

Total 

Total Population 

1,34,539 

1,21,950 

2,56,489 

98.160 

89.866 

1 ,88,026 

A. Workers 

78,890 

49,266 

1,28,156 

41,762 

5,488 

47,250 

B. Non-workers 

-55,649 

72,684 

1,28,333' 

56,398 

84,378 

1,40,776 


Since no other survey of the district, indicating its occupational 
pattern, has been conducted, the analysis that follovs’s is based on the 
data given in the Census Report, 1961. 

The number of persons engaged in various occupations accord- 
inc. to the 1961 Census in the district and in the State as a whole, arc 
indicated in the following tablc.2 

J. Ct^nsus of India Vol. XIV /ta/uir/rSv, P.irt Il-A, Grnvral Population Tables^ 
p. 167. 

", Census of fndia 1961. Vot. XIV Jiijastkin Part II-BCi), Genera! Ecorom’c. Tables, 
np. 6-7, 




222 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


Bikaner 

RajasthSn 

Percentage to total 
population 

Males 

Females 

Males 

Females 

Bikaner 

District 

Rajasthan 

A. Total Workers 1,20,652 

54,754 

61,41,506 

34.42.334 

39.46 

47.55 

I. Cultivators 57,962 

40,344 

42,05,067 

28.50.012 

22.11 

35.00 

II. Agricultural 

labourers 653 

309 

2,30,193 

1,63,438 

0.22 . 

1.95 

III. Mining, Quarrying, 

Livestock, Forestry, 

Fishing, Hunting, 

Plantations. 

Orchards and 

ailied activities 2,028 

IV. Household 

348 

1,22,737 

48.344 

0.54 

0.85 

industry 14,605 

V. Manufacture other 

9,482 

3,97,504 

2,00,678 

5.42 

2.97 

than household 

industry 4,873 

813 

1,51,184 

■ 20.841 

1.28 

0.86 

VI. Construction 4,013 

353 

96,908 

12,254 

0.98 

0 54 

VII. Trade & Commerce 9,713 

VIII. Transport, Storage 

421 

2,74,232 

13,925 

2.28 

1.43 

& Communications 7,617 

25 

1,16,975 

934 

1.72 

0 58 

IX. Other Services 19,188 

2,659 

5,46.706 

1,31,908 

4.91 

3.37 

B. Non-workers 1,12,047 

1,57,062 

44,22,576 

61,49,186 

60.54 

52.45 


It is evident that 60.54 per cent of the total population of the 
district consisted of non-workers and workers were only 39.46 per cent. 
Similar figures for Rajasthan as a whole were 52.4'' per cent and 47.55 
per cent respectively. Among the workers, the largest number, i. e. 
22.11 per cent of the total population, were cultivators in the district 
as against 35 per cent in the State as a whole. The occupational 
pattern of non-cultivators is studied according to main occupational 
groups as per -1961 census in the subsequent paragraphs 

PUBLIC SERVICE 

The 1961 Census recorded separate figures only for Government 
servants falling in one category, viz.. Administrative and Executive 
officials. Their number in the district was as follows^ : 

1. Census of India 1961, Vol. XIV, Rijastlian, Part U-U(ii) General Economic Tables, 
p.37. 



Miscellaneous Occupations 


223 




Total 



Urban 



Persons 

Males 

Females 

Persons 

Males 

Females 

Central Government 
Officials 

45 

45 


45 

45 


State Government 
Officials 

312 

307 

5 

276 

272 

4 

Local Government 
Officials 

22 

20 

2 

20 

18 

2 

Quasi-Goverrinieht 

Officials 

24 

24 


. 



Village Officials 

210 

203 

7 

171 

169 

2 

Government Officials 
not elsewhere classified 

3 

3 

- 

2 

2 

- 

Total 

616 

602 

14 

514 

506 

8 


Separaite statistics of government servants in academic occupa- 
tions siich as teachers, doctors, engineers, etc. were not recorded in the 
census report. Of the 616 Government officials falling under the 
category of Administrative and Executive officials, only 14 were 
females, 514 of them were posted in urban areas while only 102 were 
serving in rural areas. The number of public servants has been in- 
creasing considerably since 1951, due to the setting up of new offices, 
opening of educational and other institutions and especially because 
of the increase in the developmental activities of the Government. 

The State Government servants in the district like those in the 
State, are entitled to various amenities under rules. In addition to their 
basic pay, all Government servants arc paid dearness allowance at 
varying rates depending on the amount of pay. The dearness allowance 
is revised from time to time according to the consumers’ price index. 
Besides, House Rent Allowance is also paid to Government employees 
posted in Bikaner City. Loans are admissible to Government employees' 
for the construction and repairs of their houses and also for the pur- 
chase of conveyance. The. quantum of these loans depend on the pay 
and status of the Government servant. These loans arc repayable in 
easy instalments and reasonable rate of interest is charged. The 
expenditure incurred by the Government employee on his own medical 




224 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


treatment and that of his family members dependent on him is also 
reimbursable without any restriction. The State Government has also 
constructed some quarters for allotment to the employees in the district. 

There is a scheme of compulsory insurance of all Government 
employees, who have put in a service of one year, in order to encourage 
habit of thrift and to provide for the family members in case of the 
premature death of the bread earner. On superannuation a Govern- 
ment servant is entitled to pension and the benefits of gratuity scheme. 
Besides, festival advance and food grains advance are also granted 
occasionally to the Government servants to ^ive' them some relief. 

PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL AND RELATED WORKERS 

This group covers (i) Architects, Engineers, Surveyors, 
0'!} Cbsmists, Physicists, Geoiogists and other Physical Scientists, 
(iii) Biologists, Veterinarians, (v) Physician, Surgeons and Dentists, 
(v) Nurses, Pharmaceuticians and other medical and health tech- 
nicians, (vi) Teachers, (vii) Jurists, (viii) Social Scientists, (x) Artists, 
Writers and (x) Draughtsmen and Science and engineering technicians 
etc. In this occupational group, 4,538 persons were engaged of which 
621 were females. Out of this about 79 per cent i.e. 3,609 persons 
(3,079 males and 530 females) were living in urban areas while the 
remaining 21 per cent were residing in rural areas. In all, 197 persons 
were grouped under Architects, Engineers and Surveyors, of which 143 
were residents of urban areas. There was no female worker under this 
group. The chemists, physicians, geologists and other physical 
scientists numbered only 12, of which two were females. There were 
only 17 Biologists Veterinarians and Agronomists etc. and there w'as no 
female worker under this group. 

1 he number of physicians, surgeons and dentists was recorded 
as 259, of which 21 were females. Out of this, 203 i. e. about 79 per 
cent were working in urban areas. The nurses, pharmacists and other 
medical and health technicians numbered 503, including 136 females, 
of which about 95 percent i.e. 481 including 125 female workers, were 
working in urban areas and only 5 per cent were living in rural areas. 
In the educational field, of the 2,143 persons engaged, 159 (122 males 
and 37 females) were college teachers, 345 (308 males and 37 females) 
secondary school teachers and 1.244 (996 males and 248 females) 
teachers in middle and primary schools; unclassified teachers numbered 
392 (348 males and 44 females). Of this, 1,560 teachers (1,233 males 



Miscellaneous Occupations 


225 


and 327 females) were working in urban areas. The legal practitioners 
including petition writers numbered 148, of which 144 were working in 
urban areas. The social scientists and related workers numbered 166 
including two female workers while the artists, writers and related 
workers were 264 in number, including 59 female workers. The number 
of draughtsmen and science and engineering technicians was 97 while 
other professional, technical and related workers numbered 732, which 
included ordained religious workers, astrologers, palmists and 
1 ibrarians etc. 

There is a bar association at Bikaner which was established in 
1928. It had 120 members during 1966. 

ADMINISTRATIVE, EXECUTIVE AND MANAGERIAL WORKERS 

The total number of persons engaged as Administrative, Executive 
and Managerial workers excluding government servants was 718 (705 
males and 1 3 females), of which 682 i.e. about 95 per cent were working 
in urban areas. Of the total number of persons in this category, 21 were 
engaged as directors and managers of wholesale trading concerns, 
26 were directors, managers and working proprietors of financial 
institutions, 19 those of banks and 652‘ of institutions relating to 
mining, quarrying, well drilling, electrical undertakings, manufacturing, 
transport and communication, recreation, entertainment and catering 
services. 


CLERICAL & RELATED WORKERS 

Under this division arc included (i) Book-keepers and cashiers, 
(ii) Stenographers and typists, (iii) Office machine operators, 
(iv) Miscellaneous clerical workers and (v) unskilled office workers. 
The number of workers engaged in this category was 6,3u2 which 
included 143 females. Out of this category about 87 per cent, 
numbering 5,489, were working in urban areas. The number of steno- 
graphers and typists was 1 10 (including two female workers), office 
machine operators 25, miscellaneous clerical workers 2,853 and 
unskilled office workers numbered 2,046, which included 123 females. 
The rest of them were book-keepers add cashiers. 

SALES WORKERS 

The total number of workers engaged in sales business was 
8,945, which included 378 fcroaics._ Of this number, 7,437 (7,195 males 



226 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikanei 


and 242 females) were working in urban areas. The working proprie- 
tors in wholesale and retail trade were 6,919 including 288 females. 
Most of them were pursuing their callings in urban areas. The 
insurance and real estate salesmen of securities and service and 
auctioneers, numbered 76, including 16 female workers. Commercial 
travellers and manufacturing agents numbered 226. There was no 
female worker amongst them. Salesman, shop assistants and related 
workers numbered 1,617 (including 29 female workers) of which 1,540, 
including ’ 26 females workers, were working in urban areas. The 
number of money lenders and pawn brokers was recorded as 107 
including 45 females. 

FARMERS. FISHERMEN, HUNTERS AND RELATED WORKERS 

Under this category, 17,606 workers (including 6,58 1- females) 
were recorded, of which only 464 were in urban areas. The farmers 
and farm managers numbered 32 (including 7 females). All of them 
were in urban areas. The farm workers numbered 17,443 including 
6,574 females, of which 427 were in urban areas. The number of 
hunters and related workers was only 6, while loggers and other 
forestry worker numbered. 125. There were no femal workers in both 
these categories, 

MINERS, QUARRYMEN AND RELATED WORKERS 

j The number of workers engaged as miners and quarrymen was 

980 including 103 females. There were only 11 male workers in urban 
areas while the rest were living in rural areas. 

TRANSPORT & COMMUNICATION SERVICES 

The total number of persons engaged in this category was 2,915 
including 6 females, of whom 2,438 (including 6 females) were in urban 
areas. The number of Deck , and Engine-Room Ratings and boatmen 
etc., was 10, Drivers and Firemen-Railway Engine 205, Drivers-Road 
Transport 1838, conductors, guards and- brakesman (railway) 46.- 
Inspectors, Supervisors, Traffic Controllers and Despatchers-transport 
339, telephones, telegraphs and related felc.^communication operators 86 
and postmen and messengers numbered ,122. The number of other 
workers engaged in Transport and Communication services was 269. 



Miscellaneous Occupations 


227 


CRAFTSMEN AND OTHER PRODUCTION PROCESS WORKERSi 

The total number of workers engaged under all these related 
activities of work was 24,868 (19,942 males and 4,926 females) of which 
18,089 (15,859 males and 2,230 females), being about 73 per cent of the 
total, were working in urban area. 

SERVICE, SPORTS AND RECREATION WORKERS2 

The total number of workers engaged under this head was 7,949 
which included 1,303 female workers. Of this, 6,110 persons (4,898 
males and 1,212 females) were in urban areas, representing about 77 
per cent of the total. 

In rural areas, the number of domestic servants is very small 
as there does not appear to be much demand for such services. Only a 
few well-to-do families engage full-time domestic servants. They are 
paid partly in cash and partly in kind. The wages in cash range from 
Rs. 40 to Rs. 60 per month, besides two meals a day. In urban areas 
domestic servants are engaged on full time as well as on part time basis 
and their wages, paid mostly in cash, vary according to the time and 
nature of work. Part time domestic servants are generally employed 
to clean utensils and for sweeping and washing clothes. Child labour 
for domestic work is also prevalent in urban areas and the wage rate 
ranges from Rs. 25 to Rs. 30 per month in addition to meals. 

Besides, workers classified above,' there were 720 workers (includ- 
ing 13 females) in the district whose occupations were not clearly 
classified or defined. 

1 . This includes y) spinners, weavers, knit ters, dyers (ii) tailors, dress makers and 
garment makers, (iii) leather cutters, lastcrs and sewers (except gloves and 
garments), (iv) furnneemen, rollers; drawers, moulders, and related metal 
making and training workers, (v) precision instruments makers, watch makers, 
jewellers, (vi) tool makers, mechanics, • plumbers, welders, platcismcn, 
(vii) elecfricjans and rehfed electrical and electronics workers, (viii) carpenters, 
joiners, cabinet makers, coopers, (ix) compositors, printers, cngra\crs, book- 
binders, (x) potters, kilnmen, glass and clay formers, (xi) millers, bakers, 
brewmasters and related food and beverage workers, (xii) chemical and related 
process workers, (xiii) tobacco preparers and product makers, (xtv) testers, 
packers, sorters and related workers and (xv) stationary engine and excavating 
and lifting equipment operators and related workers. 

2. Under this arc included (i) fire fighters, policemen, guards, (ii) house-keepers, 
cooks, maids and related workers, (Tit) waiters, bartenders, (iv) building care- 
takers, cleaners, (v) barbers, hsir-dressers, beauticians and (vl) athletes, 
sportsmen, photographers and related camera operators. 



228 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


It may be interesting to study the workers and non-workers by 
their age groups. The 1961 Census throws sufficient light on this aspect. 
Appendix 1, given at the end of this chapter, describes the workers by 
sex, age group and type of aciivity. It is evident that among the 
workers, the largest number (63,482 males and 19,288 females) was 
in the age group of 15-34. The age group consisting of the second 
largest number of workers was 35-59, claiming 40,556 male and 16,389 
female workers. 

Among the cultivators, age groups of 15-34 and 35-59 were 
preponderant, though there were sufficient number of workers who were 
above 60 and below 15 years of age. This was true also in case 
of agricultural labourers, workers engaged in mining, quarrying, fores- 
try, fishing, hunting and plantation, orchards and allied activities, 
household industry, manufacturing other than household industry, 
construction work, trade aud commerce, transport storage and com- 
munication and other services. 

In rural areas, besides the fact that the larger number of 
workers fell in the age groups of 15-34 and 35-59, the number of 
workers falling in the age group below 1 4 and above 60, was also 
considerable. This was more so among cultivators and agricultural 
labourers. The age groups of 15-34 and 35-39 were equally prepon- 
derant in urban areas, but the number of workers in the age group 
below, 14 and above 60 was much less in the urban than in the rural 
areas, the only exceptions being workers. in manufacturing, other than 
household industry, construction, trade and commerce, transport, 
storage, communication and other services. 

' A majority of the non-workers constituted of dependents in- 
cluding disabled persons and infants. Their number was 72,689 males 
and 80,570 females, of whom 65,982 males and 68,834 females were 
below the age of 14 years. The non-workers engaged in household 
duties numbered 657 males and 65,632 females. Full time students were 
35,976 males and 10,239 females. Appendix II given at the end of this 
chapter indicates the number of non- workers by • sex, age group and 
category of occupation. 

EDUCATIONAL LEVEL 

Urban — Out of a total of 47,250 workers in urban areas, 21,039 
(16,365 males and 4,674 females) were illiterates, 17,938 workers were 
recorded as literates without any .educational levels. Literates upto 



Miscellaneous Occupations 


229 


primary or junior basic level numbered 2,687, including 107 females. 
Matriculates or those who had read upto Higher Secondary level 
numbered' 3,925 which included 133 females. The number of 
females holding University or post-graduate degrees was also quite 
encouraging. 

Rural — 11,195 workers including 593 female workers were 
literates without any educational levels, while 1,744 workers including 
71 females had read upto Primary and Secondary levels. The matri- 
culates numbered 950 which included 11 females. Appendices 
III and IV give detailed information about the educational level of 
the workers engaged in the various vocations in urban and rural areas, 



230 


Rajasthan District Ga 2 etteers — Bikaner 


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152 


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Industrial Classification of Workers and Non-workers by Educational Levels in Rural Areasi 




Miscellaneous Occupation 


237 




CHAPTER IX 


ECONOMIC TRENDS 


LIVELIHOOD PATTERN 

The Census Report of 1961 brought out the livelihood pattern of 
the working population only, classifying first, the total population into 
workers and non-workers. The new tables are helpful in correctly assess- 
ing the pattern of economic activities of the people and the future trends. 
According to these figures, out of the total population of 4,44,515 
in Bikaner district 2,56,489 persons, or 57.7 per cent, lived in rural areas, 
while the rest were living in urban areas. The number of workers, 
as stated in the previous chapter, was 1,75,406 or 39.46 per cent of 
the population. Of the working population, 73.1 per cent were living 
in rural areas and only 26.9 per cent in urban areas. In case of rural 
population, as much as 49.9 per cent consisted of workers, while in 
urban areas only 25.1 per cent could be classed as workers. The 
number of male workers preponderated over that of female workers. 

The occupational pattern, as detailed in the previous chapter, 
disclosed that about 56 per cent of the working population was 
engaged in cultivation, while "962 persons or 0,5 per cent were 
merely agricultural labourers. The workers engaged in mining, quarrying 
livestock, forestry, fiishing, hunting, plantation, orchard and allied 
activities, numbered only 2,376, forming 1,4 per cent of the working 
population. Household industry provided employment to 24,087 
persons, constituting 13.7 percent of the total working population 
while the number of persons engaged in manufacturing activity, other 
than household industry was 5,686 (3.3 per cent). 4,366 persons (2.5 
per cent) were engaged in construction, 10,134 (5.5 per cent) in trade and 
commerce, 7,642(4.4 per cent) in transport, storage and communications 
and 21,847 (12.7 per cent) were engaged in other services. 


The occupational pattern in Bikaner district is given in 
Appendix 1. 


PRICES 

Prices of principal food, crops in Bikaner showed no marked 
fluctuations during the period 1872 to 1909 except during years of 
famine or scarcity. In 1876, the price of Bajra, the staple food of the 
people, was 31,10 seers per rupee. In 1893, it pos? (o 2p,59 seers per 



Econoihic Trends 


239 


rupee. Powletti remarked in his Gazetteer, that the rate of 15 seers of 
Bajra per rupee, was considered so high as to tentamount to famine or 
scarcity conditions in the eyes of the people. The prices for succeeding 
years upto 1909, ranged between 11.10 seers and 20.39 seers per rupee, 
(except in bad years of 1897 and 1898 when it was 9.35 seers and 9.64 
seers per rupee respectively). Quinquennial average price of bajra 
ranged from 15.58 seers to 17.65 seers per rupee, during the period 1873 
to 1895. Gram and wheat were chiefly imported into the State. The 
price of gram ranged from 22.38 seers in 1894 to 8.80 seers per 
rupee in 1897. 

As for the price of wheat, its quinquennial average varied from 
13.89 seers per rupee during 1871-75 to 10.72 seers per rupee during 
1876-80. The highest price of wheat was recorded at 7.49 seers per 
rupee in 1909 and the lowest at 14.81 seers in 1875, but the general 
average had been varying from 11 to 12 seers per rupee from 1873 to 
1909. Taking the quinquennial average price of 1871-75 as base, a rise 
of 23 per cent was recorded during 1891-95. 

The price of rice had ranged between 10.31 seers per rupee 
during 1873 and 4.21 seers per rupee during 1907. The rates had 
normally centred around 6 or 7 seers per rupee. But these were 41 per 
cent higher during 1891-95 frorn the quinquennial average price of 
1871-75. No figures of prices of moth, which is largely consumed, are 
available for these years. It has, however, always been cheaper than 
bajra. The price of salt depended on its qualitj', the rate of duty and the 
cost of transport. Major Erskine^ had pointed out, that prior to 1879 
the supply of the local variety was considered sunTiciciU and 43 to 74 
seers of salt was procurable for a rupee, but, subsequently, it had been 
imported from Didwana and other sources in Jodhpur, and the prices 
varied between 11 seers and 20i seers for a rupee. Taking the quinquen- 
nial average of 1871-75 as base, it recorded a rise of 451 per cent during 
1891-95 period. 

The general steadiness! n the price level of foodgrains during 
this period was largely ascribed to better transport facility provided 
by the Railways, the first section of which was opened at the end of 
1891. The benefits were specially noticeable in times of draught, when 
they brought in grains from the Punjab and Sind. Major K. D, Erskinc 
pointed out that just before the famine of 1868-69, moth was selling at 

1 . PDwictSt Capt. P. W., Thi G azcttccr of D/kancr 1 4, p. 56. 

2. Etskice, Major K. D., Rajputana Gazetteers, Vo!. Ill-A, p. 345. 



24(1 


45 seers and Bajra at 35 seers for a rupee, while during that ^visitation, 
prices rose to 6 seers per rupee. On the other hand, the highest quota- 
tion during the famine of 1891-92 and the terrible calamity of 1899-1900, 
were between 8 and 9 seers per rupee. 

The prices of foodgrains during most of the period between 
1894 and 1900 were very high^, due to the prevalence of famine 
in Bikaner and the adjacent States. The old stocks in the possession 
of traders were exhausted before the famine commenced, owing to 
successive bad years, and the price of bajra rose very high immediately 
after the failure of the Kharif crops. Foodgrains were, however, 
largely imported by rail and also by camels. The markets were well 
supplied and people did not feel any difficulty in obtaining grains 
against payment at any time. 

The following table gives the quinquennial average retail prices 
of major foodgrains and salt during the period 1871 to 19022 • 


(Seers per rupee) 


Years 

Rice 

Wheat 

Bajra 

Arhar or 

itir 

Gram 

Salt 

1871-175 

8.93 

13.89 

15.87 

N.A. 

15.87 

67.72 

1876-80 

6.46 

10.72 

17.65 

N.A. 

15,18 

41.45 

1881-85 

6,39 

12.33 

17.48 

N.A. 

17.57 

11.81 

1886-90 

7.03 

11.58 

15.61 

8,20 

16.84 

13.40 

1891-95 

6.35' 

11.30 

15.58 

9.72 

18.05 

12.21 

1896-1900 

5.24 

10.05 

11.29 

8.23 

11.29 

11.29 

1901-05 

6,15 

11.63 

14.19 

8.39 

16.46 

12.46 

1906-093 

5,33 

8.79 

11.90 

6.15 

13.25 

19.70 


During the year 1924-25, owing to poor harvests, the prices of all 
the foodgrains, except Moth, stood at a high level, compared to what 
they were at any time during the previous years. These were as’ follows 
during 1923-24 and 1924-254 : 

1. Administration Reports of Bikaner Slate for the years 1894 to 1900. 

2. Trices and ITages in India, Calcutta, 1900. 

3. Only four years’ average. 

4. Admitthtration Report of the Bikaner Stale for the year 1924-25. 



Economic Trends 


241 


(Seers per rupee) 



Commodity 


During the last quarter of the year 

1923-24 

1924-25 

1. 

Wheat 

8 

6 

2. 

Gram 

11 

17 

3. 

Millet 

9 

9 

4. 

Moong 

N.A. 

6 

5. 

Moth 

12 

9 


Several measures were taken by the Government to check the 
rise of prices during the scarcity period and large scale relief measures 
were adopted!. State shops, which sold imported grain to the poor at 
subsidised rates, were opened during 1918-19. In order to restrict 
undue rise in prices and prevent profiteering, co-operative sale was 
organised and a grain market was also opened in Bikaner city. 

During the years 1939-40 and 1940-41, inspite of the war condi- 
tions disturbing the normal channels of trade in the country, no special 
steps were taken to regulate the distribution of foodgrains and other 
essential articlesS. The prices of wheat and gram showed a tendency 
to rise, but those of bajra and sugar declined. There was undue fluc- 
tuation in the prices, but as there was no ban on the export of food- 
grains in the neighbouring states, especially in the Punjab, the stocks 
in Bikaner continued to be replenished by imports from neighbouring 
niandis and, as a result, the public requirements were met in the normal 
way. Conditions, however, changed during the year 1941-42 and it 
became necessary’lo adopt rigid measures for controlling the supply 
and prices of foodgrains. The Fooograins Control Order, imposed in 
British India, was made applicable to the State on 25th July, 1942, 
This Order, made it incumbent upon the wholesale dealers of principal 
foodgrains to obtain licences for purchase, sale or storage of these 
commodities. 

The Foodgrain Futures and Option Prohibition Order, 1942, 
was aho issued, under which all future transactions and options as 
regards 'wheat, gram, Bajra, moth and jowar were prohibited. Since the 

5. l)rc:i,-!cs of Pregr css in Bihancr, p. 30. 

2. Adm:nisfrath'’n tteport of tUc Bikaner State for the years 1 W§*40 to 1941-42. 


242 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaiief 


then Bikaner State was deficient in foodgrains and some other 
essential commodities, the export of all the important foodgrains, 
sugar, charcoal and all kinds of wood was also prohibited in order 
to conserve their existing stocks. 


The average annual retail prices of foodgrains and sugar during 
the years 1939 to 1942 were as follows! : 

(Seers and Cbhatanks per rupee) 


Commodity 



1939-40 

1940-41 

1941-42 

1. Wheat 






(a) I quality 



9-5 

9—0 

6-8 

(b) II quality 



10-0 

9-7 

6-13 

2. Gram 



9-10 

11-5 

8-4 

3. Bajra 



9-3 

13-13 

8-0 

4, Guar 



11-15 

14-13 

10-1 

5. Sugar 






(a) I quality 



2-5 

2-9 

1-15 

(b) II quality 



2-7 

2-13 

2-3 

(c) Danedar 



2-10 

2-10 

2-1 

The retail prices of principal- foodgrains 

at Bikaner 

from 1952 

to 1961 are given 

belou'S ; 









(Rupees per maund) 

Year Wheat 

Barley 

Gram 

Jowar 

Bajra 

Maize 

1952 19.41 

14.39 

15.79 

15.57 

17.57 

17.75 

1953 17.78 

13.46 

15.94 

11.16 

13.25 

15.00 

1954 14.45 

8.87 

11.16 

8.65 

6.69 

10.00 

1955 13.44 

7.25 

7.84 

7.05 

9.69 

7.00 

1956 16.23 

12.01 

11.73 

9.06 

13.31 

N.A. 

1957 17-10 

13.12 

12.58 

12.61 

15.99 

15.17 

1958 19.06 

13.81 

13.47 

12.49 

15.07 

12.33 

1959 20.66 

12.31 

13.58 

13,81 

15,42 

14.17 

I960 18.27 

12.55 

14.59 

14.04 

15.86 

12 46 

1961 17.33 

13.55 

16.09 

13.98 

17.08 

16.00 


1. Administration Report of Sikaiicr S/o/e Tor 1939-42, p. 41 , 

2. Statistical Abstract, Rajasthan, yearly volumes for various years. 


Economic Trends 


243 


Since the year 1952, the prices of all foodgrains had been show- 
ing a tendency to fall, till 1957, when they again started rising, a 
tendency which continued during the whole of the Second Five Year 
Plan period. 

No record of retail prices of foodgrains is available after 1961. 
However, the Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of 
Rajasthan has been publishing the farm (harvest) prices^ of certain 
important crops in the district, which were as follows during the years 
1960-61 to 1965-66 8; 


(Rs. per quintal) 


Commodity 

1960-61 

1961-62 

Jowar 

46.22 

33.09 

Bajra 

49.57 

45.33 

, Wheat 

52.92 

47.40 

Barley 

39.52 

34.83 

Gram 

44.21 

42.71 

Sesamum 

85.07 

87.08 


1962-63 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66 


38.31 

42.87 


50.45 

57.60 


47.07 73.75 

64.09 77.50 




7M 

4-34T22.. i 97.5J) 

/ ~y.!. 






til V ^ 

No uniform tendency is diSOcri^blciiTthe-imw jey^^ oFtthesc 
commodities. The price of Jowar sharj ^dbfcl ine in '1961-62, 

which continued till 1963-64, when it aJmP' SKinffd fisThg. Bajra has 
kept up a steady level, but for a sharp rise in 1965-66 and a sharp fall in 
1962-63. Wheat was pegged up high in 1960-61, but showed a rapid 
fall in 1961-62 and 1962-63 and rose again sharply in 1963-64,a tendency 
which continued thereafter. Barley recorded a falling trend since 
1961-62. Gram prices remained more or less steady till 1962-63 when a 
rising trend started. The same was true of sesamum, except that it 
showed a sharp fall in 1962-63. The main factor, governing these price,s, 
has been the nature af rainfall in the area and in the country, as a 
whole, during a particular year. 


1. The farm harvest price is the average wholesale price, at which the commodity 
is Sold by the producers to the imdcrs, at the village sits, during the harvest 
period. ^ 

Stqthfi'dl RijasihSi, yearly yolpnics for various years, 


244 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


WAGES 

Captain Powlett observed in 1874’ that the normal rates in Bikaner 
at which skilled labour was available, was four annas (25 paise) a day, 
while the daily rate for unskilled labour was only two annas (12 paise). 
In the Rajputana Gazetteers, compiled by Major K. D. Erskine in 1908, 
it is recorded thus “Some thirty years ago, it was reported that four 
annas a day for skilled, and two annas for unskilled labour were the 
normal rates of wages in Bikaner, and, as regards the latter, there seems 
to have been little or no variation. The ordinary day labourer still 
receives about two annas and the syce or horse keeper three; the wages 
of others appear to have increased, namely those of blacksmith from 
four to five, and of the carpenter and mason from four to six annas. 
As elsewhere in Rajputana, the village servants such as barbers, potters 
and shoemakers are usually paid in kind at harvest time”. 

No separate record of wages, for each category of workers prevailing 

in the erstwhile Bikaner State, is available, except what is mentioned 

in the Annual Administration Reports. The rates of daily wages 

as recorded in the relevant administration reports are given below : 

• , » 


Year 

Wages ranging 

from to 

Ks. As. Ps. Ks. As. Ps. 


1924-25 

0—4—0 

1—8—0 


1926-27 

0—5—0 

1—8—0 


1929-30 

0 

1 

1 

O 

1—4—0 


1930-31 

0—4—0 

1—4—0 


1932-33 

0-4-0 

I— 0-0 


1939-40 

0—2—0 

0—5—0 

Semi-skilled worker 


0-12-0 

1-4-0 

Skilled worker' 

1941-42 

0 

1 

1 

o 

0-10-0 

Semi-skilled worker 


0-12-0 

1—8—0 

Skilled worker 

1942-4; 

o 

1 

00 

1 

o 

]_0— 0 

Semi-skilled 


1—4—0 

2—0—0 

Skilled worker 

1945-46 

1—0—0 

1—8—0 

Unskilled worker 


2—0—0 

3-0-0 

Skilled worker 


1. Powlett, Captain P. W., op. cit., p. 95. 


Economic Trends 


245 


With the upward trend of prices, the wages of labour also 
increased from time to time. These, however, as usual did not keep 
pace with the increase in the prices, particularly because there were no 
organised trade unions among the workers, through which they could 
effectively press their demand for such increases. After Independence, 
under the Minimum Wages Act 1948, industry-wise minimum wages 
have been fixed by the Rajasthan Government. These are given in 
Appendix II. 


STANDARD OF LIVING 

No data is available to study the living standard of the people 
of the area, except the Follow-up Survey of the district, conducted by 
the Reserve Bank of India and two village surveys done by the Census 
Department. According to the Rural Credit Follow-up Survey under- 
taken by the Reserve Bank of India, during 1956-57, the average annual 
expenditure per cultivating family was about Rs. 559. The following 
figures indicate the expenditure on recorded items per familyi ; 


S. No. Items 

Expenditure 

(Rs.) 

Percentage 
of total 
expenditure 

1. Constructing and repairs of residential and 
other houses 

31 

5.5 

2. Purchase of domestic utensils etc. 

8 

1.5 

3. Purchase of clothes 

258 

46.1 

4. Death ceremonies 

71 

12,7 

5. Marriage & other ceremonies 

165 

29.5 

6. Medical expenses 

6 

1.3 

7. Educational expenses 

10 

1.7 

S. Litigation expenses 

10 

1.7 

Total 

559 

100.0 


1 , Riircl Credit Falh>r-up Sue\r}\ 1956-57, General Review Feporl, Rcjcrvc BaoV; of 
India, i960, p. 149. 


246 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


The following table indicates the sources of finance for such 
family expenditure! : 

Item Average Amount financed by each 

expendi- source as percentage of 
ture per total expendhur e 

family Owned Sale of Borrow- 



(Rs.) 

funds 

assets 

ings 

1. Purchase, construction and 
repairs of residential and 
other houses 

31 

90.5 


9.5 

2. Purchase of durable con- 
sumers’ goods 

266 

90.3 

0.1 

9.6 

3. Death, marriage and other 
• ceremonies 

236 

43,0 

1.7 

55.3 

4. Medical, edueational and 
litigation expenses 

26 

91.7 

0.4 

8.0 


An important feature of special significance is that borrowings 
financed a substantial portion of the expenditure on the death, 
marriage and other ceremonies. Further, it was found that in Bikaner, 
big and large cultivators did not enjoy a demonstrably higher standard 
of living than medium and small cultivators. This indicates that large 
scale farming is not very paying in the district. 

The table below indicates the extent of debt per family, as 
observed during the surveys; 


(Amount in Rupees) 


Category of cultivators 

As on 

1.5.56 30.4.57 

1- Big 

424 

956 

2, Large 

586 

885 

3. Medium 

414 

651 , 

4. Small 

335 

606 

6. All (average) 

442 

702 


1. Rural Credit Follow-up Sunday, op. elt., pp. 163-168. 

2. ibid., p. 40. 




Economic Trends 


247 


An increase was discernible in the level of debt per family, 
among all types of cultivators. The survey also throws sufficient light 
on the average borrosvings per family. This is reflected in the following 
tablei : 


Type of cultivators 

Amount 

(Rs.) 

1. Big 

554 

2. Large 

352 

3. Medium 

327 

4. Small 

284 

5. All (average) 

322 


During the 1961 Census, the socio-economic surveys of Mukara 
and Mudh (Marh) villages were undertaken and it was found that very 
few families were able to save substantially and some of them, infact, 
had to incur debts for the purchase of cattle, seeds and agricultural 
implements. Besides, most of them bad to borrow money for social func- 
tions such as marriage and death ceremonies. Many of them had to 
incur debts even for buying foodgrains and clothes during lean yea 

EMPLOYMENT 

An Employment Exchange was established at Bikaner in the 
year 1946, with a skeleton staff. Since then, with the adoption of new 
schemes by the department, the staff of the Exchange has also increas- 
ed. Employment Market Information Programme was launched in 
the district in the year 1961. At present, the staff of the Employ- 
ment Exchange consists of one District Employment Officer, one 
Assistant Employment Officer (v. G.) and a Junior Employment 
Officer, besides one u. d. c., 6 l. d. cs., one guide and 4 class IV 
servants. It is very suitably situated in Chopra Katla Building, in 
Rani Bazar, at a distance of about half a mile from the Railway 
station and bus stand. It caters to Churn district also". Though people 
arc aware of the assistance offered by the ‘ Employment Exchange, the 
registration is voluntary. Hence, tho registration at the Employment 
Exchange can, “at best, be only rough estimate of the unemployed 
persons, seeking gainful occupation. The number of persons registered 

1. Rura! Credit Folhn'^tp Surrey, cp. cit., p. 92. 

2. A separate Employment Exchange for Churu district has since been established. 



248 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


and placed in employment through the Bikaner Exchange as also the 
employers using its services, during the past few years were as follows^ : 

(Number) 


Year 

Applicants 

registered 

Flacings made 

Employers using ine 
Employment Exchange 
(monthly average) 

1957 

4,813 

607 

23 

1958 

571 

999 

26 

1959 

6,933 

1,524 

39 

1960 

7,050 

997 

34 

1961 

7,642 

1,225 

396 

1962 

6,008 

1,065 

430 

1963 

6,771 

1,158 

491 

1964 

8,288 

1,587 

380 

1965 

8,092 

1,430 

503 

1966 

8,289 

1,258 

403 


The following table indicates the occupational classification of 
the applicants on the live register of the Employment Exchange during 
1961 to 1966 : 


(Number) 



Category 

1961 

1966 

1. 

Professional, Technical & related 
workers 

172 

143 

2. 

Administrative, Executive and Managerial 
workers 

14 

27 

3. 

Clerical and related workers 

24 . 

4 

4. 

Farmers, fishermen, hunters, loggers and 
related workers 

17 

3 

5. 

Miners,' quarrymen and related workers 

— 

1 

6. 

■Workers in transport & communications 

84 

63 

7. 

Craftsmen, production process workers and 
labourers not classified . 

54 

83 

8. 

Services, sports and recreation workers 

172 

138 

9. 

Workers not classified by occupations 

2,512 

2,480 


Total 

3,149 

2,948 


t. Statistical /tbstract, Rajasth&n, yearly volumes for various years. 




Economic Trends 


249 


The table below indicates the number of vacancies notified and 
filled up by the various classes of employers. It will be noted that the 
largest number of vacancies notified and filled up were in the State 
Government employ, followed by the Central Government departments ; 


(Number) 


Year 




Vacancies notified and filled by 



' 

Central Govt. 

state Govt. 

Quasi Govt. 

Private 

Total 

Noti- 

fied 

Filled 

Noti' 

fied 

- Filled 

Noti- 

fied 

Filled 

Noti- 

fied 

Filled 

Notified 

Filled 

1957 

96 

100 

595 

507 

32 


1 

— 

724 

607 

1958 

141 

130 

999 

863 

9 

2 

30 

1 

1,179 

996 

1959 

185 

145 

1,485 

1,133 

86 

33 

48 

3 

1,804 

1,314 

I960 

126 

105 

1,057 

730 

238 

147 

29 

11 

1,450 

993 

1961 

371 

323 

850 

615 

366 

251 

94 

22 

1,681 

1,211 

1962 

378 

114 

1,344 

727 

312 

196 

50 

16 

2,084 

1,049 

1963 

268 

109 

1,398 

979 

210 

48 

142 

21 

2.018 

1,157 

1964 

330 

168 

1,655 

1,149 

376 

218 

130 

11 

2,491 

1,546 

1965 

114 

81 

1,319 

1,053 

394 

250 

90 

10 

1,917 

1,394 

1966 

301 

226 

1,193 

563 

456 

446 

125 

19 

2,075 

1,254 


The scheme of collection of employment market information 
was introduced in Bikaner district in 1961. Under this scheme, infor- 
mation is collected by the Employment Exchange about the siipply 
and demand of man power and also about various factors that affect 
employment conditions from time to time, on the basis of quarterly 
returns received from the employers under the Establishment Reporting 
System. According to the first report on Bikaner Employment Market, 
for the quarter ending March 1961, it appeared that during the off- 
season many people in niral areas take to weaving of khadi Rn6 woolen 
blankets. Among the organised industries, sheep breeding, wool- 
baling and pressing, clay and glass work, metal industries and coal 
and gypsum indirstrics offer substantial employment opportunities 
to the people. Many women workers arc also engaged in these 
industries. 




250 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 

Though the Community Development Programme was launched 
in the State in October 1952, it was extended to Bikaner district only 
in 1955, when a National Extension Service block was opened at 
Naukha, covering 122 villages, with an area of 3,785 sq. km. and a 
population of 83,964. It became a II Stage Block in April I960. 
Another pre-extension block was opened at Kolayat, in June 1958 
(converted into I Stage in April 1959) covering an area of 7,948 sq. 
km. extending over 185 villages with a population of 47,999. In 
October 1959, two more shadow blocks were opened at Bikaner and 
Ltinkaransar, covering areas of 8,997 sq. km. and 6,372 sq. km. of 
173 and 171 villages with populations of 71,297 and 53,928 respectively. 
Bikaner was converted into a Pre-Extension block in May I960 and 
entered 1 Stage in April 1961, while Lpnkaransar was made a Pre- 
Extension block in October 1962. 

Appendix III indicates the physical achievements under some 
important heads, in the various Panchayat Samitis, during the year 
1965-66. 

PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT 
First Five Year Plan 

The main objective of plan schemes under the First Five Year 
Plan was to make good the deficiency in the food resources of the 
State and to bring an all-round economic development in the rural 
areas, through Community Development and National Extension 
Service. The district-wise break-up of expenditure of the First Five 
Year Plan is not available. 

Second Five Year Plan 

The Second Plan aimed at providing larger increase in employ- 
ment, investmint and_ production, the building-up of basic industries 
and revitalisation of rural economy. While the initiation of the 
Community Development Blocks was an important achievement of the 
First Plan in the rural sector, the introduction of Democratic Decen- 
tralisation was a hall-mark of the Second Plan. The following table 
indicates the sector-wise expenditure on various schemes operating in 
the district during the Second Plan periodi: 

1. Second Five Year Plan, Progress Feporl, Rijoslhin. 1956-61, pp. Lxxxiji-Lxxxv. 



Economic Trends 


251 



Sector 

Expenditure 
(Rs. in lakhs) 

1. 

Agriculture & Community Development 



( i ) Agriculture 

8.47 


(ii ) Consolidation of holdings 

8.24 


(iii) Animal Husbandry 

26.74 


(iv) Co-operation 

3.82 


(v ) Forests and Soil Conservation 

2.56 


(vi) C.D. & N.E.S. 

17.24 

2. 

Irrigation & Power 



( i ) Power 

154.11 

3. 

Industries & Mining 



{ i ) Industries 

6.17 

4. 

Communication 



( i ) Roads 

16.42 

5. 

Social Services 



( i ) Education 

71.49 


(ii ) Medical & Health 

14.11 


(iii) Ayurved 

0.80 


(iv) Water supply 

40.79 


(v) Housing 

12.90 


(vi) Labour and labour welfare 

2.40 


(vii) Social Welfare and Welfare of backward classes 

5.89 

6. 

Miscellaneous 



( i ) Statistics 

0.08 


Total 

392.23 


The year-wise break-up of expenditure is given below : 


Year 

Expenditure 
(Rs. in lakhs) 

Percentage 

1956-57 

24.97 

6.4 

1957-58 

49.96 

12.7 

1958-59 

85.44 

21.8 

1959-60 

107.42 

27.4 

1960-61 

124.44 

31.7 


Total 392.23 

100,00 





252 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


The total expenditure incurred during the Second Plan on all 
xhe schemes operating in the district, thus, came to Rs. 392'23 lakhs. 
The per capita expenditure, on the basis of 1961 population, worked 
out at Rs. 88.34 as against Rs. 51.15 for the State as a whole. 

Two urban water supply schemes for Bikaner and 'Naukha were 
taken up. Total expenditure on them during Second Plan period came 
to Rs. 29.47 lakhs and Rs. 0.10 lakhs, as against estimated costs of 
Rs. 39.34 lakhs and Rs. 2.65 lakhs respectively. Bikaner Scheme, 
when completed, was designed to benefit 1.92 lakhs of population. 

Third Five Year Plan 

To maintain the tempo of development, created in the Second 
Five Year Plan, a comparatively bigger Third Five-Year Plan, involving 
an outlay of Rs. 236 crores in Rajasthan, was launched. The concept 
of planning from below was given a tangible shape for the first time 
in the drawing up of the Third Five Year Plan of Rajasthan and the 
Panchayat Saraitis and Zila Parishads were also associated in its 
formulation. Special emphasis was laid on agriculture and animal 
husbarrdry, irrigation, public works programmes, labour incentives, 
rural water supply and education. The following table indicates the 
expenditure incurred on the various schemes, operating in the district, 
during the Thrid Five Year Plant; 


s. 

N. Sectors 

Expenditure 
( Rs. ID lakhs) 

1. 

Agricultural Programmes 
( i ) Agricultural Production 

0.41 


(ii ) Minor Irrigation 

0.96 


(it)) Soil Conservation 

1.61 


(iv) Animal Husbandry 

21.76 


(v ) Dairying & Milk supply 

0.20 


(vi) Forests 

0.39 


(vii) Fisheries 

O.OI 

2. 

Co-operation & Community Development 
(i) Co-operation 

3.39 


(ii ) Community Development 

22,44 



(iii) Panchayats 

5.85 


1. Tratiya PanchvarsMya Yojaa-Pragati PraU'vcdan, 19(51-66, pp. 235-240. 



Economic Trends 


253 


S.N, Sectors 


Expenditure 
(Rs. in iakhs) 

3. Industries and Mining 



( i ) Mineral Development 


22.17 

(ii ) Village & small industries 


8.25 

4. Transport & Communications 



(i) Roads 


9.66 

5. Social Services 



( i ) General Education & Cultural Programmes 

64.96 

(ii ) Technical Education 


23.38 

(iii) Modern Medicine 


88.79 

(iv) Ayurved 


1.89 

(v) Water supply 


36.53 

(vi) Housing 


6.24 

(vii) Welfare of backward classes 


9.29 

(viii) Social Welfare 


0.95 

(ix) Labour & Labour Welfare 


1.71 

6. Miscellaneous 



(i) Statistics 


1.15 

(ii ) Information & Publicity 


0.49 

(iii) Mandis 


6.16 


Total 

338.64 


A perusal of the above table indicates that out of the total ex- 
penditure of Rs. 338.64 lakhs on various schemes, operating in the 
district, during the Third Plan period, social services like modern 
medical facilities, general education and cultural programmes and water 
supply schemes, got special treatment, claiming expenditure amounting 
toJRs. 88.79 lakhs, Rs. 64,96 lakhs and Rs. 36.53 lakhs respectively. The 
year-wise break-up of expenditure was Rs. 81.24 lakhs during 1961-62, 
Rs. 75.02 lakhs in 1962-63, Rs. 67.40 lakhs in 1963-64, Rs. 52,82 lakhs 
in 1964-65 and Rs. 62.16 lakhs in 1965-66. The per-capita expenditure 
in Bikaner district, during the whole Plan period came to Rs. 77.27, 
as against Rs. 105.35 for Rajasthan as a whole.. 


254 


Ra^jasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Appen 


Occupational Pattern io 


Occupational Category 


Total 



Persons 

Percentage 

Males 

Females 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

A. Total Workers 

1,75,406 

(39.57)2 

100.0 

1,20,652 

54,754 

1. Cultivators 

98,306 

56.0 

57,962 

40,344 

2. Agricultural Labourers 

962 

0.5 

653 

309 

3. Mining, Quarrying, Live- 
stock, Forestry, Fishing, 
Hunting, Plantation, 

Orchards and allied 
activities 

2,37 > 

1.4 

2,028 

348 

4. Household Industry 

24,087 

13.7 

14,605 

9,482 

5. Manufacturing other than 
household industry 

5,686 

3.3 

4,873 

813 

6. Construction 

4,366 

2.5 

4,013 

353 

7. Trade and Commerce 

10,134 

5.5 

9,713 

421 

8. Transport, Storage and 
Communications 

7,642 

4.4 

7,617 

25 

9. Other Services 

21,847 

12.7 

19,188 

2,659 

B. Non-workers 

2,69,109 
(60.43)2 , 


1,12,047 

1,57,062 


1. Census of India, 1961, RSJasth^, District Census Handbook, Bikaner District- 
% Figures in brackets indicate percentages to the total population. 



Economic Trends 


255 


DIX I 


Bikaner District, 19611 



Rural 



Urban 


Persons 

Percentage 

Males 

Females 

Persons 

Percentage 

Males 

Females 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

1,28,156 

100.00 

78,890 

49,266 

47,250 

100.00 

41,762 

5,488 

96,690 

75.4 

57,293 

39,397 

1,616 

3.4 

669 

947 

846 

0.7 

626 

220 

116 

0.3 

27 

89 


2,219 

1.7 

1,891 

328 

157 0.3 

137 

20 

20,747 

16.3 

12,263 

8,484 

3,340 „^^7;r 

/»N *-0 

• .C* 

: '■ '"T- rr 

y 998 

650 

0.5 

486 

164 

5;636/-f :10J 
' [ '"8.4 

^ . - 4,387 

...64S 

399 

0.3 

331 

68 

• 3.682 

28f 

1,716 

1.3 

i.564 

152 

8,4X8" ■ M 7 . 8 - 

. 8,149 

-269 

865 

0.7 

860 

5 

6,777 ^ ^14.3 

* 6,757 

20 

4,024 

3.1 

3,576 

448 

17,823 37.7 

15,612 

2,211 

28,333 


55,649 

72,684 

1,40,776 

56,398 84,378 


pp. 72-73. 





256 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


Appendix II 

Wages fixed under Minimum Wages Act 
(1969) 


S. No. Type of occupatioD/cIass of workers Wages 

1. Employment in woollen, carpet 
making or shawl weaving 
establishments 

(i) Time rate manual occu- Minimum time rate, Rs. 60.00 

pations per month or Rs. 2.31 per day 

inclusive of paid weekly holi- 
day 

(ii) Piece rate occupations: 

(a) Yarn Opener 15 paise per kg. (hand spun and 

upto 30 counts) 

30 paise per kg. (mill spun 
and upto 40 counts) 

50 paise per kg. (mill spun and 
upto 70 counts) 

Re. 1 per kg. (mill spun and 
above 70 counts) 

(b) Spinner 75 paise per kg. of wool spun 

(c) Washerman Rs. 100 per month 

(d) Dyer Rs, 125 per month 

(e) Weaver 

Plain Carpet (one colour) 

(1) Upto 40,000 knots per Rs. 5.25 per sq. yard 
square yard 

(2) Over 40,000 knots per Rs, 5.75 per sq. yard 
sq. yard 

Desigced Carpet 

(1) Upto 30,000 knots Rs, 6.50 per sq, yard 
per sq. yard Upto 15 

colour 

(2) From 30,000 knots to Rs. 7.50 per sq. yard 
40,000 knots per sq. 

yard Upto 20 colours 



Economic Trends 


257 


Appendix II (contd.) 


S. No. Type of occupation/class of workers 

; Wages 

(3) Over 40,000 knots per 

Rs. 8.75 per sq. yard. 

sq. yard for more 


than 20 colours 


(4) Clippers 

Rs. 120 per month or 31 paise 


per sq. yard 

(5) Embossers 

Rs. 135 per month 

(6) Carpet mistries 

Rs. 125 per month 

2. Employment in rice, flour or dal mills : 

(i) Skilled workman 

Rs. 100 per month 

(ii) Semi-skilled workman 

Rs. 80 per month 

(iii) Unskilled workman 

Rs. 60 per month 

(iv) Clerical staff 

Rs. 100 per month 

3. Employment in any Tobacco (including bidi making) manufac- 

turing : 


(i) Bidi roller 

Rs. 2 per 1000 bidies or 


Rs. 85 per month 

(ii) Bidi sorter and checker (full 

Rs. 100 per month 

time worker) 


(iii) Bundle wrapper and packer 

Rs. 85 per month or 


Rs. 2.00 per 1000 bundles 

(iv) Snuff making 

Rs. 2.31 per day or Rs. 60 


per month 

4. Employment in oil mills : 


(i) Unskilled workman 

Rs. 60 per month or Rs. 2.31 

(Male & female) 

per day, inclusive of weekly 


day of rest 

(iii Semi-skilled workman 

Rs. 85 per month 

(iii) Skilled workman 

Rs. 100 per month 

5. Employment under local authority 

: 

(i) Unskilled worker 

Rs. 60 to Rs, 65 per month 

(ii) Semi-ski 'led worker 

Rs. 85 per month 

(iii) Skilled worker 

Rs. 100 per month 

(iv) Office staff 

Rs. 85 to Rs. 125 per month 

(v) Field staff 

Rs. 100 per month. 

(vi) Traffic staff 

Rs. 100 to Rs. ISO per month 



Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaaer 


Type of occupation/class of workers 


Wages 


Employment on the construction or maintenance of roads or in 
building operations : 

(i) Unskilled workman Rs. 60 to Rs. 65 per month 

(ii) Semi skilled workman Rs. 80 to 90 per month 

(iii) Skilled workman Rs. loO to 150 per month 

Employment in stone breaking or stone crushing ; 

(i) Unskilled workman Rs. 60 to 65 per month 

(ii) Semi-skilled workman Rs. 80 to 90 per month 

(iii) Skilled workman Rs. 100 to 125 per month. 

Employment in mica works (other than mica mining) ; 

(i) Unskilled worker Rs. 60 per month 

(ii) Dresser & sorter Rs. 75 per month 

(iii) Clerk Rs. 100 per month 

(iv) Cutter 40 paise per kg, of mica cut, 

but not less than Rs. 60 per 
month. 

Employment in Public Motor Transport : 

(i) Unskilled workman Rs. 60 per month 

(ii) Semi-skilled workman Rs. 85 per month 

(jin Skilled workman Rs. WO per month 

(iv) Traffic staff Rs. 65 to 100 per month 

(v) Qffice staff Rs. lOO per month 

(vi) Inspecting staff Rs. 100 per month 

- Employment in wool cleaning and pressing factories ; 

(i) Unskilled workman Rs, 60 per month 

(ii) Semi-skilled workman Rs! 80 per month 

(iii) Skilled workman Rs 100 per month 

. Employment in cotton ginning, pressing and baling establishments : 

(i) Unskilled workman Rs. 60 per month 

(ii) Semi-skilled workman . Rs. 80 per month 

(iii) Skilled workman Rs. 100 per month. 

:. Employment in Printing Presses : 

(i) Unskilled workman Rs. 60 per month or Rs. 2.3] 


(ii) Semi-skilled workman 

(iii) Skilled workman 


Rs. 60 per. month or Rs. 2.31 
per day, inclusive of weekly 
holiday. 

Rs, 80 per month 
Rs. 100 per month 


Economic Trends 


259 


Appendix IT (contd.) 

S. No. Type of occupation/class of workers Wages 

13. Employment in Salt Industry : 

(i) Manufacturing Operations Rs. 1.75 pgr day, per adult 

worker, male or female, inclu- 
sive of weekly days of rest. 

(ii) Extraction and storage 85 paise per 100 eft. 

(iii) Heaping, washing & loa^ting Rs. 2 per day for an adult 
into trucks, wherever carried worker, male or female, exclu- 
on jointly by the same set of sive of weekly days of rest. 

(iv) Despatch operations Rs. 6.31 per 156 bags or l45 

quintals or Rs. 2 per day. 

(a) Weighting & loading into Rs. 12.31 per 156 bags or 145 

wagons quintals or Rs, 2 per day. 

(b) Sewing Rs. 1,75 per day per adult 

worker exclusive of weekly 
days of rest. 

(v) General—for pumping- Rs. 2.50 per day per adult 

men or mistris worker, exclusive of weekly 

days of rest. 

Rs. 1.75 per day per adult 
worker, male or female, exclu- 
sive of weekly days of rest. 


(vi) For other operations or 

occupations, not described. 


Appendix HI , . 

Physical Achievements of the Pancbayat Samitis in Bikaner District 


260 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


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Source : Quarterly Progress Reports, Development Department, Rajasthan, Jaipur. 



CHAPTBd X 


GENERAL ADIMINISTRATION 

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 

The administrative history of the area can be traced only from 
the 15th century A. d., when the State of Bikaner was founded by Rao 
Bika, son of Rao Jodha of Jodhpur. He had moved from Jodhpur 
with civil and.military staff and took over the territory from the Jats 
and other tribes. The main concern of rulers of those days was annexing 
and extending their territories and getting revenue out of them rather 
than setting up proper system of administration. The highest offices- 
were sometimes bestowed on the highest bidders who could pay most to 
the royal coffers through exploitation and fleecing of the ryots, rather 
than to persons of ability and integrity. This was the general practice 
in the chaotic times of some of the predecessors of Maharaja Dungar 
Singh, who succeeded to the Bikaner throne in 1872 a.d. During his reign, 
the State was divided into districts and tahsils and regular courts of 
law were established. The duties of tahsildars, thanedars and other 
officials were defined and rules of procedure for criminal courts were 
framed. The administration was run with the assistance of - the 
Pancliayais f Administrative Councils), wherein all important matters 
were decided. The members constituting the pancfiayats were assured 
of non-interference. 

Memorable reforms in the administrative structure were brought 
about by Maharaja Ganga Singh, who reigned from 1887 A.D. to 1943 
a.d. It was for the first time that the Slate Government thought of 
giving some consideration to development schemes for the welfare of the 
public, A proper Secretariat was organised and powers were further 
decentralised. The Bikaner Chief Court, with a Chief Judge and two 
other Judges to look after judicial administration, was established in 
1910 A.D. It was raised to the status of a High Court of Judicature in 
the year 1922 a.d. After the advent of Gang Canal in 1927 A.D.,a major 
ch.angc in the constitution of administrative divisions was effected and 
the whole of Bikaner Slate territory was divided into two divisions viz., 
Sadar division and Gangunagar division, each headed by a Revenue 
Commissioner, who e.xcrcised administrative control over the Nazims and 
tahsildars responsible for ad.mioisIriHion of the respective Nizamats and 
tahsiis. 



262 


Rajasthan District Gazetteeis-Bikaner 


On 30tb March, 1949 the State of Bikaner merged into the 
United State of Greater Rajasthan. Consequently, the area covered by 
the State of Bikaner was divided into three separate districts viz., 
Bikaner, Ganganagar and Churu. Each district was headed by a 
District Officer called Collector. The district was further divided into 
sub-divisions, tahsils, Girdawar circles and Patwar circles, for adminis- 
trative purposes. 


PRESENT PATTERN 

At present, the district of Bikaner consists of two sub-divisions, 
namely Bikaner north and Bikaner south with headquarters of both at 
Bikaner. Bikaner north sub-division comprises Ltinkaransar and 
Bikaner tahsils while Bikaner south sub-division is ntade up of Kolayat 
and Naukha tahsils. 

At the head of the district is the Collector, who is the pivot 
round whom the district administration revolves. With the abolition of 
(he posts of the Divisional Commissioners, the responsibilities and 
duties of the Collector have increased manifold. He is not only the 
head of the revenue department in the district but is also expected to 
supervise and co-ordinate the working of other departments. He is also 
the District Magistrate and is responsible for the maintenance of Jaw 
and order in the district. At the same time, the Collector is theEx-officio 
District Development Officer and is intimately connected with the deve- 
lopment activities of all other departments, including local bodies. Be- 
sides, he is also the head 'of the district treasury with the Treasury Officer 
as its immediate head and is ultimately responsible for due accounting of 
all receipts and disbursements on behalf of the Government, as for the 
safe custody of cash, stamps and securities in the treasury. The 
Collector is also the ex-officio chairman of various important commit- 
tees at the district level. Thus, the Collector continues to occupy a 
pivotal position in the administration of the district and its development. 

Land revenue administration, including its management, still 
demands the major attention and considerable time of the Collector. 
As' the officer responsible for the collection of land revenue and other 
Government dues, he has to ensure that they do not accumulate. As 
District Records Officer, he has to see that land records, which consti- 
tute the basis of tenancy and other rights of (he cultivators, arc kept 
up-to-date. and in ?lie proper form. As custodian of Govcrnpicnt 



General Administration 


263 


property including land, it is his duty to prevent encroachments. He 
has to administer the Land Revenue Act in its various facets, so that the 
wheels of rural life run swiftly and smoothly. He supervises the 
working of Revenue Courts in his capacity as a court of appeal and 
reference. 

As District Magistrate, the Collector is charged with the duty 
of maintenance of law and order in his region with the help of the 
Superintendent of Police. He exercises administrative control over the 
Magistrates posted in the district. Any ugly law and order situation 
has to receive his immediate attention. 

With the initiation of the Five Year Plans, development work 
in the district has assumed a great significance. The Collector, as 
stated above, has to keep a vigilant watch over all development projects 
in the district, whichever may be the department responsible for their 
execution. It is, however, his speeial responsibility to ensure successful 
functioning in his district of the scheme of Democratic Decentralisation, 
which Rajasthan was the first State to adopt, with its three tier system 
viz., the Panchyats, the Panchayat Samitis and the Zila Parishad. To 
bring about an cifcctive co-ordination among them and to ensure 
that representatives of the people, who mainly constitute these demo- 
cratic bodies and the executive officers, who are employees of the State 
Government but charged with the responsibility of carrying out the 
behests of these elected representatives, work as a team and as parts of 
a well oiled machine, demand of him the highest qualities of tact and 
leadership. He is the District Development Officer and has to prove 
true to his designation. A Deputy District Development Officer, who 
is also the Secretary of the Zila Parishad, assists him in the discharge of 
these onerous but exciting duties. 

In the line of authority, directly subordinate to the Collector are 
two Sub-Divisional Officers, stationed at Bikaner and designated 
as Sub-Divisional Officer, Bikaner north and Sub-Divisional Officer, 
Bikaner south. The Sub-Divisional Officers exercise revenue, magis- 
terial and executive powers within their respective jurisdictions. 

Under the Sub-Divisional Officers are four tahsildars assisted by 
nm'fi-tahsitdars, Tahsildars have functions similar to those of the 
Sub-Divisional Officers and they exercise them v/itiiin their respective 
jurisdictions. The tahsils are 'further divided into G/ri/cwar circles, 
each under the charge of a revenue inspector or Kanuttgo. The Girdawar 



264 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikanet 


circles are further sub-divided into Paiwar Halkas, being 'looked- after 
by the Patwaris, as their heads. The Patwari is required to maintain 
the land records and to report any untoward happening in • his Ilaqa to 
the higher authorities. The actual collection of land revenue is also 
done by him. Within the district, the Paiwar circles form the basic units 
of revenue administration. 

In view of endemic nature of famines' in Bikaner district, a post 
of Additional Collector was created on a temporary basis in March, 
1966, as the over-all supervision of famine, relief work rests with the 
Collector. 

In the horizontal line of the district administration, the special 
importance of Superintendent of Police cannot be over-emphasised. 
Both the Collector and the Superintendent of Police work in close 
co-ordination for the maintenance of law and order within the district. 

With the change of emphasis in district administration from mere 
collection of revenue and maintenance of law and order to welfare and 
development activities, the agencies representing the departments 
connected with the developmental and welfare activities .have assumed 
greater importance. In the horizontal line of administration, the district 
ofhcers-in-charge of agriculture, irrigation, education, industries, animal 
husbandry and poultry, public works etc., are styled as District Level 
Officers. A meeting of all the District Level Officers is summoned by the 
Collector once a month to discuss the co-ordination of policies, working 
of the programmes and difficulties, if any, and draw plans for future 
action. The Collector presides over these meetings. 

The judicial matters are looked after by the District and Sessions 
Judge, who is the highest judicial authority in the district. He exercises 
supervision over the working of all civil and some criminal courts in 
the district. 


The list of District Level Officers is given at Appendix. 



General Administration 


265 


Appendix 

District Level Officers 

1. District and Sessions Judge 

2. Superintendent of Police 

3. Executive Engineer, Public Works Department (Buildings & Roads) 

4. Executive Engineer, Water Works 

5. Executive Engineer, Project Division 

6. Principal Medical Officer 

7. Executive Engineer, Rajasthan Canal Project 

8. Commercial Taxes Officer 

9. Assistant Commissioner, Taxation 

10. District Excise Officer 

11. District Agriculture Officer (Office located at Churu but jurisdiction 
extends to Bikaner district also) 

12. District Industries Officer 

13. Inspector of Schools 

14. Inspectress of Schools 

15. Social Welfare Officer 

16. Public Relations Officer 

17. Settlement Officer 

18. District Statistician 

19. Assistant Director, Health Services 

20. District Medical and Health Officer 

21. Assistant Director, Malaria 

22. Medical Officer-in-charge, National Malaria Eradication Pro- 
gramme Unit 

23. Assistant Engineer, Tube Wells 

24. E.xccutivc Engineer, Rajasthan State Electricity Board 

25. Deputy Town Planner 

26. Employment Officer 

27. Assistant Regional Transport Officer 

28. Superintendent of Jails 

29. District Probation Officer 

30. Inspector,' Devasthan 

31. Inspector, Ayurved 

32. Forest Range Officer 

33. Assistant Rcgistr.ar, Co-operative Societies. 



CHAPTER XI 

REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 

LAND REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 

Historical Aspect 

Due to lack of records, it cannot be deOnitely said how revenue 
administration was carried on in the beginning of the medieval period, 
prior to the foundation of Bikaner State by Rao Bika. It is, however, 
evident that at that time, most of the territory was occupied by Bhatis 
and various tribes, who were recorded as original settlers and claimed 
all the land around their villages as their exclusive possessions and 
ownerships, which they could bequeathe to their .descendents. Rao 
Bika, it appeals, recognised and upheld these rights, but later, in the 
15th and 17th Centuries, his descendents initiated the policy of exer- 
cising their sovereign authority over the entire area. The first avail- 
able reference of the Bikaner State is found in Ain-i-Akbari^. At that 
time, Bikaner was recognised as a Sirkar, in the Siibah of Ajmer, 
comprising eleven mahals and yielding a revenue of 47,50,000 Dams. 

The methods of assessment after the seventeenth century can be 
said to have varied from one ruler to another, though the most common 
one in use was to measure up the land every second or third year, so 
as to assess a cash rate per cultivated Bigha. The rent, called Hasil or 
Rakam, was paid by the cultivator alongwith other Lag (cess) fixed 
without any reference to area of land he held. This procedure resulted 
in bringing sometimes a gain and sometimes a loss to the State exche- 
quer, due to yearly increase or decrease in the cultivated land, as the 
old cultivators migrated due to adverse climatic conditions or, in 
favourable circumstances, new ones arrived. The share of the produce 
was either Baiai (division) or Kmta\ (appraisement), which was charged 
in addition to the cash rent. In some parts of the State, Ijara (lump 
assessment) would be fixed annually for a village and distributed over 
the entire cultivating population, except the Chowdharis and village 
menials. In other parts, the system known as Anga bach was 
prevalent, under which the revenue was collected on the basis of the 
cultivated area combined with a poll tax on ploughs and cattle. The 

1. Jarretl and Sarkar, Ain-t-Akbart of Abdul Fazl-i-AUomi, 1949, Vol. II, pp. 273-82. 



Revenue Administration 


267 


demand was assessed by houses, each of which paid the following taxes 
yearly : (i) Halgat at Rs. 3 per bullock plough and Rs. 5 per camel 
plough; (ii) Attga at Rs 1-4-0 (Rs. 1.25) per cow, Rs. 1-8-0 (Rs. 1.50) 
per buffalo, Rs. 1-12-0 (Rs. 1.75) per bullock and 3-8-0 (Rs 3.50) 
per camel ; (Hi) Dhiian or house tax at Rs. 2-8-0 (Rs. 2.50) 
per house; (iv) Rakhwali or protection fee at Rs. 2 per house and (v) 
Fagri or poll tax ofRs. 1-4-0 (Rs. 1.25) per adult male. These rates 
varied from place to place. A particular class of agricultural labour, 
styled as Hali, surrendered to the Government, one-fifth of the produce 

instead of paying Halgat. In a few villages, the demand was assessed 
in a lump sum from house to house, varying with the economic con- 
dition of (he inmates. It was called Bhint-ka-hach and was very 
common in the Patta estates. 

The officers, called Havaldars, used to collect revenue from 
or tahsils and paid a fixed amount to the Rny, keeping the 
balance with themselves on certain understanding with the State. The 
Chowdharis were employed as agents for collecting revenue from the 
•cultivators. The tax known as Bhitnga was also realised from the cattle- 
owners, who grazed their cattle in other villages, at the rate of four 
annas (25 paise) per cow, eight annas (50 paisc) per buffalo and one 
rupee per camel. 

The Chowdharis were permitted by Raj through a Sanad to colo- 
nise and cultivate waste land in other villages. They, in their 
turn, on receiving an induction fee (Haqq daul) of rupee one, could 
permit new cultivators to break up land. In lieu of their services, the 
Sanad permitted them to hold certain area of land on half (Adhkor) or 
full iSabkar) rent-free basis. They could appropriate fees as marriage 
and weighment taxes {Dharat) from the cultivators, keeping the collec- 
tions to themselves. Some of the Chowdharis did receive a sum known 
as Hankar (Subsistence) and an allowance of five per cent (Pachotra) on 
the collection of rent from the villages. They also collected an equal 
amount to the Hasil or Rakm in the 'name of Malba (village expenses) 

from each cultivator and .shared it between themselves and the havil- 
dars. Thus the status of the Chwodliaris nevertheless had become that 

of a sub-farmer responsible for the payment of a fixed sum rather than 
that of a rent collector only. 

S«mni.ary Settlement 

A summary settlement ofKhTtlsa villages was undertaken in 1884, 
in order to evolve a uniform system of assessment and collection of 



268 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


revenue throughout the State. It was a very rough settlement; the 
maps, were not drawn to scale and were just better than crude sketches; 
the fields were plotted mostly by the eye; but the maps showed the.; 
general shape of the village boundaries and the approximate position of 
the fields. This settlement was introduced for a period of five years , 
and was subsequently extended to eight years. 

After the introduction of this settlement, the principles of assess- 
ment were changed. Each village was now assessed at a lump sum and 
for the payment of the rent and taxes the chowdharis were held jointly , 
responsible. They were deprived of the power to eject any cultivator, 
who paid the proper rent. 

The rates proposed for the assessment of land revenue for the 
then Bikaner, Kolayat and Lonkaransar tahsils were as follows ; 


Rates per bigha (0.37 acres) 


Tahsil 

Cultivated Land 

Waste Land 


Annas Pies 

Pies 

Bikaner 

1 — 9 

3 

Ltinkaransar 

1 — 6 

3 

Kolayat 

1 — 9 

3 ' 


The average of five years’ income of the State, prior to this 
Summary Settlsment was Rs. 3,08,950. The Summary Settlement 
assessed the revenue at Rs. 4,06,932, thereby increasing the income by 
Rs. 97,982 a yeari. 

This settlement was defective in that there was no uniform 
policy adopted for the whole State. The State had to lose substantial 
amounts of revenue whenever a cultivator left the village or abandoned 
his holding, a phenomenon quite frequent because of poor quality of 
soil and also because of repeated droughts and famines. In the 
absence of proper administration of the unoccupied wasteland, the 
State lost revenue on this account also. 

Settlement of 1894-95 

The first regular settlement, made in 1892-93 by P. J. Fagan, an 
Assistant Commissioner of the Punjab, was brought into force in 
1894-95 for a period of ten years and subsequently extended upto 1911. 

1. Report on the Ailmlnlsiration of the Bikaner State, 1893-94, p, 91, 


Revenue Administration 


269 


Survey — A regular survey was conducted only for the khaha 
area with the plane table and the chain used in some parts was the 
pucka 82^ feet (25.14 metres) in length. A square of two such 

chains was equal to one pucka bigha or five-eighth of an acre; while in 
other parts of the State, local chain 63^ feet (19.43 metres) in length, 
was used and a square of two of them was equal to one Bikaneri bigha 
(0.37 acre). After measuring the area of each village, the boundaries 
were marked on a map and the Khasra (field register) and Khatauni 
(showing the groups of separate holdings) were also prepared. 

The rates fixed varied from Re. 0-3-9 (22 paisa) to Rs. 0-5-3 
(33 paisa) per bigha for the cultivated land and from the two pice to 
one anna (3 paisc to 6 paise) per bigha for the occupied waste land. 
As per this settlement, the revenue demands for the Khulsa villages were 
fixed at Rs. 3,99,054. 

According to this settlement, the Chowdharis were allowed to 
collect revenue at fixed rates for the land entered in the records. They 
realised grazing fee from the outside cattle. In lieu of their services, 
they were permitted to have five per cent {pachoira) on the fixed assess- 
ment of the village only, on the condition that the dues pertaining to 
their respective charge were fully paid by them to the State. 

In 1912, G. D. Rudkin, Revenue Commissioner, initiated some 
changes in the rates of assessment which were extended up to the end 
of 1921-221. Regular settlement operations, however, vktc again 
started in 1925-26 and new rates of assessment came into force in 
1926-27. The length of the chain used was 127^ feel (38.85 metres). 
The land was classified as cultivated and waste. The rates proposed 
for the assessment of the revenue for the different tahsils were as 
follows : 



Cultivated 

Land 

Waste 

Land 

Koluyat 

17 paisc to 23 paisc 

3 paisc to 8 paise 

Bikaner 

IS paisc to 104 paisc 

13 paise to 18 paisc 

Nallkha 

15 paisc to 24 paisc 

1 1 paise to 1 5 paise 

LtJnkaransar 

21 paise 

1 1 paisc 


1 , toiir Dfzatfes ef /VfWri’.tr in Uikan-r, 1937, p. 35, 



70 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


The settlement demand in the Sadar division (now roughly com- 
prising the Bikaner district), stood at Rs. 3,69,526 as compared to 
Rs. 2,50,242 under the previous settlement!. This settlement remained 
in force till the merger. 


The land of the erstwhile State of Bikaner was divided into 

three groups : fi) Khalsa (Crown land), (ii) Jagir (held by grantees) and 

(lii) Sasan (carved out for religious institutions during the reign of 

Maharaja Ganga Singh). The Khalsa land comprised near about 32 

per cent of the total area of the State. The Jagir lands, comprising 

major portion of the remaining area, were of two types: (i) those held 

by near relatives of the Maharaja on revenue-free basis and (ii) those 

G by other Jagirdars in lieu of their past services. The second 

category of jagirdars paid Rekh, besides other cesses to the State. The 

asan (Dhannada) was granted for the maintenance of temples, in 

Chanty to Brahmins and Charans, and were held free and in 
perpetuity. 

Tn • divided into two categories, Tazimi and non 

n.wT’ k/ of Tazimi nobles varied during the reigns of different 

the 'Jtafo were employed on important assignments in 

fiEhtin.^ m The jagirdars used to supply the ruler with 

thiq ‘■eign of Maharaja Ratan Singh (1828-51), 

payment called Rek/i at the rate 
durine ^ subsequently raised to Rs. 125, and 

tSmutn? 200 per horseman. The 

paidTv h ^to (protection fee) was also ' 

as Nazlrla olV^ ' revenue 

annual income n ^ess, fixed at onc-fifth of their 

further required to"keep tre""'T, They were 
their cultivators contented’' The ""l condition (.46mf) and 

Talab or a fine for non ' 

Wi7«had to n payment of ReWi. Besides, the 

purch s ‘and rri' as Zata,, a tax on sain, 

nase and transit of grains, cattle etc., to the ruler. 

.<lminitaforon‘'^"'’,la''’“-“'‘“’’'“''''‘ '*«■' f” «>» bnllcr 

was appointed to Milt., "" 

to Mlinc, rnvnnun and look aftnr other administrative 

1 . 


four Decades of Progress In Bikaner, m?, p, 35, 



Revenue Administration 


271 


matters. All the Kamdars of such estates were under an officer, who 
acted as a deputy to the Nazim of the concerned Nizamat. In 1946-47, 
there were 164 estates under the Court of Wards, out of which 132 were 
directly managed, 26 due to minority, 90 due to indebtedness, 8 due to 
succession disputes, two due to mismanagement, two due to Pattedar 
being invalid and four due to other reasons^. In 19 12, a Round Table 
Conference of Tazimi Sardars was called to discuss the matters relating 
to the State and the jagirdars. It resulted in close co-operation of the 
Sardars with the State administration. In 1921 again, the nobles were 
invited to a conference. By calling such conferences now and then, the 
jagirdars were kept in close touch with the administration, leaving no 
cause for them to grumble and remain secluded and disinterested in the 
affairs of the State and clinching their loyalty and subservience to the 
Maharaja in the process. 

Settlement in .Tagir areas 

No settlement had taken place in the jagir areas till 1941. The 
jagirdars used to fix rent arbitrarily and such rates in 1940 were twice 
as much as in the KItalsa areas. They used to engage their own men to 
go from field to field to assess the produce. 1 he methods of assessment 
were Latai and Batai. The Latai method was applied to the standing 
crop and the yield of the crop was estimated. The method 
consisted in the assessment of jagirdar’s share after the crop had been 
harvested and grain winnowed on the thrashing floor. The assessed 
quantity of the produce was delivered to the jagirdar at his door and 
his share varied from one third to one sixth of the produce from village 
to village. The jagirdars could make any illegal exactions and they 
never tried to keep any proper records. 

During the reign of Maharaja Ganga Singh (1887-1943), a regular 
system of payment of land revenue in cash in Jagir areas was intro- 
duced and the revenue rates were specifically fixed. They varied from 
two annas to ten annas (12 parse to 62 paise) per bigha according to 
the quality of the lands. The settlement operations in the jagir 
villages commenced on 1st January 19423 and were completed in 

1. Report on the Administration of Bikaner State, 1945-46 and 1946-47. 

2. Gupta, B. P., Growth of Administration in Bikaner State (1 818-1947), Unpublished 
Ph.D. Thesis. University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, p. 314. 

3. Report on the Administration of the Bikaner Stale, 1939-40, 1940-41, and 
1941-42, p. 60. 



272 


Kajasttian uistrict uazetteers — uiKaner 


1951-52, after the merger of the State into Rrijastlian, in 1949. The 
land revenue was fixed at Re. 0-6-3 (40 paise) per biglia, both for 
cultivated and uncultivated lands. It undoubtedly afforded a consider- 
able relief to the tenants of the jagir areas. The State Land Revenue 
and Tenancy Acts, 1945 were made applicable to jagir areas also. 

Survey and attestation operations in the jagir villages were 
conducted on plane table triangulatjon basis, with a chain of 165 feet 
(50.29 metres) in length, except in Koiayat and Naukha tahsils, where 
the half chain measusing 82J feet (25.14 metres) was used. According to 
this settlement, the following amount was assessed in different tahsils : 


Tahsil 


Villages 


Amount 

(Rs.) 

Bikaner 


128 



Koiayat 


103 



Lunkaransar 


171 



Naakha 


114 



The following table gives the relevant details 

of the tahsils and 

the rates of revenue per biglia in the district 







(Paise) 

Tahsil 

Circle 

Pala 

Bilapc^Ia 

Banjar 

1. Bikaner 

I 

30 to 37 

27 to 32 

14 to 18 


II 

12 to 25 

10 to 22 

6 to 11 


III 

21 

17 

9 


IV 

17 

14 

9 

2. Koiayat 

I 

25 

19 

9 


II 

15 

9 

5 


III 

12 

8 

3 


IV 

9 

5 

2 

3. Nankha 

I 

22 to 36 

19 to 33 

9 to 15 


11 {Dhord) 

17 to 30 

14 to 27 

5 to 9 

4. Lunkaransar 

Bhadava 

27 

24 

8 


I {Dhord) 

31 

28 

12 

""" ' 

11 {Dhord) 

25 

21 

8 


Revenue Administration 


273 


The number of villages surveyed in Bikaner tahsil was 128, in 
Lnnkaransar 148, in Kolayat 104 and inNaukhaI14. Due to the 
resumption of jagirs (between 1952 and 1959), settlement operations 
were again undertaken in 1959, in jagir villages and completed and 
approved by the Government of Rajasthan in 1963. Next settlement 
in this area will be due in Samvat 2030 (1973 A. d.). 

Settlement after the Merger 

After the formation of Rajasthan, the Settlement Office was 
reorganised and put under an officer known as the Settlement Officer, 
who works under the direct administrative control of the Settlement 
Commissioner, Rajasthan, Jaipur. The Settlement officer, Bikaner has 
jurisdiction over three districts viz., Bikaner, Ganganagar and Cburu. 

The settlement operations were taken up in the year 1950. The 
survey operations were carried out in 678 villages and the total area 
surveyed was 28,531 sq. miles. The Jarib used in these operations 
varied from tahsil to tahsil. In tahsil Ltinkaransar its length was 165 
feet while in the remaining three tahsils of Bikaner, Kolayat and 
Naukha it was 127i feet for Khalsa areas and 165 feet for the jagir areas. 

Assessment — For assessment purposes, the Unit Value System 
was adopted and the land was divided into the classes of (i) Pala^ 
(ii) Non-Rafa, (iii) Batijar, (iv) Cultivated and (v) Chahi, for which 
highest and lowest rates (per bigha) were fixed as follows : 

(Rupees) 

Tahsil Soil classes Highest Rates Lowest Rates 


1. 

Bikaner 

1. Pala 

0.36 

0.17 



2. Non-Pato 

0.27 

0.14 



3. Banjar 

0.18 

0.09 



4. Cultivated 

0.21 

— 



5. Chahi 

1.04 

. — 

2. 

Ltinkaransar 

1. Barani 

0.35 

0.20 

3. 

Naukha 

1, Pala 

0.36 

0.30 



2. NomPa/a 

0.33 

0.27 



3. Banjar 

0.15 

0.09 



4. Cultivated 

0.24 

0.15 

4. 

Kolayat 

1. Pala 

0.25 

0.09 



2. Non-Po/a 

0.19 

0.05 



3. Banjar 

0.09 

0.02 



4. Cultivated 

0.2^ 

0.17; 


274 


iiajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


The terms of settlement prescribed for different tahsils were as 
follows ; Naukha Samvat 2008 to Samvat 2019 (1951 to 1962 a. D.). 
Bikaner Samvat 2008 to Samvat 2019 (1951 to 1962 a.d.), Lunkaransar 
Samvat 2008 to Samvat 2012 (1951 to 1955 A. D.) and Kolayat Samvat 
2009 to Samvat 2020 (1951 to 1963 A.D.). The assessment rates were 
fixed as follows : 


Tahsil 

Amount 


(Rupees) 

Naukha 

1,42,161 

Bikaner 

73,718 

Lunkaransar 

55,188 

Kolayat 

26,285 


Settlement operations were again taken up in Lunkaransar tahsil 
in the year 1962 (Samvat 2019) and the term of settlement was fixed 
upto Samvat 2030 (1974 a.d.). The prominent feature of this settlement 
was that cesses of various types were abolished and rents were to be 
realised in cash. As regards the rent in kind, it was enacted that the 
maximum recoverable from a tenant shall not exceed one-sixth of the 
gross produce. Pending approval of the new seetlement rates, the 
previous rates are in force. 

In 1954, forty-two villages of Nacbna tahsil of Jaisalmer district 
were transferred to Kolayat tahsil. No settlement of those villages 
had been made prior to this transfer, so after the transfer, summary 
scUlcment was completed in Smrjvo/ 2013 (1956 a.d.). Again in 1960 
settlement operations were taken in hand and duly completed in 1962. 
The chain used for the purpose, was 165 feet (50,29 metres) in length. 
The term of the settlement was fixed from Samvat 2021 to Samvat 2030 
(1964 to 1973 A.D.) and the total area surveyed was 18,34,837 bighas. For 
the assessment purposes the land was divided into the classes (i) Barani I 
(ii) Barani II (iii) Barani III and (iv) Ghair-Miimkin 

For each category the rates fixed per bigha were the following: 

Barani I 6 to 16 paise 

Barani 11 5 to 14 paise 

Barani 111 10 paise 

Ghair-Mumkin Nil 



Revenue Administration 


ns 


In the year 1965-66, the Settlement Officer, Bikaner was being 
assisted by five Assistant Settlement Officers who had a sanctioned staff 
of eight upper division and seventeen lower division cleiks, four tracers, 
one sadar munsarim, thirty inspectors, one hundred and forty-two 
surveyors and fifteen peons including two camel-riders. 

Set-up of the Revenue Administration 

As regards the set-up of the revenue administration in the period 
prior to the advent of Rathors, nothing can be said definitely except 
, that it might have been constantly changing due to the frequent 
changes of the ruling dynasties. When the Rathors acquired this 
territory, they realised State revenue either through revenue contractors 
or revenue farmers, as stated earlier. The revenue during the Mughal 
period, especially under Akbar, might have been realised by the ruler 
direct, through the appointed Havaldars or Hakims as the authorised 
farmers of the Durbar for different Hakumats or tahsils. They paid 
annually to the State treasury a fixed demand agreed upon between 
themselves and the Durbar. This system worked well up to 1871, when 
a revenue officer with a revenue court was established. A new post of 
Superintendent of Revenue was also created. In 1880, the contract 
system for the revenue collection was given up and paid Tahsildars 
were appointed from amongst the local residents. After 1884, it was 
decided to appoint better qualified persons even if they were outsiders. 

In 1885, for the better administration of the department, the 
State was divided into four divisions called Nizamats, of which Bikaner, 
being one, comprised two tahsils viz., Bikaner and Lunkaransar. In 
1893-94, a third tahsil KoJayat, was established. A system of grading 
tahsildars and naib-tahsildars was adopted in March 1889, with the 
object of encouraging efficient workers by holding out prospects of 
regular promotion. In April 1891, the pay grade of the tahsildars was 
increased, and a horse allowance and travelling allowance for tours 
were granted. 

In 1910, Board of Revenue of Bikaner State was established. It 
provided for better and more efficient supervision, control, co-ordina- 
tion and quicker disposal of work. The other revenue earning depart- 
ments viz.. Customs and Excise, Stamps and Registration were made 
subordinantc to the Board. Tlie Board was authorised to frame and 
issue rules with the approval of the ruler, regulating assessment and 
remission of land revenue, the grant of chaks, the ciectment of 



276 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers—BIkaner 


trespassers, exchange and transfer of holdings and various incidental 
matters. Consequent on the establishment of the Board, the post of 
the Revenue Officer (created in 1871) was abolished. The Board 
consisted of four members namely. Revenue Members, Revenue 
Commissioner, Revenue Secretary and Inspector General of Customs 
and Excise. The Revenue Member was concurrently a member of 
the State Council (controlling body of the administration of the State). 
The Revenue Secretary was assisted by the Revenue Commissioner in 
the performance of his duties. There was one Assistant Revenue 
Commissioner to assist the Revenue Commissioner and to supervise 
the working of the Nazims, who were the heads of the Nizamais. The 
tahsildars and naib-tahsildars headed revenue administration at tahsil 
and sub- tahsil levels respectively. In the lowest rung of ladder of 
revenue administration were the Girdawars who performed their duties 
with the help of the Patwaris. 

During the period 1917-1929 the Land Records section of the 
Revenue Department was overhauled and trained and competent 
Girdawars and Patwaris were employed. In order to overcome the 
shortage of experienced and competent staff, training facilities were 
provided by the State for the prospective candidates. Another important 
decision, taken by the Administration in 1913 was the preparation of 
land records in Hindi. The Patwaris were ordered to transcribe demand 
and collection papers in Hindi, right from 1904 onwards before which 
these had been prepared in Urdu. 


In 1927, due to (he opening of Gang Canal, irrigation facilities 
were made available to the cultivators resulting in increase in the work 
of colonisation and irrigation. On August 22, 1927, therefore, the 
tate was divided into two divisions viz., Sadar and Ganganagar; the 
^adar division comprised the three Nizamats oT Sadar, Sajangarh 
and Rem, and the Ganganagar division, those of Suratgarh and 
• nganagar. Settlement operations were begun afresh. They, however, 
were confined to the area now included in Ganganagar district. 

In 1935, the departments of Revenue and Irrigation were amal- 
gamated and placed under a Colonisation Minister. In 1945, the 
Bikaner State Land Revenue Act was passed. It provided for payment 
of land revenue assessed in cash annually, in a lump sum at prescribed 
per bigha rates. The period of assessment was fixed as follows ; 



Revenue Administration 


2V 


Klmlsa Villages— (a) Barani areas — 30 years 

(b) Canal Irrigated areas 

Maximum — 20 years 

Minimum —10 years 

After the merger of the State into Rajasthan, the whole area of 
the State was placed under a Commissioner, and the Board of Revenue 
Bikaner State was disbanded on 13th August 19491. For the revenue 
purposes it was divided into three districts, Bikaner being one of them, 
with the Collector as head of the district administration. 

The Board of Revenue, Rajasthan was established at Ajmer 
according to the provisions of the Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956. 
It is the highest court of appeal, revision and reference in Rajasthan in 
revenue matters. It is empowered to exercise supervision and control 
over all the revenue courts (Divisional Commissioner’s, Collector’s and 
Tahsildar’s courts) and the revenue officers of the State. In 1961, the 
post of the Divisional Commissioner was abolished. The district has 
been divided into two sub-divisions, viz., Bikaner north and Bikaner 
south; each having two tahsils. Thus there are four tahsils comprising 
fifteen Girdawar circles and 131 Patwar Halkas. details of which are as 
folIows2 ; 


Sub-Division 


T.nhsil 

Naib 

tahsils 

Girdawar 

Circles 

Patwar 

Halkas 

1. Bikaner north 

1. 

Bikaner 

2 

4 

38 


2. 

Lunkaransar 

1 

4 

31 

2. Bikaner south 

1. 

Naukha ' 

2 

3 

33 


2. 

Kolayat 

1 

4 

29 

Total 

4 


6 

15 

131 


The detailed information regarding the location of Girdawar 
circles and Patwar llalkas is given in Appendix I. 


Income from Land Revenue 

As per available records, the land revenue of the erstwhile 
Bikaner State (formed now into three districts of Bikaner, Churu and 

t. Vide Gazette notification of Law Department of United State of Rajasthan, 
No. 27/LD/USR dated 13th A«rust, 1949, cf. its danse No. 19, 

2, Source : CoHccioratc, Rikaper. 




278 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Ganganagar) was Rs. 5,80,321 in the year 1 ^ 83 - 84 , during the rdgn of 
Maharaja Dungar Singh. At the time of accession of 
Ganga Singh to the throne in 'he year 1887-88, it was Rs. v. 

yearwise record of the revenue collected by the entire State is avail i 
but it is difficult to break it up for the area comprising the preseni 
Bikaner district. However, assuming the then Bikaner Mzflinot appro - 
mately co-terminus with the present Bikaner district, the reven 
accruing in it during 1942-43 to 1946-47 is given below separate y 
for Kh&lsa and Jagir areas : 

(Rupees) 


Year 

Demand 

Collection 


Balance 


Land Revenue from Khsilsa Villages 


1942-43 

8,51,070 

8,14,137 


36,933 

1944-45 

6,27,902 

5,77,836 


50,066 

1945-46 

5,95,972 

4,89,548 


1,06,424 

1946-47 

6,40,975 

5,60,768 


80,207 


Tribute 

from Jagirdars 



1942-43 

6,90,611 

5,25,496 


1,65,115 

1944-45 

4,48,476 

3,16,739 


1,31,737 

1945-46 

4,25,596 

2,41,016 


1,84,580 

im-Ai 

4,39,212 

2,30,432 


2,08,780 

The demand, collection. 

remission and balance of land revenue 

for the Bikaner district for the period 1957-58 to 

1965-66 

is given 

below' : 







(Rs. in Lakhs) 

Year 

Demand 

Collections Remissions 

Balance 


(arrears and 





current) 




1957-58 

26.45 

1.26 


25.19 

1958-59 

25.08 

8.11 


16.97 

1959-60 

14.15 

8.75 

3.36 

2.04 

1960-61 

14.26 

3.50 

8.76 

2.00 

1961-62 

13.85 

8.44 

1.39 

4.02 

1962-63 

13.81 

0.23 

13.58 


1963-642 

13.80 

0.22 

— 

13.58 

1964-65 

13.81 

0.23 

0.79 

12,79 

1965-66 

15.92 

12.10 

1.50 

2.32 


Remission of land revenue has almost been a regular feature due 
to the climatic conditions of this area. 


1 . Stotislical Abstract, KiTjastliSti, yearly volumes for various years. 

2. F^urcs for the year 1963-fi4 supplied by Dircctorale ot rconornics and Stallsiics, 

Itdjasth, an, Jaipur, • ‘ \ 



Revenue Administration 


279 


LAND REFORMS 

Position of the Tenants 

Before the formation of Rajasthan, though there were written 
tenancy laws in the Bikaner State, but these enactments were conser- 
vative in nature. They merely sought to give legal shape to prevailing 
customs or practices. Full rights of transfer were recognised in the 
case of occupancy tenants on Klia.!sa lands in the State. The tenants 
had to pay premium or Nazarana as the price of acquiring rights of 
transfer. Even after the payment of Nazarana, transfers were subject to 
the prior sanction of the Maharaja. In 1942, as per Bikaner State 
Government orders, tenants holding land for 20 years or more had 
been declared Khatedars and the remaining tenants were recorded as 
Ghair-Dakhilkars (temporary cultivators). The tenants in the jagir 
areas could not acquire occupancy rights at all. The jagirdars for 
all intents and purposes were owners of the jagir lands, and payment 
made by them to the State had no bearing on the amount realised 
from their tenants. In most of jagir areas, rent was realised by taking 
a share of produce, ranging from one-half to one-eighth. In the unsettled 
jagir areas, the tenants were more or less tenants-at-will. They were 
forced to pay many levies^ of which some were the following : — 


1. Malba or Pachhotra —to meet the actual expenses of the 

Thikana officials on duty for collection 
of revenue. 


2 . 

3. 

4. 

5. 


Naiiwa 

Korad 

Begar or forced labour 

Khuntabandi and 
Pancharai 


— for meeting the expenses of maintaining 
the accounts-books. 

— for fodder for the maintenance of 
horses and camels of the Jagirdars. 

— grazing fee realised in respect of camels, 
sheep and goats. 


6. Shradba levy — realised in the form of ghee and milk 

from tenants for celebrating the shradha 
of the forefathers of Jagirdars. 

Abolition of Jagirs 

The first and foremost task before the Government of Rajasthan 
after its formation, was the abolition of intermediaries on land. 


1 . Gupta, B.P., Growth of AdmmUtration in Bikaner State (1818-1547), unpublished 
Ph. D. thesis. University of Rajasthan, pp. 287-325, 



280 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


The Rajasthan Land Reforms and Resumption of Jagirs Act, 
1952 was brought into force with effect from I8th February, 1952. The 
Jagirdars, however, challenged the constitutional validity of the legis- 
lation and the provisions of the Act largely remained unim piemen ted 
for over two years, till the High Court and the Supreme Court held it 
intra vires. As a result of Hehru award, the original act was amended 
in several important aspects by the Rajasthan Land Reforms and 
Resumption of Jagirs (Amendment) Act, 1954. Cash jagirs or grants 
of money by way of jagirs, were also abolished with effect from 1st 
April, 1958, under the Rajasthan Cash Jagirs Abolition Act, 1958. 
The compensation payable to a Jagirdar was seven times his net 
annual income, calculated in accordance with the provisions contained 
in the Act. All the jagirs have been resumed and compensation paid 
to the Jagirdars. The amount paid to the Jagirdars as compensation, 
upto the end of the financial year 1965-66 was Rs. 3,094 thousand, 
Rs. 1,329 thousand as interim compensation in cash and Rs. 1,765 
thousand in the form of bonds. 

Tenancy Reform 

During the princely administration, on the whole, a tenant of 
Khalsa land enjoyed greater security of tenure than his counterpart of 
jagir land. He paid a fixed rent in cash, while a tenant of jagir land 
was open to harassment by the Kamdars of the Jagirdar. He was 
liable to ejectment by the intermediaries and could not go in appeal to 
the Maharaja, who was interested only in the realisation of the Rekh 
from the Jagirdar. The situation, however, improved during the reign 
of Maharaja Ganga Smgh, who ordered in 1941, the grant of occu- 
pancy rights to agriculturists in unirrigated village of the State. 
These privileges were also extended to the tenants in the jagir areas.! 

After the formation of Rajasthan, the Government protected 
the rights of the tenants in many ways. An ordinance was promulgated 
in June 1949, called the Rajasthan (Protection of Tenants) Ordinance, 
1949, later replaced by the Rajasthan Tenancy Act 1955. According 
to the provisions of 1949 Ordinance no tenant was liable to be ejected or 
dispossessed otherwise than in accordance with the procedure of the 
law. It also provided a simple and quick process for reinstatement 
of tenants forcibly ejected. This came as a boon to the tenants securing 
them possession of land cultivated by them which ultimately resulted 

L Report on the Administration of Bikaner State, 1939-40 to S941-42, p. 60. 



Revenue Administration 


in the accrual of Khaiedari rights to them in their holdings. This was 
followed by Rajasthan Tenancy Act 1955 and The Rajasthan Land 
Revenue Act, which conferred several rights and privileges on the 
tenants and the security of their tenures. The most note-worthy 
feature of the Tenancy Act was that all those who were cultivating their 
holdings as tenants on 15th October, 1955, the date on which the Act 
came into force, automatically and without payment of any compen- 
sation acquired Khatedari rights with practically full powers of devolu- 
tion and transfer and immunity from ejectment, except in accordance 
with the provisions of the Act. These rights were also conferred on 
sub-tenants, if they were recorded as such or were proved to be so, 
under certain circumstances through payment of small compensation 
to the land-holder. The revolutionary principle of the modern age 
that land belongs to the tiller of the soil, was sought to be implemented. 
The Land Revenue Act prescribed the maximum rent in cash or kind 
that a tenant was liable to pay. The cash rent was not to exceed 
double the amount of land revenue and the rent in kind was not to 
exceed one-sixth of the gross produce. 

Another important provision of the Tenancy Act was the ban 
on the levy of various cesses. But despite this, certain cesses continued 
to be levied in various areas. The Rnjasthan Discontinuance of Cesses, 
Act, 1959 was passed for their abolition. 

Revenue Cases 


The following statement shows the disposal of revenue cases in 
the district for the years from 1959-60 to 1965-66 i: 

(Number) 


Year 

Opening 

Balance 

Instituted 

Total 

Disposed of 

Closing Balance 

1959-60 

555 

1,115 

1,670 

1,216 

454 

1960-61 

454 

1,787 

2,241 

1,742 

499 

1961-62 

499 

3,420 

3,919 

3,248 

671 

1962-63 

671 

2,615 

3,286 

1,977 

1,309 

3963-64 

1,309 

3,890 

5,199 

4,098 

1,101 

1964-65 

1,101 

1,674 

2,775 

1,754 

1,021 

1965-66 

L62I 

1,893 

2,914 

1,899 

1,025 


1. Source : Dirccioretc of Economics and Statistics, Kdjastban, Jaipur. 



282 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Land Holdings 

A committee was appointed in November 1953 for the fixation 
of ceilings on holdings of agricultural land in Rajasthan. The 
Rajasthan Tenancy (Sixth Amendment) Act 1959, was enacted in 
March I960. It fixed ceilings on holdings. A family of five or less 
members, could own a maximum of thirty standard acres of land. The 
area in excess of this ceiling had to be surrendered to the State for 
which due compensation was to be paid. The surrendered land 
was to be let out to landless and other persons on the terms and 
conditions laid down in the rules. The notification calling upon the 
land-holders to surrender their excess areas to the Government has yet 
to be issued. 

Landless Agricultural Workers 

As per the Census Report of 1961, the total number of landless 
agricultural workers in the district was 8d6 in rural areas and 116 in 
urban areas. The Government have taken steps to allot them unoccu- 
pied land. 

Bhoodan and Grnmdan 

Due to the Bhoodan movement, sponsored by Vinoba Bhavc, 
lands have been donated to the Bhoodan Yagna Board, recognised by 
Bhoodan Yagna Act 1954, brought into force from 7th August 1954. 
The Riijasthan Bhoodan Yagna Board started functioning in January 
1955. Further developments occasioned by the donations of grams 
(called Grarndan), ultimately necessitated legislation for the establish- 
ment of Grarndan and for the constitution of Gramsabhas to manage 
the land received as grarndan and to perform other .incidental 
functions. The Rajasthan Grarndan Act, accordingly, was passed on 
18th December, 1959, and came into force from 8th June, 1960. This 
Act permits the land-holders to donate their rights to the Gramsabhas 
and makes various incidental provisions. 

The yearly progress of the Bhoodan movement, showing the 
number of donors, land donated and distributed, and the number of 
families benefited, is given in the following tabled : 


1. Statistical Abstract, RiijastbSn, yearly volumes for various years. 



Revenue Administration 


283 


Year 

Donors 

(No.) 

Land donated 
(Hectares) 

Land distri- 
buted 
(Hectares) 

Families 

benefited 

(No.) 

1956 

30 

210 



1957 

1 

10 

_ 

— 

1958 



2,330 

261 

1959 

6 

527 

559 

55 

1960 


_ 

498 

48 

1961 

— 

— 

2,184 

198 

1962 


— 

2,109 

208 

1963 

— 

_ 

2,139 

54 

1964 



546 

166 

1965 

— 

_ 

386 

140 

1966 

— 

— 

386 

140 


OTHER SOURCES OF REVENUE 

Post Sources 

Besides the land revenue, a number of taxes were levied and 
Lags realised by the former Bikaner State Government. There were 
import and export duties on Til and Sugar, Raki7j (a fixed military 
tribute), Rekfi (money payment in lieu of military service), Rakhwali 
(protection fee) and Ragri or poll tax per adult male. Besides, twenty 
two taxes of peculiar type were collected, which have been given at 
appendix II. It is difficult to ascertain the years when the different 
taxes were introduced in the State, After the accession of Maharaja 
Ganga Singh, many of them were abolised. It was a practice with the 
rulers to abolish some taxes and order levy of others at the time of 
their accession to the Gaddi (throne). 

Present Sources 

At present, the main sources of slate revenue, besides the land 
revenue, are state excise, sales tax, entertainment tax, registration fees 
and stamps and taxes on vehicles. The sources of revenue of the 
Government of India include taxes on income and property, customs 
and union excise. 

Registration ites — Under the Indian Registration Act of 1908, 
registration is compulsory in case of certain documents and optional in 
case of others. .The Collector of the district is the ex-officio Dhtn'ct 


284 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Registrar under the Act. Under him there is a sub-registrar, who 
actually registers documents, for which the required stamp duties and 
registration fees have to be paid. He also keeps a record of the regis- 
tered documents and, on application, issues their certified copies. 


The following statement gives the deeds registered by Sub- 
Registrar, Bikaner city and income derived therefrom during the years 
1960-61 to 1965-661: 


Year 

Documents registered (No.) 

Income (Rupees) 

1960-61 

1,775 

27,951 

1961-62 

1,636 

30,231 

1962-63 

2,075 

33,906 

1963-64 

1,845 

33,474 

1964-65 

1,669 

33,200 

1965-66 

1,254 

34,526 


Stamps — Under the Stamps Act, the District Treasury Officer 
functions as custodian of Stamps for the purpose of storage as well as 
distribution and sale through the sub-treasuries, numbering three in the 
district, and stamp vendors. There is only one stamp vendor at the 
district headquarters. During the last five years from 1961-62 to 1965-65, 
income from the sale of non-judicial and judicial stamps has been 
given below2: 


(Rupees) 


Year 

Non-judicial 

Judicial 


Stamps 

Stamps 

1961-62 

2,01,157 

1,31,164 

1962-63 

2,35,631 

1,42,120 

1963-64 

7,63,824 

2,07,596 

1964-65 

14,07,509 

5,35,452 

1965-66 

7.06,876 

3,01,759 


Registration of Motor Veiucees-As per provisions of the 
Rajasthan Motor Vehicles Act-, the Collector is the registering authority 
for the motor vehicles in the district. The following table gives the 

1. Source : OfTicc of the Sub-Registrar, Bikaner Citv. 

2 Source -. Treasury OlTiccr, Bikaner. ’ 



Revenue Administration 


285 


year-wise number of registered vehicles and the total amount of 
revenue collected'^ ; 


Year 

Vehicles registered 
(No ) 

Registration fee 
(Rs.) 

1960-61 

92 

1,268 

1961-62 

101 

1.182 

1962-63 

105 

1,053 

1963 64 

78 

1,372 

1964-65 

103 

1,967 

1965-66 

87 

1,550 


Excise and Taxation — Before the merger of Bikaner State into 
Rajasthan, Customs and Excise Department was under the charge of an 
officer known as Inspector-General of Customs and Excise. The Excise 
Act and Manual and the Customs Act and Manual and Tariff were intro- 
duced in 1911. Some amendments were made in the Customs Act in 
1916 and 1922. The Excise Act and Manual were also revised in 1922. 
Dangerous Drugs Regulation was incorporated in the Excise Manual 
under the expert advice of J. A. Pope, the then Excise Commissioner, 
Central India. Hemp-Drugs, originally sold on contract system, were 
imported by contractors under permits issued by the Excise Department. 
This system was abolished in' 1921-22, and replaced by import of the 
drugs directly by the State. Again the import of opium was 
stopped in November, 1931 and replaced by imports only on State 
account for issue to the license holders for retail sale. Such measures 
improved the working of the system and the Government was able to 
earn a revenue of Rs. 16,44,759 as excise in 1945-46. 

After the formation of Rajasthan, under provisions of the Sales 
Tax Act of 1954, custom duty was replaced by Sales Tax. Accordingly, 
the former Department of Customs and Excise came to be designated 
as the Department of Excise and Taxation. In the year 1964, this 
Department was bifurcated into two separate Departments of Excise 
and Commercial Taxcs.In the district at present, an E.xcise Officer and a 
Commercial Taxes Officer are looking after these two departments 
rcspcclively. 


J. Source : RcrlsJerln? Authority, Motor Vehicles pcparltr.cnf, 


286 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


The District Excise Officer, Bikaner is assisted in his work by 
Circle Inspectors, one Prosecuting Inspector and other ministerial and 
field staff. The revenue from excise for the last three years, is shown 
in the following tabled : 


(Rupees) 




Revenue Administration 


2S7 


(Rs. in thousands) 


Year 

Sales tax 

Passenger 
and goods 
tax 

Enter- 

tainment 

tax 

Electri- 
city duty 

Customs- 

Agricul- 

tural 

income 

tax 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

1961-61 

1,198 

152 

131 

-- - . 

0.01 

8 

1961-62 

1,366 

166 

193 

— 

1.33 

8 

1962-63 

1,713 

203 

263 

115 

0.51 


1963-64 

2,676 

236 

326 

166 

— 

_ 

1964-65 

2,677 

295 

344 

187 

0.07 

0.32 

1965-66 

3,115 

391 

410 

220 

0.51 

— 


Income tax — The most important source of revenue of the 
Government of India in the district is the Income Tax. The Bikaner 
State introduced income tax first under the provisions of the State 
Income-Tax Act, 1940, in the same year. The following income 
accrued under this head during 1944-45 to 1946-471: 

Year Amount (Rs.) 

1944- 45 330 

1945- 46 38,131 

1946- 47 9,638 

For the collection of income tax, there are three Income Tax 
Officers, one class I and two class II, in the district at present. They are 
assisted by two inspectors and necessary complement of ministerial and 
class four employees. 

The Railway and Postal Departments of the Government of 
India are also revenue earning agencies. 

Besides, these revenue earning departments of the State and the 
Centre, the municipal committees are also empowered to raise revenue 
by levying octroi, taxes on houses and lands, lighting, water conser- 
vancy rates and taxes on professions and trade etc. Sources of 
income of Pancliayats include taxes on vehicles, buildings, and 
commercial crops and pilgrim tax. 

1, Report on the Adminisfraiwn of Bikaner State for 19AA~45 to 1946-47, 


288 


Rajasthaa District Gazetteers — Blkaoer 


Appendix I 

Girdawar (Inspector) anil Patwar Circles in Bikaner District 


Tahsil Girdawar Patwar circle 

(Inspector) 
circle 


Bikaner pQgal 


Sattasar 


Jainsar 


Bikaner 


Lonkaransar Dhcercra 


Kiimbhana 


Mahiijan 


Lnnkaransar 


1. BaUar2. Dantor S.Siyasar Chogan 
4, Beriyawali 5. Ranlsar 6. Pngal 
7.GangajaH 8. Jodhasar 9.Amarapur 
10. Kakriila 11. Ranevvala 12. Chha>- 
ttragarh 13. Sattasar 14. Motigarh 
15. Karnlsar Bhatiyan • 16. Jaimalsar 
17. Noorsar Jalwali 18. Kalasar. 

19. Shobhasar 

20. Nalbari 21. Kfinasar 22. Udasar 
23. Bamblu 24. Jamsar 25. Maiasar 
26. Rooniyan Barwas 27. Sareram 

28, Gnsainsar 

29. Tejrasar 30. Napasar 31. Gadh- 
wala 32, Bikaner 33, Karnlsar 
34. Gangashabar 35, Palana 
36. Deshnokc 37. Kcsar Dcsar Ja an 

38. Mundsar 

39, SodJnvaJi 40. Riijasar Bhatiyan 
41. Molasar42, Kujti 43, Khokhrana 
44. Dheereia 45, Hansera 

46. Mahadcowali 47. KfmoJai 48. 
Khurbitra 49. Jagor 50. Hindaun 
51. Kumbhana S2. Roja 

53. Khanisar 54.Bhojrasar 55. Maha- 
jan 56, Manoriya 57. Rambag 58. 
Shcrpura 59. Jaitpura 60. Suin 61, 
Kakarwrda. 

62. Kaparisar 63.Shekhsar 64. Rajasar 
alias Karnisar 65, Kisbanahar 
66. Garabdcsar 67. Ranasar 68. Kalu 
69. Lunkaransai 



Revenue Administration 


2o9 


APPENDIX I (concld.) 

1 2 3 


Naukha 


Kolayat 


Naukha Mandi 70. Bhadla 71. Saruda 72, Sadhuna 
73. Kaku 74, Dawar 75, Charkara 
76. Kudru 77. Naukha Mandi 
78. Sinjguru 79. Somalsar 80. Himat- 
sar 


Jasrasar 81. Jasrasar '82. Kakda 83. Udsar 

84. Sadasar 85. Kuchor Aguni 
86. Kuchor Athuni 87, Badhnu 
88. Morkhana Athoona 89. Bairasar 
90. Gajsukhdesar 91. Mensar 

Panchun 92. Jaisinghdesar Magra 93. Dharnog 

94. Nathusar 95. Panchun A 
96. Udasar 97. Naukha gaon 
98. Janglu 99. Bhamatsar 100. Surpura 
101. Desilsar 102, Panchun B 


Barsalpur 


Bajoo 
Kolaya t 
Diyatra 


103. Magrewala 104. Jagasar 
105. Sherwala 106. Bhaleri 107. Man- 
kasar 108, Barsalpur 109. Raiwala 
110. Ranjitpura 111. Godoo 112. 
Bajoo 113. Beehmampur 
114. Nagrasar 115. Girajsar 116. 
Gariyala 117. Bithnokc 118. Surjara 

1 1 9. Khari giarnan . 120^ ^ Bholasar 
121. Akasar-ii2rKolayat- i2|^ 

, d24Vl5i^(fa ^ '<1*25: 'Mandalchainan 
.^''^l-^.^^^Kane-ka* Gaon"" 1 27 . JHandaiV, 
i'lfi' Jlfaju 129.' Slana 130. Khindas'aW 
.131..l!>asodi. 


290 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Appendix 11 

Peculiar Taxes Colli cted in the Erstwhile State of Bikaneri 

1. tax levied on shops and on the sale of camels and certain 

goods in the city. 

2. Afim-ka-Saitda—ox license tax on speculation in the price of opium; 
it was levied on each speculator and varied from Rs. 2 to Rs. 6. 

3. Menh-ka~Satida—]\c&ns& tax on speculation on probability of 
rainfall. 

4. Tankri ghi — raw sugar, Zarda tamakit (chewing tobacco) as taxes 
on the weighing of these articles. 

5. Kapara~ki~daUaU — tax on cloth merchants in the shape of broker- 
age. 

6. Sona-Rupa-ki-Chadami — tax on the sale of gold and silver. 

7. Kandoi~ka-laga — license tax on the making of sweetmeats for 
festivals. 

8. Kiraut 'lagon-ki-bach — annual lumpsum license tax on craftsmen, 
such as goldsmiths, iron mongers, tailors, shoe-makers etc., indivi- 
dually assessed and collected by the respective cliauditaris. 

9. Khola or adoption fee on persons adopting a son, determined 
according to his means, subject to a maximum of Rs. 1,000. 

10. Chauth Zamin was distinguished under two heads, viz., the sale 
(within the city) of land and buildings belonging to the Durbar, 
and that of private individuals. In the former case, the whole of 
the proceeds were credited to the Durbar, while in the latter, one- 
fourth was taken by the Slate. 

11. Gn/nm/ or proceeds of unclaimed property or property in Bikaner 
belonging to a deceased Bikaner subject without a male heir-an 
oppressive practice abolished by Maharaja Ganga Singh in the 
year 1924. 

12. Dliuan — house tax for each family. 

1. Powlclt, P.W., Gazenecr nf Bikaner State (1874), (Reprinted 1935), pp. 145-146. 



Revenue Administration 


291 


appendix II (concld.) 

13. Kiirar JInmkera — tax for fodder for each family. 

14. Neota bach — tax on presents on occasions of marriage, at Rs. 7 
and 7 takas (or 14 pice) — abolished by Maharaja Sadul Singh in 
1943. 

15. Talibab — cess leyied on non-agriculturist classes, at Rs. 2 on 
each family and Rs. 4 per camel. 

16. —tax on sheep and goats, at the rate of Re. I for every 
14 heads. 

17. Chaudrbab~^i Rs. 11 from each village Chaudhari. 

18. Koi and Khai bach — tax occasionally levied for the repairs of the 
Bikaner fort. 

19. Peshkash — succession fee on pattas generally equal to the yearly 
rakm (amount) payable by the patta-holders, but sometimes very 
much more. 

20. Nazram — levied on occasion of change of pattas, and often arbi- 
trary when the ruler wanted money. 

21. Raj Tilak — present made to the ruler on occasion of accession to 
the gadi. It consisted of horses, elephants, gold mohurs etc. 

22. Salselari — tax levied f rom Dheds (a very low caste) at 2 or 2h 
cent per family. 


per 



CHAPTER Xri 


LAW AND ORDER AND JUSTICE 

INCIDENCE OF CRIME 

The following statement shows the incidence of the major crimes 
m the district from 1957 to 19661. 


Year 

Dacoity 

Robbery 

Murder 

Riot 

Burglary 

Cattle 

theft 

Other 

theft 

Misc. 

Total 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 


1958 

1959 

1960 

1961 

1962 

1963 

1964 

1965 

1966 


2 

2 

1 

2 

11 

10 

1 

3 

4 


15 

13 

17 
7 

13 

24 

27 
23 

18 

28 


3 

14 
10 

11 

12 

15 
8 

II 

14 

17 


27 

29 

25 

17 

14 

22 

33 

37 

33 

40 


72 
97 

73 
96 
90 

117 

195 

146 

128 

151 


24 

28 

33 

36 

47 

46 

36 

44 

58 

65 


86 

109 

84 

86 

84 

92 

115 

128 

131 

153 


174 403 

188 480 


177 

234 

214 

239 

291 

246 

301 

298 


419 

488 

476 

566 

715 

636 

686 

756 


aim riI!'Tr,**rT rabb'i-y. 

robbe ” ' ravaal that 

and m'lr: ■“ by oreaniaed ganp or dcsparadoar, 

decrease hal r‘ f i, Kidnapping for ransom is on tile 

l" r ™ '■"“"‘""S mnilaaby for which no 

infer, L , his S ^'^“*'m"of'begnngsofdacoi,s who had 
Strict, and the menace is now more or less non-existent. 

.her, in''crdmV«2“imnn'''”'Ti "“n' '’nrgla,^ and 

poverty of the pconle Rf«' attributed to the general 

arrest by crossinTthe bordr ' 

J 6 nti^iicnl Abstract, B&jasth^^n, ycirly volumes. 1958 priw.icds, 


taw And Order And Justice 


293 


POLICE 

Historical Background 

Police duties, till the end of last century, were performed solely 
by the local militia and the jagir militia in their respective jurisdictions. 
With a view to securing the efficient detection, registration and 
pubishment of a crime, a separate department known as the Girai was 
established in 1883 and was placed under a Superintendent; but the 
organisation of a military corps delite (Imperial Camel Corps) some- 
what distracted attention from the police. It was primarily an arrange- 
ment to safeguard the triple border of Sikar, Shekhawati (Jaipur) and 
Bikaner, as is evident from the (establishment of tfiaiias and 13 cliowkis 
between Nima on the south to Khurdeot on the north in April 1880. 
They were further strengthened by the addition of camel sowars and 
Burkandazes. Owing to an increase in the number of cattle thefts and 
highway robberies in 1887-88, it was considered expedient to establish 
16 additional (lianas at various points both on the southern and the 
western borders, and for the first time, in some of the more notorious 
villages in the interior of the Stale. The Thakurs were also reminded 
of their duty to keep down crime within their re'pectivc jagirs. In 
addition, four girdawars or inspectors of police were appointed to 
supervise the work of police stations and out-posts. The number of 
police stations continued to grow as 24 additional (lianas were establi- 
shed within next five years; one in 1888, six in 1889, six in 1891, five 
in 1892 and six in 1893. To regularise police organisation and its 
administration, a Police Code was promulgated on April I, 1889, 
which was replaced by the Police Act in 1922. 

The most outstanding problems that the police administration 
had to face during the 19th Century, included the non-co-operative 
attitude adopted by the officials of the former Rajputana States who, 
instead of acting jointly for the suppression of crime, refused to follow 
up tracks brought to their border and did all they could to screen 
offenders of their own areas. This resulted in pointed charges and 
counter-charges brought . against each other, which very often were 
without foundation. Disgruntled powerful elements frequently turned 
into gangs of desperadoes, roaming about fearlessly through the 
:ountrysidc and stricking terror in all and sundry. These gangs were 
able to elude the authority because they had influential connections, 
nntl received protection of powerful elements. Then there were 
members of the criminal tribes, who operated and thrived under the 



294 


RSjasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


protective cover of the robber Thakurs who supplied them with horses 
and camels and concealed the plunder and the stolen property. 

During the reign of Ratan Singh (1828-51), border dacoity was 
so rife in the south and south-east that a special force, called Shekha- 
wati Brigade, was raised to suppress it. The Brigade soon suppressed 
the activities of the Thakurs who were accustomed to violating the 
authority of the Rulers. The presence of the brigade greatly improved 
the controlling power of the Maharaja to reduce the turbulent nobles 
to submission. But the trouble again arose during the rule of Maharaja 
Sardar Singh (1851-72) who failed to improve his relations ryith thakurs. 
In 1869, the Political Agent intervened and affected a temporary 
settlement between the ruler and his jagirdars but a crisis arose in 
1883 which could be settled only through the intervention of the British 
force from Nasirubad. It was during the rule of Ganga Singh that the 
authority of the Ruler was formally established and the feudal lords 
were shorn off their power and ability to challange the Ruler’s fiat and 
to provide a sanctuary to the criminals. Although the privilege of 
providing what may be called a crime sanctuary to protect and provide 
shelter to criminals was abolished in 1870, yet the connivance of the 
thakurs in certain crimes could not be curbed till they were stripped of 
their judicial powers. During the early years of Maharaja Ganga 
Singh s rule, the liquidation of a number of notorious gangs of dacoits 
and freebooters, and the adoption of ameliorative measures for the 
rehabilitation of the members of criminal tribes, brought the crime 
situation under control. 


adopted in 1889. Police Stations were 

1904 Tom investigating officers was raised in 

appointed fTti n Police, for the State, was 

thatTe r wToSs ^‘^""Sth of police in 

SupefintenTen, ’ T"""® District 

siT nsu ct Superintendent for city, four inspectors, ' fifty 

jam dTr 230 T “^^i^tant court inspectors. 29 

scveniv Act ^ ’^^^kandez and 

ratio of the ^ and other establishment. The 



Law And Order And Justice 


295 


To improve its working it was equipped from time to time with better 
weapons and means of communication which were machanised by 1947. 
Its total strength in 1947 was 2,310, consisting of an Inspector-General, 
2 Deputy Inspectors General, six Superintendents, 3 Deputy and 
Assistant Superintendents, 30 inspectors, 116 sub-inspectors, 314 head 
constables, 154 literate constables, 425 mounted constables and 1259 
foot constables. The ratio of the force to population and area at that 
time was 1 to 560 and 1 to 10.1 sq. miles respectively. The entire 
organisation cost Rs. 931.078 annually. 


For purposes of police administration, besides the railway, the 
State was divided into six districts, viz., Bikaner, Suratgaih, 
Ganganagar, Rajgarh and Sojangarh, each under a Superintendent of 
police except the Railway which was under an inspector. The 
superintendents were assisted by inspectors who supervised and inspected 
the work of the police stations and posts in their respective circles. 
There were 62 police stations and 19 out-posts besides the police lines at 
Bikaner and Ganganagar. 

In each police station, there were usually one sub-inspector, one 
head constable (two in Ganganagar district where crime was heavy), 
one literate constable, besides sowars, constables and a Khoji (tracker). 
At each police post, one head constable, one literate constable in 
addition to sowars, constables and a Khoji (tracker) was provided. 


The Police set-up on the eve of merger 

In the-year 1951 for (he purpose of Police administration, the 
area comprising the district then was divided into two circles, 10 police 
stations and six poice out-posts, each under the charge of an inspector, 
a sub-inspcctor and a head constable respectively, with an overall 
control of the Superintendent of Police, who was assisted by a Deputy 
or an Assistant Superintendent of Police. Besides the Armed Police 
which included two inspectors, 13 Sub-Inspectors, 96 head constables 
and 183 constables, the total police strength consisted of 30 sub- 
inspectors), 70 head constables and 634 Constables. 

The following statement shows the names and location of circles, 
stations and out-posts before merger. 



296 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Circle 

Police stations 

Location of Police 
Out-Posts. 

Circle Sadar Bikaner 

1. Deshnoke 

2. Napasar 

3. Pagal 

4. Garsar 



5. Diyatra 

Udat 


6. Gajner 

Kolayat 

Palace Gajner 

2. Circle Ltinkaransar 

1. Ltinkaransar 

2. Lumbhana 

3. Jasrasar 

Shaikhsar 


4. Naukha 

Pahehun 

Guard Shrpura. 


After the merger of the erstwhile State of Bikaner in Rajasthan, 
the district was put under the control of a Superintendent of 
Police who worked under the supervision of the Deputy Inspector 
General of Police, Bikaner Range with headquarters at Bikaner. The 
total strength of the civil police force consisted of 32 sub-inspectors, 
71 head constables, 601 constables, besides the armed police which 
included two inspectors, 13 sub-inspectors, 87 head constables and 
317 constables. 

Present Position 

The police force in the districts, is divided into two categories, 
namely, civil police and armed police. The armed police deals mainly 
with dacoits and robbers and is also called upon to aid the civil 
police when a large scale breach of peace is threatened. The total 
strength of the police force in 1966, consisted of six inspectors, 45 sub- 
inspectors. 14 assistant sub-inspectors, 123 head constables and 804 
constables and was distributed in two wings as under : 


Armed Police 

Inspector 

1 


Sub-inspectors 

8 


Head constables 

50 


Constables 

202 

Civil Police 

Inspectors 

5 


Sub-inspectors 

37 


Asstt. Sub-inspectors 

14 


Head constables 

73 


Constables 

602 


Law And Order And- Justice 


J97 


Besides, there are a Superintendent of Police and three Deputy 
Superintendents, who are common to both armed and civil force. 

For the purpose of police administration, the district has been 
divided into three circles, thirteen police stations and twenty>four out- 
posts. Their details are given in Appendix 

Traffic Police 

A separate contingent of traffic police drawn from the civil 
police to direct and control the traffic is also in existence. The present 
strength of the traffiepo lice consists of one sub-inspector, two head 
constables and 34 constables. 

Mounted Police 

There is no separate mounted police in the district but allowance 
at the rate of Rs. 40 per month has been sanctioned to 83 constables 
for maintaing their personal camels in police stations and out-posts for 
carrying out process service and patrolling. 

Range Training School, Bikaner 

The School was established by the Deputy Inspector General of 
Police Bikaner range in 1957 for the initial training and refresher 
course of constables. The average number of peisons trained in 
refresher course annually is 159 while that of recruits is 110. 

Railway Police 

During the time of the erstwhile Bikaner Slate, the Railway Police 
was under (he control of the Inspector Genera! of Police. Under him 
an inspector who was responsible for the maintenance of law and order 
over 1421.13 km. (883.05 miles), railway track in (he State’ territor}'. 
The total strength of the Railway Police was 75 and the average length 
falling within the beat of each police man was 18.84 km. (1 1.77 miles). 
After the merger of the erstwhile State of Bikaner, the State Railway 
Police formed part of the Northern Railway Police. It was put under 
the charge of the Superintendent of Railway Police, Rajasthan Circle, 
with headquarters at Ajmer. The total strength of the Railway Police, 
the number and location of police station and out-post are as follows : 



kajasltan iDiStricl (jazelteers — Bikaner 


:^8 


Sanctioned strength in 1966 




Sub- 

Inspectors 

Head 

Constables 

Constables 

Total 

t. 

Police Station Bikaner 

1 

3 

31 

35 

2. 

Out-post Lallgarh 

- 

1 

6 

7 


Total 

1 

4 

37 

• 42 


The following table gives the number of crimes committed on 
the railways after formation of Rajasthan. It will appear that oespite 


the rise in population and increase in traffic and transport of goods 
on railways, the number of offences has not gone up and remains well 
under control. 

Year 

Theft in 
running 
trains 

Theft at 
stations 

Theft at 

goods 

yards 

Misc. 

crimes 

Total 

1951 

7 

8 

4 

7 

26 

1952 

10 

5 

10 

10 

35 

1953 

4 

5 

9 

5 

23 

1954 

3 

6 

7 

2 

18 

1955 

2 

4 

I 

8 

15 

1956 

5 

5 

4 

!l 

25 

1957 

5 

5 

7 

7 

24 

1958 

3 

6 

f: 

.11 

26 

1959 

4 

9 

9 

12 

34 

1960 

3 

- 

8 

8 

19 

1961 

2 

8 

4 

28 

42 

1962 

3 

4 

6 

12 

25 

1963 

1 

- 

7 

13 

21 

1964 

2 

7 

5. 

9 

23 

1965 

- 

3 

6 

12 

21 

1966 

8 

11 

10 

1 

30 


1, Source-Office of the Superintendent ot Police, Railways, Ajmer. 



Law And Order And Justice 


299 


Anti-Corruption Organisation 

Anti-Corruption Organisation at Bikaner was established in 1957 
and the jurisdiction of Dy. Superintendent of Police, Anti-Corrruption 
Department, Bikaner covers the districts of Bikaner, Churu and 
Nagaur. 

Since its inception till the end of June 1966, 277 complaints 
pertaining to district Bikaner were registered and 273 enquiries out of 
them were completed. During this period, 21 government servants 
w'ere either punished departmentally or convicted by the courts on 
charges of corruption. 31 departmental enquiries against government 
servants are still pending with the Disciplinary Authorities while two 
cases are pending trial in the court of the District and Sessions Judge, 
Bikaner, who is empowered to try such cases under the Prevention of 
Corruption Act, 1947. 

Rajasthan Armed Constabulary (R.A.C.) 

The Rajasthan Armed Constabulary was raised as a special body 
of police under an act passed in 1950 to assist the regular police when 
ever the law and order situation threatened to get out of hand and 
especially to patrol the border areas. One R.A.C. battalion is posted 
in the district. 


CIVIL DEFENCE 

Civil Defence measures were introduced in the district in October 
1962. The training courses Tor Civil Defence personnel were organised 
from 25th November, 1962 at two centres, namely, Dungar College, 
Bikaner and Municipal Council, Bikaner. 690 persons were accor- 
dingly trained in 1962. Again in 1965-66, Civil Defence measures 
were adopted after the out-break of hostilities between India and 
Pakistan. 96 persons were trained as instructors. About 30 of such 
trained inspectors were posted as Post Wardens and the rest were 
ensfrusted to train up Civil Defence workers. 500 persons were trained 
in 1965. 

Warden Services 

Warden services have been organised in the district with the 
appointment of twenty wardens and 346 persons as sectors- in-charge, 
45 House Fire parties consisting of ISO persons, eight Reserve Parties 
consisting of 96 persons and 34 First Aid parties, consisting of 136 
persons have also been fornicd. In addition, a combined Coptroj 



300 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers —Bikaner 


Room-cum-Report Centre has been set up in the Police lines, Bikaner. 
Refresher training in civil defence is also imparted at two centres — 
Town Hall and Sadul Multipurpose Higher Secondary School, Bikaner. 

Home Guards 

There are 757 Urban and 475 Rural Home Guards in the district. 
The services of these Home Guard volunteers were utilised during the 
emergency in 1965 for keeping a watch over all the vulnerable points 
in the district. 


. JAIL ADMINISTRATION 

Historical Sketch 

Before the jails came into existence, the convicts were discri- 
niinated on the basis of caste. The low caste prisoners were sometimes 
chained up like dogs in the open plains while others were confined in 
the Kotwali or police lock-up, where they occasiona'ly received a small 
ration of food from the State, but more frequently, survived on public 
or private chanty. Though pitiable it was not an unusual sight 
to see^ scores of them parading in the streets under police escort and 
receiving alms from the inhabitants. Better class of prisoners such as 
thakurs and Rajputs, were kept in the fort in a place called Netasar, 
ere t ough space was limited and sanitary conveniences scanty, 
adequate food was provided. No labour of any kind was exacted 
trom them Prisoners in the districts remained entirely at the mercy 
ot the havUdar of the parganah or the thakurs. 

intPnrtJ.? ®"^'osure known as Dharmpura, and originally 

a nnso converted into ' 

couol of 7 scventy.five inmates by erecting a 

given some P^^on^rs were fairly fed and clad and 

'' much o ' for. but there 

^s much over-crowding m the jail and the building had to be 

untiMh’ 1S79-80 and then continuously between 1887 and 1895, 

females) ThrinTr'”'' 33 

two^cirs later ’ ^ Natesar were transferred to it 

kitchens I f included barracks, bathing places 

'•“-’on.s.'a hespifa S 
-"d additions when 

which formeJL fornL^'Il^ The aforesaid building 

Bikaner. ^ Central Jail now houses the District Jail, 



Law And Order And Justice 


301 


In the districts, besides the usual lock-ups {havalats) at the head 
quarters of each tahsildar and naib-tabsildar, two larger prisons, one 
at Reni and the other at Sujangarh were established, accommodating 
86 and 66 inmates respectively. These were intended for lodging 
convicts who were sentenced to imprisonment for one year or less. 
The local Nazims were responsible for the management of these jails 
and proper care of prisoners. They were, however, inspected from time 
to time by the Civil Surgeon. 

The most prominent land mark in the history of prison reforms 
was the enactment of Prison Act in 1927. This provided for the 
segregation of adolescent prisoners from those of advanced age, and 
their subsequent training. It empowered all Sessions Judges, 
Additional Sessions Judges and Magistrates of the First Class to pass 
orders detaining youthful prisoners in Borstal Institutions for a 
minimum term of two years, instead of sentencing them to imprisonment 
in the normal course. It further empowered the District Magistrates 
and the Appellate Courts to substitute detention in a Borstal Institution 
for imprisonment for a minimum term of two years. It also empowered 
the District Magistrates on the application of a Superintendent of a 
Jail, to order the removal of a youth, sentenced to transporation or 
rigorous imprisonment, to a Borstal Institution to serve the whole or 
any part of the unexpired portion of his sentence. 

Jail Administration before merger 

The administration of the Central Jail, Bikaner along with the 
four district jails in the State, was controlled by the Inspector- 
General of Prisons who was directly responsible to the Home Depart- 
ment of the State. The Superintendent of Central Jail, Bikaner was 
responsible for the efficient management and proper care of prisoners 
in accordance with the Bikaner Prisons Act, 1927. 

Present Set-up 

The Bikaner Jail which hitherto was the Central Jail of the area 
was converted into an A Class District Jail with effect from October 
1952 as a result of integration of the -State. Tlicre is no other jail or 
sub -jail in the district because the judicial courts are mostly located in 
Bikaner city. The District Jail has an authorised accommodation for 
250 prisoners, and is staffed by a Superintendent, a Jailor, Dupty 
Jailor, three Assistant Jailors, a Chief Head Warden, a Drill Instructor, 
eight Head W.irdens, sixtv-cisht Wardens and ten Reserves Guards. 



302 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Prison Discipline 

Discipline is maintained in accordance with the Jail Regulations. 
The prisoners are housed together according to sex and only hardened 
ones are kept in solitary cells. Separate arrangement for housing 
juvenile prisoners below the age of 21 years exists but they are trans- 
ferred to Model Jails at Ajmer and Uda:ipur. The special class of 
prisoners including political detenues are governed by the rules and 
orders of the Government according to their classification. 

Welfare of Prisoners 

In the erstwhile Bikaner State, the Central Jail, Bikaner (now 
District Jail) was described as one of the best managed and most 
sanitary in India. Prisoners grew their own vegetables in the garden 
attached to the Jail. The Jail Dispensary was established in 1887 with 
one medical officer and two compounders. There is a library in the prison 
from which books are supplied to the convicts on request. Facilities are 
extended to conVicts who want to purchase books on religion and ethics 
at their own cost. Visits of relatives are restrie(ed to once in a month. 
The Government has appointed a Board of Visitors who periodi- 
cally visit the prison, and bring complaints to the notice of the 
authorities. Jail Panchayat, with eight panchas and a Sarpanch from 
amongst prisoners was established with a view to assisting the autho- 
rities in the management of the Jail, improving the habits of prisoners, 
making them feel more responsible and infusing discipline amongst 
them. The convict teacher imparts instruction to the inmates. All 
these activities are now looked after by a Prison Welfare Officer, from 
the social welfare department, and are a great help in promoting their 
well being. 

Jail Industry 

The principal jail industries arc the weaving of cloth, rugs, 
camel and horse girths, woollen shawls (loia), blankets and carpets. 
Bikaner Jail carpets have earned a name in India and abroad for their 
fine texture and design and have been exported even to Europe and 
America. The Jail exhibits at the Francc-British Exhibition held in 
Paris in 1908 attracted considerable attention of the visitors. Three of 
the jail carpets were awarded the Grand Prix Diploma of Honour with 
Silver medals. The staff consists only of an Assistant Factory Manager, 
(l weaving master, a dyer, a clipper and a skilled work^f, 



Law And Order And Justice 


303 


JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION 


Historical background of the Judicial System 

The history of Judicial system is the distr^eJniJi^fh^'lii^tbry,/of, 
judiciary of the erstwhile State of B!kaner.j^f,t|pto^rr|j0^crT~^i^no 
organised system of judicial administrationVitj tire'^Sf^e. Justice ' ^vas 
synonymous with the will of the Rulers/^-^and J^girdtirs were, permitted 
to exercise similar powers within their fpspectjvlj jagir ardaV.''-’ Till the 
latter part of Maharaja Sardar Singh’s 8 5 r->&),.._ad ministration 

of justice was very loose. The Ruler never 'ear’ea.Tto.checle' his favourites 
from interfering in both Civil and Criminal cases’. • Every crime, even 
murder, was pardoned on payment of 6ne, and every person arrested, 
whether, guilty or not, was severely fined before he was released, fn 
the district people were at the mercy of Havildars against whom it was 
not possible to get redress.i 


In 1871 three Courts (Civil, Criminal and Revenue) were esta- 
blished at Bikaner but they were not supported by the Maharaja who 
continued ^to permit interference by bis favourites. No attempt to 
inflict a really deterrent punishment could be made till 1878,2 

The Central Civil and Criminal Courts, however, were abolished 
in 1864-85 and replaced by Nizamat courts at Bikaner, Reni, Sojangarh 
and Suratgarh. Appeals against their decisions were allowed to the 
Ijlas Khas or the Court of the Maharaja. It was after Maharaja 
Dungar Singh's death that an Appellate Court, presided over by the 
judges, was constituted. The Regency Council became the court of 
final appeal, taking the place of the old Jjlas Khas. 

The hierarchy of judicial courts established by Regency during 
the minority of Maharaja Ganga Singh, consisted at the lowest rung, 
the courts of the eight naib-tahsildats who were third class magistrates 
and _^could try civil suits not exceeding Rs. 300 in value. Next higher 

1 . Report an the Political Administration of Rajapiitina State, 1 S77-78. 

2. Major K. D. Ersfcinc— “Even aficr Sardar Singh’s densise, no improvement 
was noticeable and until 1878 the returns of the criminal courts showed a deter- 
mination to make profit out of crime rather Uion an honest desire to inflict a 
realty dcteiTcnt punishmenl”. 

U'fxtern RajpisliirM States, Residcrcy end the Bit.ar.er Ayer.cy Ciaccitcer, Vol, 
m-A,p.35S. 



304 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


up the ladder came the eleven Tahsildars who were second class magis- 
trates and could hear civil suits upto Rs. 500. The four nazims 
constituted the next stage and they were empowered to hear appeals 
against the decision in civil and criminal cases of the lower courts. 
They possessed first class magisterial powers and on civil side, exercised 
original jurisdiction in suits not exceeding Rs. 10,000 in value. The 
Appellate Court next, step in the hierarchy, was empowered to dispose of 
all appeals against the orders or findings of the nazims, tried all civil 
suits beyond their powers, and on the criminal side, could pass a 
sentence of ten years’ imprisonment. The council was the highest 
court of appeal and exercised powers of revision in certain cases. It 
dealt with all murder cases submitting them with its opinion to the 
Maharaja, who alone could pass death sentence-. The courts of 
honorary magistrates also existed, at Bikaner the capital, and the towns 
of Churu and Nohar, and had powers to hear and decide petty civil 
suits relating to immovable property, but the Bikaner Court alone had 
magisterial powers of the second class. On the civil side there was the 
Munsif’s Court at Bikaner with powers to try suits not exceeding 
Rs. 500 in value. These courts were generally guided by the statutes 
iri force in British India. The provisions of the Indian Penal Code, 
the Criminal Procedure Code, and the Evidence Act were introduced 
in the State mutatis mutandis in 1897. Among local laws may be 
mentioned the Civil Procedure Code of 1884, the Small Cause Courts 
Act, and the Gambling Act of 1889; the Registration Act of 1893; the 
Limitation Act of 1893; and the Stamp and Court Fees Act of 1900. 
These acts were later replaced by the Bikaner State Registration Act 
1916, the Bikaner Stale Code of Civil Procedure 1920, the Bikaner 
State Limitation Act 1920, the Bikaner Public Gambling Act 1923 and 
the Bikaner Specific Relief Act 1923. 

The system of judicial administration organised by Sir Charles 
Bayley during the minority of Maharaja Ganga Singh continued upto 
1910. In 1910, a Chief Court at Bikaner was established and all the 
powers of the Council were transferred to it. It was superseded by a 
High Court at Bikaner on May 3, 1922. The High Court was the 
highest court of appeal and could exercise original jurisdiction in both 
Civil and Criminal cases of every description. The decision of the High 
Court was final in Civil cases except where the value of the suit exceeded 
Rs. 10,000 or a substantial question of law, custom or usage was 
involved. In criminal cases an appeal against the decision of the High 



Law And Order And Justice 


305 


Court could be made to the Maharaja provided that sentence of death 
or imprisonment for period of ten years or more was awarded by tne 
High Court. Sentences of death were subject to the confirmation of the 
Maharaja. In 1930, the Civil Courts Act envisaged the re-organisation 
of the courts of the District Judges and Munsifs. It empowered the 
courts of Munsifs to decide suits the value of which did not exceed one 
thousand rupees. The District Judges were empowered to tabe cogni- 
zance of all suits the value of which did not exceed ten thousand rupees. 
However, the Civil Courts were not empowered to try suits relating to 
the title, the rule of descent, succession and adoption of pattedars and 
their disputes with the State. 

The Courts of Additional District Judge Sadar and of Honorary 
Munsif at Sadar were replaced by courts of City Magistrate and of 
second Murisif at Sadar. The Senior Munsif, Sadar was vested with 
powers of Small Cause Courts upto Rs. 100. All the Munsifs and the 
City Magistrates were vested with the powers of the First Class Magis- 
trate and the City Magistrate was further empowered to try summarily 
cases under the Municipal Act and bye-laws. 

Nazims, however, continued to exercise their power to try non- 
cognizablc cases on complaints and challans under Section 107, 108, 
109 and 110 of the Criminal Procedure Code. The tahsildars in 
the Sadar division, except the tahsildars of Sadar, were empowered to 
try criminal cases both cognizable and non-cognizable, and the 
Tahsildars at Lutikaransar, Nohar and Anapgarh continued to try 
civil suits up to the value of Rs. 2C0. 

Thus, besides the High Court, exercising original appellate and 
Tcvisional jurisdiction in all civil and criminal cases for the whole of 
the former State of Bikaner, the district administration of justice was 
carried on by the courts of District Judge, Sadar; Munsif and Addi- 
tional Munsif, Sadar; City Magistrate, Bikaner, whose powers have 
already been dealt with in the foregone pages. 

After the formation of the State of Rfijasthan, uniform pattern 
of judicial administration was adopted. The High Court of Judicature 
for the State of Rajasthan was established on June 21, 1949, abolishing 
simultaneously the High Court at Bikaner which was reduced to the 
statiis of a High Court Bench and wa.s finally abolished with effect 
from the 27nd day of May, 1950. The subordinate courts were 



306 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers -Bikaner 


re-organised by establishment of a hierarchy of criminal and civil courts 
in accordance with the provisions of the Rajasthan Code of Criminal 
Procedure Ordinance, 1949 and Civil Courts Ordinance, 1950. The 
reorganised set-up of the administration of justice in the district was 
headed by the District and Sessions Judge with headquarters at Bikaner. 
On the criminal side, the subordinate courts included those of an 
Assistant Sessions Judge; Additional Munsif Magistrate, Bikaner; 
District Magistrate; Sub-Divisional Magistrate for North and South 
Sub-Divisions with headqviarters at Bikaner, and City Magistrate 
Bikaner. Tahsildars and Naib-tahsildars were invested with the powers 
of Second Class and Third Class Magistrates respectively. On the Civil 
side, the subordinate Courts established were those of an Assistant 
Civil Judge, Bikaner and Munsif Bikaner. 

As no uniform system of Civil and Criminal laws existed in the 
United State of Rajasthan, the various laws enacted by the Government 
of India were adopted for the guidance of these courts. As such the 
provisions of the Indian Penal Code, Criminal Procedure Code, Indian 
Evidence Act, Civil Procedure Code, Stamp and Courts Fees Act and 
Limitation Act, were made applicable. 

A significant change in the judicial administration was effected 
when as a result of recommendations of Ranawat Committee the 
executive officers were deprived of their powers to try cases under the 
Indian Penal Code in 1962, and Munsifs were invested with the powers 
First Class Magistrates. 


Present Position 


The District and Sessions Judge is the prinicipal Civil and 
Criminal Court in the district and the Nyaya Pancliayats form the 
lowest rung of the ladder. The table showing the civil and criminal 
jurisdiction of the various courts is given below : 


Name of the Court 


Place of Territorial 
sitting jurisdiction 


1 . 

2 . 

3. 

4. 


District & Sessions Judge, Bikaner 

Civil & Assistant Sessions Judge, 
Bikaner 

Munsif & Magistrate I Class, Bikaner 

Additional Munsif & Magistrate 
1 Class 


Bikaner Bikaner District 


Bikaner 

Bikaner 


Nyaya Pancliayats 


Bikaner District 
Bikaner District 


Bikaner Bikaner District 


(Details available in Chapter XIV) 


Law And Order And Justice 


307 


Besides, the Collector and the Sub-Divisional Officers at Bikaner 
are Ex-officio District and Sub- Divisional Magistrates. They enforce 
the administrative provisions of the Criminal Procedure Code and also 
dispose of revenue matters and offences committed under various acts 
excluding the Indian Penal Code. 

The following table shows the working of the judicial set-up in 
19661 ; 


Name of the Court No. of No. of Total Disposed Balance 

cases cases of 

pending insti- 
tuted 


CRIMINAL 

Sessions Courts, Bikaner 


1. Sessions Trials 

8 

29 

37 

26 

11 

2. Criminal Appeals 

14 

112 

126 

88 

38 

3. Criminal Revisions 

15 

72 

87 

72 

15 

Asstt. Sessions Judge, Bikaner 

1. Session’s Trials 

Munsif & Magistrate First Class, 

3 

5 

8 

3 

5 

Bikaner 

1. Criminal Original 

113 

24 

137 

84 

53 

Additional Munsif & Magistrate, 

Bikaner 

1. Criminal Original 350 

CIVIL 

767 

1117 

664 

453 

District Judge’s Court, Bikaner 

1. Civil Original 

34 

29 

63 

35 

28 

2. Civil Appeal (Reg.) 

122 

93 

215 

144 

71 

3. Civil Appeal (Misc.) 

Civil Judge’s Court, Bikaner 

39 

57 

96 

74 

22 

L Civil Original 

80 

78 

158 

57 

101 

2. Civil Appeal (Reg.) 

1 

2 

3 

2 

1 

3. Civil Appeal (Misc.) 

1 

— 

I 

I 

— 

Munsif Court. Bikaner 

1. Civil Original 

313 

392 

705 

357 

348 

2. Execution 

415 

291 

706 

407 

299 

'h 

1. Source : OOicc ef the Dktrlc! and Judge, Bit;ancr, 




308 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


LEGAL PROFESSION 

Mukhtars Maqbula were the only legal practitioners in the 
former State of Bikaner till the enactment of Legal Practitioners Act, 
1925. Since then the enrolment of legal practitioners was restricted to 
law-graduates and those who qualified themselves as Vakils. The Act 
debarred the unqualified practitioners from practising in law courts 
unless and until they qualified themselves as Vakils. The number of 
lawyers in 1947 was 182 in the erstwhile Bikaner State. According to 
1951 Census the number of persons in legal profession in the district 
was 92 (including pleaders, clerks of lawyers and petition writers). In 
1961 the number increased to 148 (146 males and two females). 

Bar Association 

Bar Association, Bikaner was established in 1928. It is still the 
only association in the district as the various courts of law are located 
in the city. The association has its own President who nominates the 
Executive and the Speaker who presides over the general meetings. 
Both the President and the Speaker are elected by the members. The 
local number of members is 120, 



Law And Order And Justice 


309 


Appendix 


List ot Police Stations and ont-posts (Circlewise), Bikaner 


Names of Circles 

Names of Police 

Names of out-posts 


- 

Stations 


I. 

Circle Office City 

(1) Kotwali 

1 . Sadar 

2. Sitla Gate 

3. Goga Gate 

4. Bazar 




5. Kote Gate 




6. Phatak 



(2) Nayashahr 

1. Nathusar Gate 

2. Jassusar Gate 

3. Teliwara 

4. Sale Ki Holi 



(3) Sadar 

1. Civil 

2. Hanoman Hata 

3. Gangashahr 

II. 

Circle Office North 

(1) Lnnkaransar 

1. Shaikhsar 

2. Kelan 



(2) Mahajan 

(3) Napiisar 

1. Raner 



(4) Deshnoke 

(5) Jamsar 

(6) Bajju 

1. Ranjitpura 

2. Barsalpur 



(7) Pugal 

1. Sattfisar 

2. Lunkha 

3. Kumharwali 

III. 

Circle Office South 

(I) Naukha 

1. Jasrasar 

2. Ranch QU 



(2) Diyatrii 

(3) Gajner 

1. Kolayat 


I . $oarce : OfHct of tbs Sopcrinlendent of, Police, Bikaner, 


CHAPTER XIII 

OTHER DEPARTMENTS 

STATE GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS 

Office of fhc Colonisation Commissioner 

With a view to implementing the Colonisation Programme of the 
area to be covered by Bhakhra and Rajasthan Canal Projects, this 
Department was established in May, 1955. In the beginning, a 
skeleton staff was provided for the department but with the increased 
work load due to acceleration in the construction programme, the staff 
was strengthened from time to time. At the head of this organisation 
is the Colonisation Commissioner who is responsible for implementing 
colonisation policy and for co-ordinating the planning and execution of 
development programmes in the canal area. He is assisted by Deputy 
Colonisation Commissioners who supervise all field operations and are 
directly responsible to the Commissioner. The work in the field has 
been divided in four sections each headed by an Assistant Colonisation 
Commissioner dealing with : 

(1) Survey, (2) Land Acquisition, (3) Consolidation and 
(4) Colonisation (allotment). To assist them, there are fifteen Tahsil- 
dars and 30 Naib Tahsildars. In addition to these at the Head* 
quarters there are one Accounts Officer; one Statistician; one Extra 
Assistant Commissioner Writs; one Extra Assistant Commissioner 
Administration and one Tahsildar Rehabilitation. 

Office of the Superintending Engineer, Rrijasthlin Canal Project, 
Investigation Circle. 

This Circle was established in July, 1964, under the charge of a 
Superintending Engineer for investigation and survey of Rajasthan 
Canal area for a particular length of the Canal, 

The work has been divided in four parts and the following 
separate offices have been established in Bikaner for administrative 
convenience : 

(1) Second Stage Investigation Division— This division is 
assigned with the work of survey and investigation of II Stage of 
Bfijasthan Mpin Canal below mile (o the tail. It is headed by 



Other t)cpartmeats 


3ll 


an Executive Engineer who is assisted by four Assistant Engineers and 
usual complement of staff. 

(2) Chhattargarh Division— An Executive Engineer has been 
made incharge of this division who is responsible for the construction of 
a colony at Chhattargarh and- survey of main canal from mile 95 to 
121,8. The division is further split up into three sub-divisions, each of 
which is controlled by an Assistant Engineer. The headquarters of the 
office of the Executive Engineer is located at Chhattargarh in the 
district. 

(3) Office of the Senior GEOLOOiST-'This office is controlled 
by a Senior Geologist and situated at Bikaner. Its primary function is 
to investigate the quality of the material used for contruction of the 
canal including location of sites for kilns. 

(4) Lift Channel Investigation Division — This division along 
with its four sub-divisions functioned till the end of 1965 and has since 
been abolished. A Lift Irrigation Scheme to irrigate areas around 
Lankaransar, Bikaner and Nagaur was prepared by this division and 
the same has been submitted to the Government for sanction. 

Town Planning Department 

Office of the Depute Town Planner Bikaner— This office is 
entrusted with the task of preparing a regional plan for Rajasthan 
Canal regions and master plans and town planning schemes of various 
towns falling in the districts of Bikaner. Ganganagar, Churu and 
Jaisalmcr. Time to time technical advice is also rendered to the 
municipalities and improvement trusts of the above mentioned districts. 

Public Works Department 

Office of the Additional Chief Engineer (Projects)— The 
office was established in August 1965 with a view to gear up the road 
Programme. The area has been split up into Uvo circles each of which 
is headed by a Superintending Engineer, known as Superintending 
Engineer-East, and Superintending Engineer- West. They arc assisted 
by Executive Engineers, Assistant Engineers and other technical staff. 
Besides the Superintending Engineer, there are one Technical Assistant 
to Additional Chief Engineer, two Technical Assistants to Superintend- 
ing Cngir.ecis, one Head Draftsman, one Junior Draftsman and other 
office staff. Since November 1967, the Headquarters of the Additional 



312 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Chief Engineer, P.W.D. Project, Bikaner and his Technical Assistant has 
been shifted to Jodhpur. The other subordinate offices are functioning 
as in the past. 

Office of the Superintending Engineer(buildings and roads)— 
The work of the Public Works Department in Bikaner, divisipn is 
looked after by a Superintending Engineer. He exercises administrative 
and technical control over the working of the Executive Engineers 
working within his jurisdiction. His staff consists of a Technical 
Assistant, two Computers, one Head Draftsman, one Junior Draftsman, 
one Tracer, one Office Superintendent and other office staff. Besides, 
a Land Acquisition Officer is also posted in the Public Works Depart- 
ment who acquires land required for the Public Works. He is assisted 
by an Assistant Land Acquisition Officer and a small office staff. 

Office of the Executive Engineer (City Division)— Apart from 
the road repair and building programme, the main functions with 
which the Executive Engineer, City Division is entrusted are the repair 
and maintenance of Government buildings and construction of new 
ones. Recently, 6 ‘E’ type quarters. and 10 ‘E’ type quarters have been 
constructed in Bikaner city in addition to the construction of 20 miles 
of road. The strength of the staff consijts of four Assistant Engineers, 
16 Overseers, two Computers, one Senior Draftsman, one Tracer and 
necessary complement of office staff. 

Rajasibun State Electricity Board 

Office OF the Superintending Engineer, Bikaner Circle— 
Bikaner is the headquarters of a Superintending Engineer who looks 
after the whole of the Bikaner circle comprising of Bikaner, Churu, Sri 
Gangfmagar, Jhnnjhunu, Sikar and part of Nagaur district. He is 
responsible for control, operation, maintenance and construction of 
Works connected with the supply of electricity. He is assisted by a 
Technical Assistant, Draftsman, a Tracer, Statistical Assistant and 
necessary complement of office staff There is an Accounts Section and a 
Labour Officer working under him. The Accounts Section consists of an 
Accounts Officer assisted by an Assistant Accounts Officer and other 
office staff. The Labour Officer with the usual complement of staff is 
also posted to look after the welfare of the Labourers who also helps the , 
administration in settling their disputes. Besides the above, he is the 
administrative Head of metre testing laboratory headed by the Assistant 
Engineer and circle stores headed by the Assistant Controller of Stores, 



Other Departments 




Office of the Executive Engineer — He is responsible for supply 
and distribution, within the district, of hydro-electric power received 
from Bhakha system. For construction work and laying of new lines, 
a separate Executive Engineer is posted here. The work of maintenance 
and distribution has been split up in three sub-divisions viz., (i) Gene- 
ration and workshop, (ii) Grid sub-Station and (iii) Distribution, each 
of which is supervised by an Assistant Engineer. 

Archives Department 

This department with its headquarters at Bikaner, is headed by 
a Director. Prior to the formation of Rajasthan, each princely State 
had its own system of preserving records but a majority of them did not 
adopt any scientific system for doing so. After the formation of 
Rajasthan, the Department of Archives was established in 1955-56, with 
headquarters at Jaipur, having twenty archival repositories scattered 
all over Rajasthun. Later, however, it was felt that this arrangement 
meant a huge expenditure over the staff and avoidable inconvenience to 
research scholars. Accordingly, archives were centralised and the 
headquarters of the department were shifted to Bikaner in August, 
1960, where a suitable building was made available. 

The Director is assisted by an Assistant Director. Other staff 
consists of two Archivists, one Chemist, one Research Officer, one 
Assistant Archivists, one Assistant Chemist, two Research Scholars, one 
Librarian, one Office Superintendent, two Research Assistants, one 
Photographer, two Senior Technical Assistants, two Junior Technical 
Assistants, one Assistant Librarian; three Record Assistants, four 
Investigators, three Record Attendants, twelve Decipherists, four 
Preservation Assistants, four Laboratory Assistants and other office 
staff. The work of the department has been divided in six sections 
viz., (1) Administrative Wing, (2) Acquisition, Arrangement and Supply 
Service Wing, (3) Reference Wing, (4) Repairs and Rehabilitation wing, 
(5) Publication Wing and (6) Weeding Wing. Each wing is headed by 
an Officer-incharge of the rank of a Superintendent. 

Under the centralised pattern, there is a provision for five Inter- 
mediary Rcpo.sitions at AHvar, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur and Kota. 
The .MafT allotted to each is u.d.c., l.d.c. and peon. 

The micro filming section is an important working wing of 
the Rujasthrm State Archives. The section is equipped with a micro 



314 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Blkaher 


film machine and a Micro film Reader. The establishment of this wing 
is expected to serve a great cause to the benefit of the Research Scholars. 

Excise Department 

Office of the Deputy Commissioner, Excise — This office controls 
Bikaner, Ganganagar and Churu districts and exercises control over the 
District Excise Officers in its region. Eaeh Excise Officer is assisted by 
one Assistant Excise Officer and other office staff. However, this office 
has now been abolished with effect from 1.7.1967. 

Office of the District Excise Officer' — The main function of 
this office is collection of excise duties levied on various items by the 
Government of Rajasthan, In this work, the District Excise Officer is 
assisted by six Circle Inspectors and one Excise Inspector. Besides, there 
are two Prosecuting Inspectors on the staff, who represent the depart- 
ment m cases under the Excise Act against defaulters in the courts. 

Taxation Department 

Office OF THE Deputy Commissioner (appeals)— Commercial 
Taxes — The office of the Deputy Commissioner was established in July, 
1966. He hears appeals against the orders of assessment passed by 
Commercial Taxes Officers. His jurisdiction extends to five districts 
viz., Bikaner, Ganganagar, Sikar, Jhunjhunu and Churu. 

Office of the Commercial Taxes Officer— The Commercial 
Taxes Officer collects taxes and duties prescribed under the Sales Tax 
Act, Passengers and Goods Tax Act, Entertainment Tax Act and the 
Electricity Duty. The Commercial Taxes Officer is assisted by three 
Assistant Commercial Taxes Officers. For purposes of collection of 
sales tax, Bikaner district is divided in two wards, viz., A and B. One 
Assistant Commercial Taxes Officer is incharge of each ward. Besides, 
there is one Assistant Commercial Taxes Officer for realisation of 
Passenger and Goods Taxes (RPGT). For survey, enquiries and other 
field-work, the Commercial Taxes Officer and Assistant Commercial 
Taxes Officers are assisted by five Commercial Taxes Inspectors, A 
separate post of Assistant Commercial Taxes Officer (Appeal) has also 
been created with effect from April 1967 to assist the Commercial Taxes 
Officer to plead the cases before the Dy. Commissioner (Appeals) 
headquartered at Bikaner since July, 1966. The office is manned with 
necessary complement of ministerial and class IV employees. 



Other Departments 


315 


Waterworks 

Drinking Water Supply Schemes of Bikaner city as well as of 
other towns and villages are administered by the Executive Engineer, 
Waterworks with headquarters at BIkener. To assist him there are 
three Assistant Engineers who look after the pumping stations 
and also help in laying out new pipe lines and other construction 
work. They are assisted by a small complement of office staff. At 
present, the water-supply schemes are functioning at Bikaner, GangH- 
nagar, Bhinasar, Deshnoke, Naukha, Kabra, Barsisar, Rasisar, Udasar, 
Surpura, Kalu, Sintal, Napasar, 'Panchon, Ltinkaransar, Jasrasar, 
Sarunda and Berasar, Udairamsar, Lelamdcsar, Mahajan, Kanolai, 
Ramsar and Sekhsar, 

Office of the Assistant Mining Engineer— A Sub-Divisional 
Office of the Mines and Geology Department having jurisdiction over 
the districts of Bikaner, Gangangar and Churu is located here. It is 
headed by an Assistant Mining Engineer. Its main work comprises 
grants of mineral concessions, inspection of quarries and mines, 
Technical advice to various lesees, preparation of technical reports on 
the potentialities of mineral based industry, survey and investigation 
of mineral deposits. There is a separate drilling unit carrying drilling 
activities in the vicinity of Palana for proving lignite deposit as to its 
extent, size and reserves etc. Drilling has been completed at Ravneri and 
Hira-ki-Dhani. The technical operations arc supervised by a Deputy 
Drilling Engineer assisted by a Geologist, 

The Assistant Mining Engineer is assisted by one Senior Mining 
Foreman, one Field Assistant, one Draftsman and a few clerks. 

Office of the Inspector of Factories and Boilers— The 
jurisdiction of this office extends to two districts viz., Bikaner and 
Nagaur and is charged with the duty to sec that the provisions of the 
Factories Act, Payment of Wages Act, Indian Boilers Act, Employment 
of Children .Act and Maternity Benefit Act alongwifh the Rules 
thereunder, are implemented and enforced properly. 

Labour Department 

Office of the Labour Officer— To implement the Labour laws 
in the factories covered under the Factories Act, one Labour Officer is 
posted in Bikaner, To assist him, there arc two Labour Inspectors and 
a few clerks and peons. 



316 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers~Bikancr 


Employment Exchange — In the beginning, employment exchan- 
ges v\ere started with a view to rehabilitating the disbanded soldiers 
a ter the Second World War, but in recent years, the agency has been 
uti ised more or less, as a clearing house between the job-seekers and the 
employers. In Bikaner, the office was set up in the year 1946. It is at 
present headed by an Employment Officer who is assisted by a Junior 

mployment Officer. The other staff consists of one Guide and a few 
clerks and peons. 


Office of the Principal, Industrial Training Institute— The 
Institute was established in the year 1959 under the Director General of 
^ mployment & Training, New Delhi but for administrative convenience, it 
IS under ^e control of Department of Labour, Government of Rajasthan 
t e erector of Technical Educatioi). The Institute is headed by a 
I'rincipal who is assisted by one Group Instructor, two Senior Instruc- 
tors and 13 Junior Instructors. His office staff consists of a few clerks. 


At present, training is imparled to Turner, Moulder, Fitter, 
wectncian, Draughtsman. Carpenter. Blacksmith. Welder and 
mreman. The duration of training for Draughtsman. Fitter, 
Electrician, Turner and Wireman is two years while for Moulder, 

\ Welder, the duration of training is one 

year. The total intake capacity of the institute is 196. 


Training Centre— 

With a view to acquaint and train the non-official members and others of 

wa, stotr's “ Training Centre headed by a Principal, 

Z n 1«»-The Principal is asaiatcd by 

PanchavaiT'",- 'rawing is imparted to members of 

Lehavats and r “"f Cbnitmen and Members of Nyaya 

i^anchayats and Secretaries of Panchayats. ^ ^ 

Co-operative Department 

Bikaner ic th Registrar, Co-operative Societies — 

ikaner is the seat of the Divisional Office beaded bv'Dcputv Registrar 

aS« 7 7” administ,atlvV?„Zol o be 

Auditor, a Technical .Assistant, besides clerks and peons. 

There uSZ ZZarr; f ‘°T“- Soctnrtns- 

?>n Assistant Registrar who i? incharge of the execution 



Other Departments 


317 


of all schemes of organising co-operative societies and promulgation of 
co-operative movement in the district. 

Animal Husbandry Department 

A divisional office of the Deputy Director is located at Bikaner 
which looks after the work of both the Bikaner and Jodhpur Divisions. 
At the district level, there are District Animal Husbandry Officers who 
are responsible for execution of development schemes in animal hus- 
bandry, but in Bikaner, there is no District Animal Husbandry 
Officer and the work of Bikaner district is looked after by the District 
Animal Husbandry Officer, Churu The main activities of the District 
Animal Husbandry Officers -are to maintain veterinary hospitals, 
castration of scrub mate cattle and prevention of cattle disease vn 
villages by inoculations and vaccinations. Animal Husbandry Extension 
Officers of the department arc posted in each of Panchayat Samiti to 
attend to the activities of the department. 

District Statistical Office 

This office is engaged in collecting economic and statistical data 
concerning a wide variety of subjects relating to Bikaner district. A 
statistical booklet and an Annual Plan Progress Report is also brought 
out every year. Field studies relating to socio-economic aspects are 
also undertaken by the District Office. Besides, the data is also trans- 
mitted to the head office at Jaipur where it is processed and incorporat- 
ed in various publications. This office also caters to the demand of 
District Administration, State Govt., Labour Bureau, National Sample 
Survey Organisation of the Union Cabinet Secretariat and other depart- 
ments. At the district level, the office is headed by a District Statis- 
tician. The other members of the staff arc one District Statistical 
Assistant, one Statistical Supervisor, two Field Inspectors, one Computer, 
one L.D.c. and one peon. 

Devasthan 

An Inspector supervises the work of this department at the 
district level. He is responsible for disbursement of grants and charities 
to the various religious institutions taken over by the State Government 
for management, and to others. The Inspector is assisted by a small 
complement of office strdT, 

Pnblic Relations Office 

Giving publicity to the Government policies and dcvelopmciil 



3I8 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


schemes is the main object of the Public Relations Officer in the 
district. For this purpose various modes of publicity like organising 
film shows, opening information centres, education through audio- 
visual means conducting publicity campaigns for special programmes 
viz , National Savings, Family Planning etc. are adopted. He is assisted 
by an Assistant Public Relations Officer, two Operators, one Enquiry 
Assistant and a few clerks and class IV employees There is an infor- 
mation centre under the Public Relations Office. This centre serves the 
people through a reference reading room and reference library. There 
is information desk in the information centre from where all sorts of 
information is given. The information centre also relays the news of 
the All India Radio to about 30 places in the city. The centre also 
announces local news bulletin from time to time 

CENTRAL GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS 
National Savings Organisation 

Prior to the merger of erstwhile State of Bikaner, a scheme known 
as Small Savings Scheme was in vogue which was supervised by a 
National Savings Adviser, and National Savings Certificates were issued 
tinder this Scheme, After re-organisation, the set-up was changed and 
Regional Directors were posted in States. Bikaner was made a seat of 
Divisional Office headed by an Assistant Regional Director looking 
after the work of Bikaner, Ganganagar, Churu and Nagaur districts. 
Directly subordinate to him are the District Organisers appointed a 
the district level, who are responsible for organising savings campaign 
in their respective areas. 

The important schemes sponsored by the organisation are : 
(i) National Savings Certificates (ii) Twelve Years National Defence 
Certificates, (iii) Ten Years’ Defence Deposit Certificates, (iv) Fifteen 
Years’ Annuity Certificates, (v) Cummulative Time Deposit Scheme, 
(vi) Five Year's Fixed Deposit Scheme, (vii) Public Provident Fund 
Scheme, and (viii) Pay Roll Savings Scheme. 

Customs Office 

The main duty of the Customs Office located at Bikaner is to 
prevent smuggling from Pakistan, as it is a border district. A Superin- 
tendent of Customs is posted at Bikaner and the other staff consists of 
two Inspectors, two Sub-Inspectors, a few Sepoys and camel sowars. An 
Inspector is also stationed at Pogal. The staff also keeps liaison with 
border security force post on the border of the di-Strict and the district 



Other Departments 


319 


police thus co-ordinating their activities with them. Besides, the custom 
organisation also keeps a watch over the smuggled goods which have 
found their way from places other than Indo-Pak border. 

Labour Enforcement Office 

The staff in this office consists of one Labour Enforcement 
Officer who is mainly responsible for the enforcement of ail central 
labour enactments in the undertakings falling under central jurisdiction, 
and to look after the welfare of the employees therein. 

Field Publicity Office 

Controlled by the Directorate of Field Publicity, Ministry of 
Information & Broadcasting, Government of India, the unit stationed 
at Bikaner is one of eleven such units in Rajasthan. Its jurisdiction 
extends over Jhunjhunu and Nagaur districts besides Bikaner. The 
staff consists of a Field Publicity Officer, a Project Operator, a clerk, 
a driver and a few class IV employees. 

The unit is entrusted with two broad functions; firstly, to provide 
information, education and entertainment to the people through all 
avai'ablc media of mass communications like film^ ^sjhpy/s. cultural 
programmes, folk songs and dances, public ra8etI^,^:group disclissions, 
seminars, symposia, puppet shows, drapT:]heier^^^d-^sef5if31y,^ig;a^fi,‘ie^ 
the Government of the reaction ofJl«j^j3bf{c%_^-the-'pnlic[cSj,_a'i|d^ 
programmes adopted by it. At 'mpjtrasis is bcjfig given 

to the organisation of intensive ^jiblic'ity.-xampaig^ny^bf Footf Produc- 
tion, Family Planning, National^r^Bavin^^Deve^pmcntar.. Works and 
National Integration and Solidarlij?^ (iSefence oriented) in rural and 
border areas. 

^ ^ # 

Chemical Laboratory— Fertiliser Corporation of India 

A small Chemical Laboratory has been functioning at Bikaner 
for the analysis of gypsum samples under the direct control of the Chief 
Mining Engineer stationed at Jodhpur. Two gypsum mines viz., Kaoni 
and Bharru arc being worked by the Corporation and gypsum produced 
is loaded from Nal Railway Station. 

Office of the Locust Entomologist 

A field station for investigations on locusts beaded by a locusts 
entomologist was established at Bikaner in March, 1957. The main 
duties arc to conduct invcsiig.itions on the various aspects of desert 
locust biology and ecology in the field, with a view to acquiring infor- 
mation on its incidence, habits and behaviour in relation to its environ- 
ments; and on improving methods for its control. In this work the 



320 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


entomologist is assisted by a Deputy Locust Entomologist, five Technical 
Officers and five Junior Technical Assistants with the usual complement 
of ministerial staff and class IV servants. 

Office of the Marketing Officer, Wool, Bristles and 
Goat Hair Giading Scheme 

This office is responsible for inspection of wool, bristles and goat 
hair commodities exported from here and also to conduct market 
surveys for improvement in agricultural marketing. The Marketing 
Officer is helped by an Assistant Marketing Officer. 

Office of the Sub-Divisional Officer, Telegraphs 

An office of the Sub- Divisional Officer is stationed at Bikaner 
for supervising the working ofthe Telephone Exchanges and Telegraphs 
Offices within the area. His staff consists of a Construction Officer, 
Engineering Supervisor Telephones, Engineering Supervisor-Telegraphs, 
Observation Officer and other technical staff like Operators, Lines- 
men etc. 

Divisional Superintendent, Northern Railway 

Prior to merger, Bikaner had its own Railway system. After the 
integration with the Indian Railways it was amalgamated with the 
Northern Railways. The set-up of the Railways was re-organised in 
1952 when a division of Northern Railways was established at Bikaner, 
The Divisional Superintendent is the head of the division. The work 
of Railways is divided into ten sections known as Engineering Branch, 
Mechanical Branch, Commercial Branch, Medical Branch, Electrical 
Branch, Signal and Teic-communicalions Branch, Security Branch, 
Accounts Branch, Personnel Branch and Transporation Branch. At 
Lalgarh in Bikaner district, a Loco shed is maintained to keep the 
locomotives in the working order. 





(!:hapter xiV 


LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT 

HISTORY 

Though there were small committees and boards in the erstwhile 
Bikaner State in the beginning of the first decade of the twentieth 
century, there were no municipal committees in the true sense of the 
term. The most important municipal committee was at Bikaner, the 
capital of the State. It was established in 1889, prior to which sanitary 
arrangements were supi-rvised by either Kotwal or one of the Hospital 
Assistants or a special officer. These Committees were mainly respon- 
sible for conservancy and lighting arrangements, prevention of encroa- 
chments on public thoroughfares, settlement of petty disputes relating 
to easements, and the establishment and control of slaughter-houses 
and markets. In 191 7 the then State Government sanctioned more 
powers to the Municipalities : they were given practically independent 
control over finances and were authorised to raise necessary funds by 
such taxation as was sanctioned by the Government from time to time; 
the number of non-official members was also increased. 

With a view to placing the municipal administration on a 
footing more in conformity 'with modern ideals and requirements, 
Bikaner Municipal Act was passed in July 1923. The year 1923 was 
memorable in the history of the Muncipal administration in the State 
because elective system was introduced in the State for the first time. 
However, the elections were held in 1925. The Act contemplated the 
establishment of both municipal boards and municipal committees. 
Under its provisions each municipal board was to consist of members 
not less than 9 in number, both nomirjated and elected, and unless the 
Government otherwise directed, not less than 3/5 of the scats were to 
be open to election^. 

The municipal Board franchise was confined to those who owned 
house property, situated within Bikaner Municipality, of a value of 
not, less than Rs. 1000 and in other municipaities of a value of notlcss 

I. Bi5"A’.is Chittranjan, Bikaner the Land of Marvearts, Indian PubJishing House, 
Calcutta p. 62 . 



322 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


than Rs. 500 or who paid a rent of not less than Rs. 10 per month, in 
Sadar and Rs. 5 per month in the district municipalities for a house or 
a shop within the municipal area, or who were in the service of His 
Highness the Maharaja of Bikaner, drawing a salary of not less than 
Rs. 50 or were graduates of any recognised University, or licensed 
vakils or mukhtyars of the Bikaher High Court provided that they were 
not under the age of 21. Females were not qualified to votei. 

The powers of Municipal Boards were further enhanced by an 
amendment in the Act, in 1928, in pursuance of which the Municipal 
Board, Bikaner appointed a Health OlRcer to look after the sanitation 
of the town, and an Executive Officer to look into the proper discharge 
of work in the various departments. Besides a secretary and an engineer 
were also appointed^*. 

The main sources of income of the Municipalities were Octroi 
duty on imported articles, terminal tax, tongas and hackney carriages 
tax, teb hazari tax3, duty on export of grains and interest on their' 
surplus balances. 

These local bodies were responsible for such services as the 
improvement of sanitation, lighting of public streets, construction of 
wells and diggis for drinking water, maintenance of chowkidars for 
watch and ward, granting aid to local schools and dispensaries and 
construction and maintenance of roads and thoroughfares. 

The number of municipalities in the former Bikaner State in 
1924-25 was 15. Of these, Bikaner was the only municipality covered 
by the area now included in the present Bikaner district. According 
to the Administration Report for the year 1944-45, besides the Bikaner 
Municipal Board, there were 26 municipalities in the former Bikaner 
State. Of these Bhinasar, Gangashahr, Lonkaransar, Napasar and 
Naukha were in the area which now forms part of Bikaner district. 
Gangashahr municipality was established in 1939, Napasar in 1941 
and Naukha, Lnnkaransar and Bhinasar in 1942-43.^ 

After the formation of Rajasthan, the Rajasthan Town Munici- 
palities Act was enacted in 1951 to establish uniform patterii of Local 

1. Biswas. Chittranjan Bikaner the Land of Marwarls, The Indian Publishing House 
Calcutta p-62 

2. Four Decades of Progress in Bikaner Stale, 1937, p. 76 

3. Rent for the use of land for erecting temporary shops. 

4. Report on the Administration of the Bikaner State, 1942-43, p. 12, 



Local Self-Government 


323 


Self-Governing Insfitutions in the Stale except the city municipalities. 
It introduced the principle of election by adult franchise and all the 
members were elected for the first time in 1952. The Rajasthiin Town 
Municipalities Act, 1959 superseded the existing City Municipalities 
and established a uniform system of municipal administration. 
Municipal Boards have been censtituted for a town having a population 
exceeding 8000 and municipal councils for towns having a population 
of more than 50,0C0. Municipal Boards at Ltinkaransar and Napatar, 
having less than the minirr.um population required for the establish- 
ment of a Municipal Board, were accordingly converted into Pancha- 
yats. The number of municipalities in this district was reduced to 
four in the year 1958 but increased to five in 1959 when a Municipal 
Board was established at Deshnoke. Under the Provisions of this 
Act, Municipalities are empowered to employ their own staff but an 
Executive Officer in case of a ’ unicipal Board, and a Municipal 
Commissioner in the case of a Municipal Council are appointed by the 
State Government. 

It is obligatory on the part of Municipalities to levy these 
taxes : (1) house tax (2) octroi duty and (3) tax on professions and 
callings. They are, however, authorised to levy (1) tax on vehicles 
(2) tax on conveyance, and tax on conservancy service, and others, 
at their option. Their resources arc further supplemented by the 
Government in the form of an annual subsidy, and loans from time 
to time. 

There arc five municipalities in the district, namely Municipal 
Council, Bikaner and Municipal Boards at Gangashahr, Naukha, 
Deshnoke and Bhinasar. 

Municipal Council, Bikaner City 

History — The municipal committee at Bikaner was established 
in I889.t It consisted of officials and nominated non-official members 
with an official-Chairman as its head. The Municipal Committee 
was. however, reckoned more or less as department of the State. In 
1917, the Municipal Board was separated from the Government and 
a State grant was made for Municipal funds. The number of 
members was raised to 21. All of them were nominated by the 

1. Etskine, K.D, O’urrffrr.r. Vol. Ill— A, Tyjf Western liS/puliira Slates 

and the Wikanrr Apeney p, 369, 



324 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


Government, in 1923, the Municipal Act was passed and the number 
of the members was raised from 21 to 40, 25 elected and 15 
nominated. With the introduction of the elected representatives in 
the Bikaner Municipal Board in 1925, its posvers and privileges were 
also enhanced, and the official Vice-President was permanently 
replaced by a non-official Vice-President in 1929, The Municipal 
Ams.ndm-nt Act of 1928 conferred more powers on the Municipal 
Board and the services of qualified whole time Health Officers, an 
Engineer and a Secretary, were requisitioned to enable the Board to 
discharge its duties more efficiently.! 


Till 1947, the Bikaner Municipality consisted of 15 nominated 
and 25 elected members. The nominated members included a Presi- 
dent nme officials and five non-official members, while the elected 
members included a Vice-President. In 1947, the President was 
elected for the first time. In 1952 all the members were elected on the 
basis of adult franchise. Since 1959, the Municipality is regulated by 
leproyisions of the Rajasthan Town Municipalities Act, 1959. 
Before Its supersession in 1967 by the Government of Rajasthan it 
consisted of 36 elected and one co-opted members. Since then it is 
a ministered by an administrator appointed by the Government of 
Rajasthan. 


^°“"^n874) the sanitary condition of 
he city wery bad’. People used earthen vessels for night stools and 
used to empty them into the streets from the house tops in the 
imng regardless of the passers-by. The rudimentary sanitary 

oronfoTtl h' ^“P'^'-Vsed by either the Kotwal 

con^irt 1 1 officer, and required 

filth and w TTf ^fon carts to remove refuse and 

more suimS f employed in 1885, and new and 

thrniah t I r depositing 

esLbli hed to ' Committee was 

established to improve sanitary conditions of the city. Since then 

bccnTd're!!? '’"T 

™"»rva„cy 

inciaeralor for h! I™™ 

urning refuse, and an epidiascope in 1927, wore added 


• • <’/ Prrsrcss In Bikaner, p. 7^, 


Local Self-Government 


325 


to imporove the sanitary conditions. In 1939-40 steps were taken to 
remove Kbara-Lime- Kilns from their original places to more distant 
sites, and a hydrant was fixed at Nawa Kuwa for flushing drains. 
Further, measures were adopted for constant inspection of public 
places, such as hotels, sweat-meat shops and aerated water factories. 
Attempts were also made to regularly treat all the marshy places, pits 
and pools with malarial oil, and conservancy gang of 15 labourers 
and one iV/gra/j/dar was especially organised in 1942-45 fm levelling 
uneven places in the city, and to make an unobstructed channel for 
flow of water. Soakpits for the disposal of sullage water were 
constructed. The Municipality Sullage drains, were constructed by the 
Municipality and the Public Works Department from time to time. 
Efforts have also been made to improve the sanitary conditions of the 
city by employing more staff and belter equipment. In 1965-66 the 
Municipality had in its service a Health Officer, Six Inspectors, 40 
Jamadars, 572 Sweepers and nine drivers for the proper maintenance of 
sanitation in the city. 

Light— Lighting arrangements are made by the Rajasthan State 
Electricty Board, Bikaner, and the municipality pays them for the 
maintenance. There are, 1,520 electric lamp posts, in the year 1965-66 
The electricity is supplied from the Bikaner grid. 

Water-Supply — Water-supply is arranged by the Government 
Waterworks Department. Water is supplied from several wells by 
pumping water through electricity driven pumps. The output of these 
pumps is fed into a common pipe-work system connected at one end 
with a large covered storage reservoir. In 1951, there were 23 such 
wells to supply 24,00,000 gallons every day. In 1958-59 a scheme to 
improve water-supply was implemented and nine wells were repaired, 
four over-head tanks and three reservoirs were constructed to increase 
water-supply from 20 gallons to 30 gallons per head per day. 

Financial Position — The income and expenditure of the muni- 
cipal council for a number of selected years is given in appendix I. 
The figure.s given in the appendix show that the financial position of 
the municipal-council is sound. 

OmCE Establishment — The office establishment has six 
sections namely. Genera! Section. Accounts section, P. W. D. section. 
Store section. Health section and Tax wtion. The strength of these 
sections is as follows t 



326 


Rsjasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


General SECxiON—One Commissioner, one office superinten- 
dent', three upper division, clerks, five lower division clerks and 13 
class IV servants. 

2. Accounts Section — One Accountant, six lower division 
clerks, three class IV servants. 

3. P. W.D. Section— O ne Overseer, two Surveyors, one Mistri, 
one upper division clerk and nine class IV servants. 

4. Store Section — one mechanic, six drivers, two Khalasis, two 
fitters, three helpers, nine class IV servants and one light inspector, 

5. Health Section — Three sanitary inspectors, three assistant 
sanitary inspectors, two lower division clerks, two class four servants 
and 32 jamadars, 

6. Tax Section— One Revenue Officer, two assessors, five 
house tax inspectors, one revenue inspector, one assistant revenue 
inspector, five nakedars, 22 assistant uakedaras, three lower division 
clerks, 24 class four servant's, seven recovery jamadars and three naka 
guards. 

Education — Bikaner municipality is running sixteen compulsory 
primary schools. These schools were started by the municipality 
under the provisions of the Bikaner Compulsory Primary Education 
Act, 1928. The Government of the erstwhile State of Bikaner paid 
two-thirds of the maintenance charges of these schools. Seventy 
per cent of the expenses are still subsidised by the State Government on 
the running of these schools. 

Fire Brigade — The Municipal Council is maintaining one fire 
engine and a fire brigade, consisting of 12 firemen and three drivers 
to meet the eventualities. 

MUNICIPAL BOARDS 
Municipal Board, Gangasbahr 

Municipality at Gangashahr was established in 1939 with 
eleven members, all nominated by the Government. The Nazim Sadar 
was the ex-officio President of the municipal board. In 1951 the 
Rajasthan Town Municipality Act, 1951 (which was replaced by 
Rajasthan Municipality Act, 1959) was made applicable ' upd al| the 
incpibers of inupjcipality were elected in 1952, 



Local Self-Government 


327 


The Municipal Board consisted of 12 elected and two co-opted 
members. At present it is administered by the sub-divisional officer, 
Bikaner north, Bikaner. The functions of the Municipal Board are 
confined to lighting the streets and looking after the sanitary condi- 
tions. For these purposes the board employs 24 sweepers and 
maintains 151 electricity lamp posts. Lighting arrangements are made 
by Rajasthan State Electricity Board, Bikaner and the municipal board 
pays fixed charges for the same. The Municipal Board has contributed 
Rs. ] ,00, COO (Rs. 50,000 from funds of the board and Rs. 50,000 
donated by the public) towards the construction of pipe line for the 
supply water of from of waterworks, Bikaner. During the year 1964-65 
and 1965-66 the income of the Municipality was Rs. 1,07,300 and 
Rs. 1,35,900 respectively while the expenditure for the corresponding 
years was Rs. 1,07,300 and 1,37,100. 

Municipal Board, Bhinasar 

History — Municipality at Bhinasar was established in 1942-43. 
It consisted of a President, a Vice-President and seven members, 
all nominated. In 1951 the provisions of Rajasthan Town Munici- 
palities Act, 1951 (which was replaced by Rajasthan Municipality 
Act, 1959) were made applicable and the members elected for the first 
time in 1952 by adult franchise. 

The municipal board consisted of ten elected and two co-opted 
female members before its supersession by the Government of Rajasthan 
in 1967. Since then it is administered by sub-divisiqnal officer, Bikaner- 
South, Bikaner, The municipality looks after sanitation and lighting 
of the public streets only and maintains 57 electric lamp posts. It 
has also engaged one Jamadar and nine sweepers for scavenging and 
other sanitary works. 

Financial position— During the year 1964-65, the income ofthe 
board was Rs, 30,300 and in 1965-66 was Rs. 76,700; the expenditure 
of the Board for these two years was Rs. 30,300 and Rs. 83,100 
respectively. 

Municipal Board, Naiikha 

History — Naukha municipality was established in 1942-43, as a 
purely nominated body, consisting of nine members, including a 
President and a Vice-President. In 195!, the provisions of the 
Rujasthfin Town Municipality Act. !y5! were made applicable and 
the members were for the first time elected by adult franchise in 1952. 



328 


Rajasthan District Uazetteers— uiKaner 


At present the board consists of ten elected and two co-opted 
female members. The board engages one Jamadar and 38 sweepers 
for cleaning streets and other sanitary works. The strength of the 
employees in other sections, namely, office establishment is 8, 
tax-collection 12 and water-supply seven. A gardener is also 
employed by the board. 

The functions of the municipal board are confined to lighting 
the streets, looking after the sanitary conditions and park facilities. 


Financial position — The total income and expenditure of the 
municipality for the years 1964-65 and 1965-66 are given below : 


Year 

Income (Rs.) 

Expenditure (Rs.) 

1964-65 

2,56,400 

2,56,400 

1965-66 

1,40,200 . 

1,60,300 


Municipal Board, Deshnoke 

History— Municipality at Deshnoke was established in 1957. It 
comprises ten elected and two co-opted women members. The 
functions of the municipal board are confined to sanitation, lighting 
the streets and making arrangements for public water stands to facili- 
tate the supply of water. It engages one Jamadar and 16 sweepers for 
cleaning the streets and other sanitary works, maintains 74 lamp- 
posts and one mercury light and a gardener for looking after a 
public park. The strength of employees in other sections namely 
office establishment and tax collection is six and two respectively. The 
income of the Board during 1964-65 and 1965-:6 was Rs. 25,800 and 
Rs. 17,800 respectively while the expenditure during the same period 
was Rs. 25,800 and Rs. 21,600 respectively. 

DISTRICT BOARDS 

History — Establishment of district boards in rural areas under 
the District Board Act, 1935 formed another step towards progressive 
realisation of local self-government. The franchise, however, was 
limited to (i) Padedars ; (ii) every land-holder Kliatedar or Asami in 
Kltalsa villages who paid or was liable to pay Rs, 25 as rent annually 
(iii) every Chhutbhai or land-holder or tenant in alienated villages 
who paid or was liable to pay Rs. 33 as rent annually ; (iv) every 


Local Self-Government 


329 


tenant of agricultural land who was a subject of Bikaner State and 
who paid or was liable to pay Rs. 50 as rent annually and (v) every 
person ordinarily residing in the rural area who bad passed middle 
school examination, or any other examination equivalent to, or higher 
than the middle school standard. Such persons must be above 21 
years of age, of sound mind adjudged by a competent court and 
subjects of Bikaner Stated. Between 1939-40 and 1941-42 the number 
of District Boards was raised to five from one. They were; Ganganagar, 
Sadar, Rajgarh, Sujangarh and Suratgarh, Bikaner Board (Sadar) is 
described below : 

District Board, Bikaner 

History — The District Boaid likancr which was constituted in 
1942 consisted of 45 members, out of whom 33 were elected. The 
income of the Board was derived from the following sources : 

(i) a levy of 6 pies (3 paise) per rupee on land revenue in Khnlsa 
villages and tribute from Patta villages ; (ii) a charge of 1 pie (half 
paisa) per rupee on income in case of Betalab village. 

Powers and limitations— The Chairman of the board was 
appointed by the Government. The vice-chairman was elected by 
members from 'among themselves but the appointment was subject to 
the approval of the Government. The budget of the board was to be 
placed before the Government who could sanction, modify or reject 
it. The revenue-commissioner could not only inspect the property, 
documents and records but could prohibit the execution or further 
execution of any resolution or order if in his opinion such resolution 
or order was of a nature to cause or tend to cause obstruction, 
annoyance or injury to the public, or to a class or body of persons 
lawfully employed, or danger to human life, health or safety, or 
likely to cause a riot or affray. 

PANCHAYATS 

History — Steps for the establishment of panchayats were taken 
in i928 when Bikaner Village Panchayat Act was enacted with the 
aim of making village the lowest Administration Unit. The State 
Government was authorised to declare any area to be a panchayat 
area. Panchayats established under the Act, consisted of not less 
than five or more than nine elected members and were authorised 

1. Biswas Chhttanjan ; ISlkcner tficlandof the MorKorls, pp. 70-71, 



330 


6.ajastiian bistrlct Gazetteers— Bikaner 


to hear civil suits for sums not exceeding Rs. 50 and could take 
cognizance of minor oifences, like (i) riot, (ii) committing a public 
nuisance, (iii) obscene acts and songs, (iv) assault or use of criminal 
force (v) theft of property not exceeding ten rupees, (vi) receiving 
stolen property (vii) criminal intimidation and (viii) outraging the 
modesty of woman. The maximum penalties inflicted by any 
panchayat could not exceed Rs. 10 or double the damage or loss 
caused whichever was greater. The Act debarred legal practitioners 
to appear on behalf of any party and requited parties to appear 
personally or though agents, such as a servant or a partner or a 
relative. Cases were to be decided by majority in case of disagreement 
among the members of the panchayat and no court fee was charged. 
Besides, the administrative duties and powers of panchayats included 
the management of schools, supply of drinking water, protection of 
tanks, maintenance of burial grounds and planting and preservation 
of trees. The activities of the panchayats were financed by the village 
fund in every Panchayat Circle consisting of sums contributed by the 
Government or local bodies or private persons, and the receipts on 
account of the cess not exceeding 6 pies per rupee of the land revenue, 
leived by a Pancbayat.i 

The Revenne Minister excercised general powers of inspection, 
supervision and control in the working of the panchayats.!^ The 
Government had powers to suspend or dissolve any panchayat on 
reasonable grounds. Panchayats came to be established immediately at 
Surpura, Napasar, Palana, Panchu, Jarasar, Shaikhsar, Bada Bas, Runia 
and Khokhera in his district, and their number was eight in 1935 
which was raised to, 49 by the time the State was merged. Details are 
given in the appendix II. 

Re-organisation of Panchayat System 

The panchayt system was re-organised in 1953 under the 
Rajasthan Panchayat Act, 1953 by setting up eighty-five panchayats, 
and four tahsil panchayats (to exercise supervision and control) at 
the headquarters of all tahsils. The tahsil panchayats were replaced 
by panchayat samitis in 1959 
Panchayats 

The Act provided for the division of the Pancliayal Circle into 
wards and a panch to be elected from each ward. The minimum 

1. Biswas Chitraranjan, the Land of hfarwari<i, pp. 71-J2. 

2. Ibid p. 73. 



Local Self-Governmenl 


331 


number of panchas required for the formation of a panchayat was 
five, and the maximum fifteen, besides a sarpanch. The term of a 
panchayat was three years, which could be extended by one year. 
The panchas and sarpanchas were elected directly by the voters of 
the panchayat area. Up-sarpanch vvas elected from amongst the 
members. In the beginning, elections were held by show of hands 
but the system was later changed to that by a secret ballot. Provision 
was made for the nomination of a panch from scheduled castes, if 
no such member was elected. Women were also nominated in the 
same way. 

The panchayats were expected to discharge a number of 
obligatory and discretionary functions. The obligatory functions were ; 
the construction, repair and maintenance of public wells and ponds, 
sanitation, street maintenance and light, registration of births, deaths 
and marriages, regulation of meals and establishment and maintenance 
of primary schools; while the discretionary functions included ; 
planning, development of co-operation, famine relief, establishment 
of reading rooms and measures designed to promote the moral and 
material well-being of the people. The panchayats could also try 
suits upto the value ofRs. 100, exercise the powers of third class 
magistrate except powers to order imprisonment in criminal cases, 
impose fines upto a maximum of Rs. 15 in administrative cases and 
upto Rs. 50 in judicial cases. 

Tabsil Panchayats 

Each tahsil panchayat consisted of a sarpach and six to eight 
panchas elected out of an clectrol college consisting of the panchas 
and sarpanchas of the panchayats in that tahsil. The tahsil panchayats 
heard appeals against the orders, decisions, decrees or sentences 
passed by the panchayats. 

Democratic Decentralisation 

The Rajasthan Panchayat Samitis and Zila Parishads Act, 
1959, which has introduced a three tier system of local self-government, 
was inaugurated on October 2, 1959. Under the .Act. One hundred 
twenty three panchayats at the village level, four panchayat samitis 
at the tahsil level and a zila parishad at the district level have been 
established in this district.^ 


1. Pa^choyaii Pif Rifasshin, p. 3.’, 



332 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers—Blkaner 


Panchayats Under the New Set-up 

Panchayats have now been made co-terminus with the smallest 
unit of revenue administration, that is a patwar circle. A village 
panchayat serves population ranging between 1500 to 2000 and consists 
of eight to fifteen panchas excluding the Sarpanch. Provision has 
been made to co-opt two women panchas; and one scheduled caste 
panch and one scheduled tribe panch in areas where their population 
exceeds 5 per cent of the total population. The sources of revenue 
of panchayats are taxes, cattle pond, court fees, fines, fairs, sale of 
land and share from the land revenue. 

Where the former panchayats had been vested with both 
developmental and judicial functions, the present panchayats are 
invested with the former only, and the judicial functions are performed 
by the newly constituted nyaya panchayats. The panchayat samitis 
are pnmary units for planning and local development while the main 
function of the zila parishad is co-ordination. 

Elections were held in December, 1,960 when 1029 panchas were 
elected in 123 panchayats. The panchayat set-up was for the first 
time organised on the basis of adult sufferage. The details of panchayat 
samitis, nyaya panchayats and village panchayats are given belowi ; 






(Number) 

S. No. 

Panchayat 

Samiti 

Nyaya 

Panchayat 

Village 

Panchayat 

Total 

I. 

Bikaner 

7 

33 

40 

2. 

Naukha 

8 

41 

49 

3. 

Kolayat 

5 

23 

28 

4. 

Lonkaransar 

6 

26 

32 


Total 

26 

123 

149 


Nyaya Panchayats 

To separate judicial functions from the executive at the village 
nyaya fpanchayats in the district having 
jurisdiction over an area of five to seven panchayats, have been 

J. Source : Office of the Secretary Zjla Parishad, Bikanen 


Local Self-Government 


33 $ 


established to administer civil and criminal justice. Out of these seven 
are in Bikaner, eight in Naukha, five in Koliiyat and six in 
Lonkaransar panchayat samitis (name and location of nyaya 
panchayats are given in appendix III). The members are elected 
by the constituent panchayats, on the basis of one each, Nyaya 
panchayat functions through benches of three members. Chairman 
of the nyaya panchayat is elected by members from amongst them- 
selves. He constitutes benches and assigns area to each bench. He 
can vary the jurisdiction of the benches and their membership whenever 
necessary. Nyaya panchayats function through benches of three 
members for the area assigned to each. They have been empowered 
to try certain minor criminal offences (specified in a schedule attached 
to the Act)i and to impose fines not exceeding Rs, 50. In the event 
of non-payment, the matter is brought to the notice of the sub- 
divisional magistrate who makes recovery as in the case of fines 
imposed by himself. In civil cases these panchayats have jurisdiction 
to try suits not exceeding Rs. 250 in value. There is no provision for 
appeal against the orders of nyaya panchayat, but revision can be 
filed with the in civil suits and magistrate of the 1st -Class in 
criminal cases. 


PANCHAYAT SAMITIS 

History 

Every panchayat samiti consists of all Sarpanchas of the 
panchayats and Krishi Nipun as ex-officio members. Provision 
has'been made to co-opt two women, two persons from Scheduled Castes 
and Tribes and two persons having experience in administration, public 
life or rural development, one representative of co-operative societies 
and one representative of the graradan villages. Panchayat samitis 
have full powers to frame their budgets and formulate their annual 
plans of development within the frame-work of the State Plan. The 
samiti plan covers agriculture, animal husbandry, co-operation, minor 

t. OfTcnccs under scefjons 140, 163.172, 174, 175, 178,179,180,183.202,228. 
264. 265. 266, 267. 26V. 277, 278. 279, 28.3, 285. 266. 288, 289, 290, 294. 323. 
334, .336. 341.352. 356,357. 358. 374. 379. 380. 38(, 403. 411, .126. 430. 447, 
446.461, 504.506, 509. 510 of the Indian Penal Code. 1860 and OfTcncci 
under the Cattle Tresn3<;s Act, 1871, the , Vaccination Act. 18S0, Preventien of 
Cruelty to Animals Act, 1E90, Rajasthan Public GamWinp Ordinance, 1949, 
RBjasth.in Prevcnlinn uf Juvenile Smokinn Act, 1950 and any other offence 
under any law declared by ihs State Gtwcrr.mept tP h-c triable by nyaya 
pancb-astit. 



334 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


irrigation works, village industries, primary education, local comrauni 
cation, sanitation, health and medical relief and local amenities. 

Financial Resources 

The income of the panchayat samitis is derived from State 
grants, people’s participation in the form of labour, contributions, and 
taxes on fairs, trades and professions, industries and entertainment, 
cesses on rent of agricultural land, primary education and leases 
granted for the collection of bones. 

Pa'NCha’iAt Samiti, Bikamer — ^Its jurisdiction extends to 33 
village panchayats (names are given in the appendix III and it consists 
of 33 sarpanchas and seven co-opted members (two each from women 
and Scheduled Castes and three specialists). The panchayat samiti 
covers a development block which is in the first stage, 

Panchayat Samiti, Naukha — It comprises‘41 village panchayats 
and consists of 41 sarpanchas and seven co-opted members, two each 
from women and scheduled castes, and three specialists. The develop- 
ment block o'" the panchayat samiti is in the second stage. 

Panchayat Samiti, Kolayat — It comprises 23 village paneba- 
yats (names are given in the appendix III), and consists of 23 sarpan- 
chas and seven co-opted members (two each from women and scheduled 
castes and three specialists). The panchayat samiti covers a develop- 
ment block which is in the first stage. 

Panchayat Samiti Lunkarnsar— This panchayat samiti com- 
prises 26 village panchayats (names are given in appendix III, and it 
consists of 26 sarpanchas and 5 co-opted members (two women and 
three specialists). The development block of the panchayat samiti is 
in second stage. 

Zila Parisbed 

A zila parishad consists of all Pradhans of the panchayat 
samitis, members of Parliament and members of State Legislature 
Assembly in the district, and president of the District Central Co- 
operative Bank, gs the ex-officio members. Collector of the district 
is the ex-officio non-voting member. Provision has been made to co- 
opt two women,' one member from the scheduled castes, one from 
scheduled tribes in areas where their population exceeds 5 per cent of 
]))e total population, and two persons of exocrience in administration, 



Local Sclf-Governmcni; 


335 


public life and rural development. Co-opted members are elected by 
ex-officio members by secret ballot. 

The Bikaner zila parishad was constituted on October 2, 1959 
under the democratic decentralisation scheme. It superseded the 
Bikaner District Board. It consists of 15 members (after the Panchayat 
elections in 1965), which include a pramukh, an up-pramukh, tsvo 
members of Parliament, five members of State Legislative Assembly, 
four pradhans of the panchayat samitis in the district, the president, 
Co-operative Bank in the district and Collector who is ex-officio non- 
voting member. 

The zila parishad has not been assigned any executive functions. 
Its main role is to supervise and co-ordinate the work of four pancha- 
yat samitis in the district, to maintain liaison between the State 
Government on the one hand and the panchayats and panchayat-saraitis 
on the other, and to prepare a consolidated district plan on the basis of 
the plans of the panchayat samitis. 



336 


Riijasthan 


District Gazetteers— Bikatiet’ 


Appendix I 


Income and expenditure of the Municipal Council, Bikaner 
for a number of selected years.i 

(Rs.) 


Year 

Income 

Expenditure 

1906-07 

14,177 

37,801 

1907-08 

16,461 

38,126 

1908-09 

1,80,57^ 

35,741 

1923-24 

60,840 

62,104 

1924-25 

55,100 

70,039 

1939-40 

1,12,172 

1,07,737 

1940-41 

1,38,347 

1,09,504 

1941-42 

1,57,667 

1,42,126 

1942-43 

1,62,143 

1,74,175 

1943-44 

1,76,028 

2,30,528 

1944-45 

1,71,818 

2,77,918 

1945-46 

99,689 

52,812 

1946-47 

2,52,562 

2,34,679 

1961-62 

.11,13,235 

9,20,741 

1962-63 

11,94,711 

10,84,243 

1963-64 

12,87,792 

11,44,600 

1964-65 

11,98,500 

11,98,500 

1965-66 

10,90,800 

10,08,500 

1966-67 

11,17,001 

12,37,037 


1, Source : Report on the Administration of the Bikaner State for the years 1939-40 
to 1946-47 and office of the Executive Officer, Municipal Board. BiXaner 
for the years 1961-62 to 1963-64 and Municipal year Book published by 
the Directorate of the Economics and Statistics, Jaipur for J964-65 and 
1965-66. 



I-ocal Self-Goverhmeni 

Appendix II 

The tafasi!-wisc distribution of grara-panchayafs in 1951 


Bikaner Tahsil 


1* Palana 

12. Behrasar 

2. Udasar 

13. Tajrasar 

3. Gusainsar 

14. Jamsar 

4. Udramsar 

15. Runiwas or Runia 

5. Barsisar 

16. Pemasar 

6. Husangsar 

17. Pogal 

7. Sordhana 

18. Ramsar 

8. Gadhwala 

19. Kilohu 

9. Naurangdcsai 

20. Khurra 

10. Nai 

21. Jaimalsar 

11. Kamasar 



Naukha Tahsil 

1. Stirpura 

9. Sadasar 

2. Kakroa 

10. Gajrubdcsar 

3. Badno 

11. Panchan 

4, Lallamdesar Bara & Chlota 12. Kuchor 

5. Rasisar 

13. Kcsardesar 

6. Jasrasar 

14. Kokatn 

7. Hcmatsar 

15. Ankhisar 

8. Mundsar 



Lonkaransar Tahsil 

1. Saikhsar 

6. Kakri 

2. Khokhrana 

7. Sehajrasar 

3. Kujati 

8. Mahajan 

4. Kalu 

9. Jaitpur 

5. Kaporisar 

10. Kuniana 


KoJUyat Tabsil 

3, Jhajhu 


1 , KoUTyat 

2. Gajncr 



338 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikanet 


Appendix III 

List of Panchayat Samitis, Nyaya Panchayats and Panchayats 


Panchayat Nyaya Panchayats 

Samili Panchayat 

1 2 3 


Bikaner 1. Napasar 

2. lamsar 

3. Udasar 

4. Palana 

5. Psgal 

6. Jaimalsar 

7. Bamblu 

Naukha 1. Rora 

2. Kaku 

3. Hetnatsar 

4. Sindgru 

5. Sadasar 

6. Panchan 


I. Napasar 2. Ramsar 3. Tejrasar 
4. Mundsar 5. Sital 6, Gadhwala 

7. Jamsav 8. Katnisat 9. Malasat 

10. Lalasar 

II. Udasar 12. Sujandesar 

1 3. Rirmalsar 14. Sheo Bari 
15. Nal Bart 16. Karmlsar 

17. Palana 18. Ambasar 
19. Udramsar 20. Lalamdesar 
21. Kesradesar 22. Narsingsar 
23. Pogal 24. Dantor 25. Sattasar 

26. Jaimalsar 27. Amarpura 

28. Kanasar 

29. Bamblu 30, Naurangdesar 
“1. Sirera 32. Rooniyan Barwas 
.>3. Gusainsar 

1. Blkasar 2, Kodsu 3. Rora 
4. Chatkara 5. Rasisar 

6. Kaku 7. Sarunda 8. Bhadla 
9, Dhawa 10. Bbamatsar 

11. Hematsar 12. Kakro 13. Rasar 

14, Ankisar 15, Mokam 16. Jesalsar 
17. Gajrubdesar 18. Morkhana 

19. Surpura 20. Salonda 
21. Sindgru 

,22, Sadasar 23. Badno 24, Kuchora 

25. Gajsukhdcsar 

26 . Panchan 27. Nfithusar 
28. Dcshnoke 29, Dheegsari 

30. Kuchor Athuni 


Local Self-Government 


339 


1 


2 

3 


7. 

Desilsar 

31. Desilsar 32. Janglu 33. Jesindesar 

34. Monjasar 35. Udasar 


8. 

Jasrasar 

36, Jasrasar 37. Udsar 38. Nokhagaon • 
39. Thaoria 40. Somalsar 

Lankaransar 1. 

Kanolai 

1. Kumana 2 Kaoolai 3. Jagar 




4. Mahdiali 5. Kharbara 


2. 

Kalu 

6. Kalu 7. Kujati 8. Garabdesar 

9. Ravansar 


• 3. 

Shaikhsar 

10. Shaikhsar ll.Suin 

12, Kaparisar 13. Rajasar 


4. 

Rajasar 

14. Sodhwali 15. Motolfii 

16. Khokhrana 17. Rajasar 


5. 

Lankaransar 

18. Kakarwala 19. Dhuldesar 

20. Dhirera 21, Hanscran 

22. Lonkaransar . 


6. 

Mahajan 

23, Jelsar 24..Khansar^ 25. -Mahajan 

26. Rojha 

Koliiyat 

I. 

Kolayat 

1. Kolayat Gajncr 3. Jhajhu 




4. Bbolasar '5:'Akasaj - 


2. 

Mankasar 

' ii ^ 7; .'Mankasar .8. Bajju 




ilpur 


3. 

Gura 

n'charnan ll.Sarjaro 




jz. uiiiiuokh 13, Gura 


4. 

Girajsar 

14. Bikampur 15. Gogriyawula 

16. Scvara 17. Girajsar 


5. 

Hadda 

IS. Khclolai 19. Khakhasar 

20. Chhancri 21. Khndasar 

22, Dijsori 23. Hadda 


CHAPTER XV 


EDUCATION AND CULTURE 


HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 


The area comprised in the district has been rugged and desolate. 
It has been the scene of fierce and frequent battles fought for its 
occupationin the course of which the territory changed hands frequent- 
ly. In these circumstances, fitness for survival was the most cardinal 
virtue. Emphasis had to be placed on the ability to wield the sword 
rather than the pen. In fact, the elite, the ruling class and the landed 
aristocracy, gave secondary importance to reading and writing leaving 
this placid avocation to be pursued by their paid employees. Profici- 
ency in letters was believed to be the principal concern of the Brahmans 
and Mahajans. Others derided it till after the close of the eighteenth 
century and took little interest in formal education. 


The small groups to which formal education was imparted 
reived it from individuals, and there were very few Pathshalas or 
a liabs which could be called organised educational institutions, 
hen the necessity of formal education began to be felt, it still remain- 
ed the privilege of a small minority, consisting of the Rulers, the 
landed aristocracy and the wealthy merchants. The education which 
generally consisted in the ability to read and write was imparted 
through the traditional Pathshala and Makhtabs. 


In 1870 there were only 12 Pathshalas or schools which taught 
heir pupils the art of reading and writing and keeping of accounts, and 
heir condition was far from being enviable. According to Powlett, 
previously the places of education were the temples. Jain monasteries 

mlh / the many wealthy 

CQuin t^tight to read, write and cipher. Their whole school 

S studies are usually conduct. 

was 1 Ta I ^ Hindi and Urdu School 

vas started at Bikaner in 1872. In 1883, the Darbar Primary School 

cst-ihi:!h!!iT^?^l"^^‘ educational institutions continued to be 

The number of State schools in 1887 
va 29^11 increased to 43 in 1911-12 and to 60 in 1918. In the year 

y' Mayo College, Ajmer, 

PP > c. as Director of Education to survey the condition of 



Education And Culture 


341 


educational progress and suggest improvements. His efforts cleared the 
way for the introduction of a new educational scheme in 1918, the 
salient features of which were as follows : 

1. Popularising College Education by the offer of liberal 
scholarships. 

2. Raising the status of the Walter Noble’s School to the 
matriculation standard. 

3. Improving and enlarging the staff of the Dungar Memorial 
College and the Anglo-Vernacular Schools in the district. 

4. Much wider diffusion of Primary Education by opening new 
State schools and giving liberal granfs-in-aid to private institutions. 

5. Extending the benefits of female education by opening new 
schools and affording assistance to private institutions in the shape of 
grants-in-aid, advice and supervision by the State Inspecting Staff. 

6. Providing greater facilities for the study of Sanskrit by 
opening a Pathshala in the capital manned by really capable priestly 
class in Jyotish (astrology), Vyakaran (grammer) and Karam-kand 
(rituals). 

7. Providing facilities to local men to undergo training in 
arts and professions both within and outside the State. 

As a result of the implementation of these educational schemes 
the number of institutions increased to 74 in 1920-21 and continued 
to increase thereafter (the details arc given on the following page). 

Another milestone in the history of educational progress was 
the enactment of the Compulsory Primary Education Act. in 1928. 
Its provisions were of a permissive nature, so that it was open to the 
Municipalities to apply for sanction to enforce it to any particular 
area and the Government assumed the responsibility for two-thirds 
of the cost on compulsory education and one-third was to be incurred 
by the Municipal bodies. Accordingh% Bikaner Municipality started 
compulsory Primary Schools in Bikaner. Their number gradually 
increased to 16 in 1948. The benefits of this scheme were not realised 
anywhere else in the district. 

Separate figures for the area comprised in the district arc not 
available but the progress of education in the erstwhile princely State 
pf Bikaner as a whole can be gauged fropi the Ibllowing table? : 



342 


Rgjasil^nn District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


Year 

No. of State 
Schools 

No. of 
teachers 

No. of 
pupils 

Expenditure 

(Rs.l 

1897-98 

29 

49 


18,125 

1911-12 

43 

96 

3,056 


1918-19 

60 

169 

3,512 

84,299 

1920-21 

74 


,5,238 

14,162 

1925-26 

71 

211 

4,795 

1,38,735 

1930-31 


328 

7,701 

2,41,537. 

1935-36 

122 

386 

9,361 

2,92,357 


In 1935-36 there were 50 private schools of different kinds 
receiving grants-in-aid, 39 private recognised schools and 170 private 
unrecognised schools in addition to the State Schools. The total enrol- 
ment was 6,752 and 9,539 in the recognised and unrecognised schools 
respectively. After 1935-36 the quinquennial progress of State, public 
and private funds educational institutions and the students studying 
therein, is shown below : 



1940-41 

1945-46 


Schools Scholars 

Schools Scholars 

State Schools 

Public Funds 
Schools 

131 12,313 

137 7,186 

201 18,187 

Private Schools 

191 7,975 

432 18,955 

Total 

Expenditure 

459 27,474 

Rs. 4,06,677 

633 37,142 

Rs. 4,22,252 


GENERAL EDUCATION 

Administrative Set-up 

In 1927 the Directorate of Education was set-up. The depart- 
ment continued to grow from time to time. On the eve of merger, the 
administrative set-up of the Education Department of the former State 

aLStrr of Education who was 

assisted by an Assistant Director, an Inspector of Schools and an 

.P p c rcss of Girls Schopls. The Inspector of Schools was assisted by 




Education And Cultur 


343 


two Assistant Inspectors of Schools. The supervision of various schools 
was divided into Central, Northern, Western, Eastern and Southern 
Circles, and each circle was in the charge of a Deputy Inspector of 
Schools. The Inspectress of Schools was assisted by an Assistant 
Inspectress of Girls Schools. 

With the merger of the erstwhile Bikaner State, the Division 
including the districts of Bikaner, Ganganagar and Churu, was placed 
under the charge of a special Education Officer, afterwards redesignated 
as Inspector of Schools. He was assisted by one Deputy Inspectress of 
Girls’ Schools and three Deputy Inspectors. The Inspectress and one of 
the Deputy Inspectors were posted at Bikaner. Later on this Inspector 
was made exclusively responsible for the district. 

The Inspector of Schools was assisted by a Deputy Inspector 
who was in-charge of the middle schools and two sub-Deputy Inspectors 
for Primary Schools. On the formation of the Panchayat Samitis, the 
control of the primary schools except those located in Bikaner city, 
was transferred to them. The posts of sub-Deputy Inspectors were 
abolished and instead each ‘Samiti’ was given an Education Extension 
Officer to supervise the working of these schools. The Inspector and 
the Deputy Inspector are available to the ‘Samitis’ for advice. They 
also control the high and middle schools and only such primary schools 
which have not been handed over to the local bodies. The office of 
the Deputy Inspectress was raised to that of Inspectress of Schools in 
1964. The Inspectress of Girls’ Schools with her head quarters at 
Bikaner, holds the charge of the girls’ schools of the districts of 
Bikaner, Ganganagcr and Churu. 

New Trends 

Since the launching of the First Five Year Plan in 1951, new 
tendencies in the field of education, namely, (1) transfer of the control 
of primary education to the Panchayat Samitis, (ii) Upgrading of a 
number of schools and (iii) craft orientation of primary schools, have 
steadily emerged. Besides, measures for providing educational facilities 
for all children between 6 and 14 years of age and the introduction of 
the three years’ higher secondary education pattern and the Three Years’ 
Degree Course in all Colleges have been adopted. 

The Primary Fdocalion 

The lota! strength of the primary schools in the district was 104 



344 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


on the eve of the merger of the former State of Bikaner. It was raised 
to 108 in 1950-51. Since then the number is rapidly increasing due to 
adoption of the policy that the State is responsible for the elementary 
education, and that it should be compulsory for all school-going 
children. The number of institutions, scholars and teachers, rose to 
148,7,779 and 292 resptectively in 1955-56, and to 340,22,844 and 670 
respectively in 1960-61, when all the primary schools (boys and girls) 
in the rural area were transferred to the Panchayat Samitis. The 
strength of the primary schools in 1965-66 was 435, that of scholars 
35,932 and teachers 1,069, In the year 1965-66, there were- 56 State 
Primary Schools, 16 compulsory primary schools managed by the 
Municipal Council, Bikaner, 16 aided primary schools and 17 Private 
Primary Schools recognised by the State for boys, under the control of 
the Inspector of Schools, and 21 girls primary schools were under the 
administrative control of the Inspectress of Schools. The rest, totalling 
347 were under tee Panchayat Samitis. 

Middle Schools 

The total number of middle schools for boys and girls in the • 
district was 20 in 1951. At the end of the First Five Year Plan in 
1955-56, the number of schools was 27; that of scholars 2,740 and 
teachers 128. Their respective strength increased to 48, 11850 and 422 . 
in the year 1960-61 at the end of the Second Five Year Plan, and 56, 
14222 and 600 in the year 1965-66 at the close of Third Five Year 
Plan. Of the middle schools, boys schools are controlled by 
the Inspector of Schools, and girls Middle Schools are under the 
administrative control of the Inspectress of Schools. The girls’ schools 
are mostly located in the city and towns; there being II middle schools 
in Bikaner, 2 in Gangashahr and one each in the towns of Naukha, 
Bhinasar and Deshnoke, The only middle school in the rural area is 
located at Lunkaransar. Facilities for girls education are being utilised 
to a very limited extent because the villagers are not yet keen 
about the education of their girls and it will take some time before 
they realise the value and utility of female education. 

The only town in the district where there is still no girls middle 
school is Kolayat. Majority of Middle Schools for boys are located 
at Bikaner and Ganagashahar besides one each at Udramsar, Udasar, 
Devakund Sagar, Kesardesar, Palana, Barisingsar, Sinthal, Shreraron, 
lamsar, Pngal, Panchnn Janglu, Verasar, Jarsinghdesar, Magra, 



Education And Culture 


345 


Bandhara, Desilsar, Hematsar, Rasisar, Jasrasar, Kankara Akhasar, 
Gajner, Jhajhu, Diyatara, Bajju, Makajar, Jailasar, Kaporirar and 
Shekhasar. 

High and Higher Secondary Schools 

On the eve of merger of the erstwhile State of Bikaner there 
were 8 High Schools in the district. In the year 1950-51 also there were 
8 High Schools for boys and no separate High School for girls. This 
number increased to 11 (all boys) in 1955-56, and that of students 
and teachers to 4948, and 192 respectively. Their respective strength 
further increased to 17 (16 boys. 1 girl), 8532 and 383 in 1960-61 and 
22, 10494 and 473 in 1965-66. 

Colleges 

On the eve of merger of the erstwhile State of Bikaner, there 
were three colleges for general education and one for training the 
teachers up to Teachers Training Cartificate standard, in this district. 
Their number increased to nine in 1960-61 and 12 in 1965-66. Among 
them five arc for general education, one each for Medical, Veterinary 
and Animal Husbandry Sciences, Science of Indian Medicine, training 
of teachers and Sanskrit education. The details about enrolment and 
strength of teachers and scholars are as follows : 



1965-66 

(Scholars) 

1 965-66 

(Teachers) 


Boys 

Girls 

Total 

Males 

tcmalcs 

Idial 

Colleges fori General 
Education • 

1335 

359 

1794 

84 

28 

112 

Professional^ Education 

1944 

474 

2418 

246 

27 

273 

Special Education!! 

257 

25 

282 

18 

— 

18 


1. Colleges for senera! education include institutions in the faculties of Arts and 

Science. 

2. Professional Education includes training in various professlcna! education viz.. 
Medical, Engineering. Technology, Veterinary, Ayurved, Agriculture, 
Commerce, Law, Teachers Tr-aining and Physical Education. 

3. Speci.al education cosets those institutions v Inch imparl irntfuctions in f.tulic, 
Dancing. Fine Arts, Oriental Studies and SOviakEduc.Hton. 



346 Rajasthan District (jazetteers— fiikaner 

There are five colleges for General Education affiliated to the 
University of Rajasthan. The details of which are as follows : 

Names of Colleges 

Date of estab- 

Educational 

Number in 1966 


Ushment 

taciUUes 

provided 

Students^ Teachers 

Dangar College, 

1882 as Primary 

M.A., M.SC., 

928 64 

Bikaner 

School and was 
raised to the 
Intermediate 
College in 1928, 
Degree in 1935 
and Post- 
Graduate in 

1942. 

M.Com. B.A., 
B.Sc., B.Com., 
Pre-university, 

and LL B. 


Mabarani 
Sudershna College 
for women, 
Bikaner 

1946 

B.A., B.Sc., 
and P.U.C. 

315 26 

Jain Degree 

1907 as Primary 

M.Com., 

251 8 

College, Bikaner 

School and was 
raised to a High 
School in 1948, 
to the Interme- 
diate standard 
in 1954 and to 
a Degree College 
in 1957. 

B.Com., and 
P.U.C. 
Commerce 
only 


B.J.S.R. College, 

1934 as a Mid- 

B.A., B.Sc., 

300 13 

Bikaner 

die School and 
was raised to a 
High School in 
1945, to an 
Intermediate 
College in 1945 
and to a Degree 
College in 1957. 

P.U.C. (Arts 
& Science) 


Nehru Sarada 
Peeth, Bikaner 

1965 as Degree 
College 

B.A. B.Com. 

146 13 


Education And Culture 


347 


Teachers, Training College, Bikaner 

A Teachers’ Training School was started in the year 1941. It was 
later raised to the Teachers’ Teaining Certificate Standard and was 
affiliated to the Rajputana Board. It was again upgraded and B.Ed. 
classes were opened in the year 1956. Education is free for all 
women trainees and they are given a stipend of Rs. 40 per mensum 
for the duration of the B.Ed. Course. The institution has separate 
hostel facilities for men and women students with a capacity to 
accommodate 100 men and 40 women. The number of teachers 
during the sessions 1950-51, 1955-56, 1960-61 and 1965-66 was 8, 
10, 17 and 18 respectively and that of students for the corresponding 
years was 48. 75, 126 and 138. The college has a library consisting 
of 9689 books. 

Shr! Sanatan Dharm Aynrved College 

Established in 1945, the Institution prepares the students for 
the various examinations in indigenous system of Indian Medicine, 
Even though the e'ducation is free, the number of students is not 
encouraging. The strength of students in 1950-51, 1955-66, 1960-61 
and 1965-66 was 32, 34, 23 and 35 respectively, and that of teachers 
four, eight, ten and ten for the corresponding years. A hostel 
having capacity to accommodate 50 students is attached to the 
institution, 

Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner 

Started in July, 1959 by the Government of Rajasthan, it 
imparts instructions to students for M.B.B.S. courses and ofiers 
facilities for the M.Sc, (Med.) Courses in Anatomy and Physiology. 
The institution also provides facilities for post-graduate studies in 
medicine and surgery. It maintains five hostels having a capacity of 
accommodating 578 students- One of them with a capacity, for 120 
is reserved for girls. The number of students and teachers in the years 
1960-61 and 1965-66 was 223 and 712 and 16 and 67 respectively. 
The College has a library containing 7731 books and 289 journals. 

Veterinary College, Bikaner 

The College of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Science, 
Bikaner is located in Vijay Bhowan. It was established in 1954, The 
College is affiliated to the Uniyersity of Udaipur and prepares 



348 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bjkaner 


students for B.V. Sc. and A.H., M.V.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees. The 
number of students in the year 195S-66, 1960-61 and 1965 66 was 
I3l, 249 and 238 respectively and that of teachers, 38 in 1960-61 and 
55 in 1965-66, 


TECHNICAL SCHOOLS 
Bikaner Polytechnic, Bikaner 

It was established in July 1962 by the Government of 
djasthan and is controlled by the Director of Technical Education. 
IS temporarily located in the old Dungar College building and is 
) e y to be shifted to the newly constructed building on Shiv Bari 
oa y 1967-68 session. The institution prepares students for 
ip oma Courses in Civil, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, 

of students and teachers during the session 1965-66 
was 373 and 42 respectively. 


SPECIAL INSTITUTIONS 

Oriental Institntions 

hoc c. ‘"^ardul Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, Bikaner— T his institution 

SL T n management of Shri 

sturfpnf f ^ ^^'^karyashram Trust, Bikaner. At present it prepares 

AcS ,l UMhyaya and Shastri axanmaiions. and 

MaminaUon in Sahitya and Vyakarana 
S "’“‘'"al by tha Board of sLndary 

ElTfl, ■ T DopartaienJ 

LT ■ "0 strength of the students 

d teachers ,n I96S-66 was 282 and 18 respectively The Vidya- 

pccth has a library of 8390 boots. ^ me vioya- 

.O „ frasHAta, BIJCANER-It was ODoed in 1918 

and TprLates'Tr Ktrom-kond 

ZJL7:7 rLUd 

Aimer Th. ' Secondary Education, Rajasthan, 

respeeUvely, "“b"' '«'y ““d sis 

School for Blind 

rcsidendal’t!,;f°r^’ ^^63 as a 

It is finanr H K wherc all the expenses are borne by the State 

Ins financed by the Social Welfare Departmep^ ,nd its workin^^ 



Education And Culture 


340 


supervised by the Education Department. During the first year of its 
life there were 15 students and one teacher. The strength of students 
and teachers increased to 25 and 4 respectively. In 1965-66, it imparts 
instructions upto fifth standard. On completion of their studies 
the students are sent to Government School in Dehra Dun for 
training in Handicrafts. The Handicrafts Department of the school 
trains them in canning of chairs. The Music Department prepares 
them for examination conducted by Brahat Gujarat Sangit Samiti, 
Ahmed abad. 

LITERACY AND EDUCATIONAL STANDARD 

According to the 1951 Census, 11.20 per cent of the population 
was literate, the percentage being 17.39 among males and 4.55 
among females. In the urban areas it was 20,6 percent (males 31.6 
per cent and females 9 per cent) and in the rural areas 3.1 per cent 
(males 5.4 per cent and females 0.6 per cent). 

According to the 1961 Census 23.19 per cent of the total popu- 
lation is literate; the percentage for males and females being 23.94 
and 11.46 respectively. This percentage is far above the State average 
of 15.20 and slightly below the All India average of 24. The literacy 
percentage for Bikaner City was 21.8 ( 33.3 for males and 9.6 
females ) in 1951, and 39,52 in 1961 ( 52.28 for males and 30.88 for 
females) but is the lowest as compared to that of any other city. in 
the State of Rajasthan, The percentage in urban and rural areas has 
increased to 39 (52,1 for males and 24.7 for females) and 11.58 
(18.8 for males and 3.49 for females) respectively. 

' In 1951, the number of those who claimed to have passed the 
middle school examination was 2420 (males 2026 and females 394) 
and that of matriculates was 2523 (males 2315 and females 208) those 
having passed the intermediate numbered 543 (males 495 and females 
48) and graduates were 2308 (males 2213 and 95 females). There 
were 103 post-graduates (90 males and 13 females). Qualified teachers 
numbered 62 (54 males and eight females). Those having degrees in 
Engineering, Agriculture, Veterinary and Commerce numbered six, 
six, three and eight (all males) respectively- in all 23. The number of 
graduates in law and medicine was 97 (96 males and one female), and 
43 (34 males and nine females) respectively. According to the 
Census these figures arc as follows : 



350 


RajasthBn District Gazetteers—BIkaner 



Males 

Females 

Total 

1. Literate without 
educational leva 1 

53497 

20863 

74360 

2. Primary or Junior Basic 

14100 

4435 

18535 

3. Matriculation 

6967 

873 

7840 

4, Technical Diploma 

19 

2 

21 

5. Non-Technical Diploma 

75 

26 

101 

6. University Degree or Post- 
Graduate (other than technical) 

1827 

214 

2041 

7. Engineering 

7 

— 

7 

8. Medicine 

63 

12 

75 

9. Agriculture 

2 

— 

2 

10. Veterinary 

1 

— 

1 

11. Technology 

1 

_ 

1 

12. Teaching 

82 

2 

84 


EDUCATION OF GIRLS 

The first girls school, namely. Lady Elgin Girls School, was 
established in the year 1898 in Bikaner City, The next step towards 
female education was taken by opening Nobel’s Girls School in 1927, 
a tnique institution of its kind in Rajasthan, providing educational 
facilities for the daughters of the Rajput Chiefs and nobles of the 
erstwhile Bikaner State under strict purdah. To meet the increasing 
demand, more and more girls’ schools were opened in quick succession; 
city Kenya Pathshala in 1930, Soorsagar Girls School in 1932, Girls 
School at Barahgawar in 1934, Soongiri Girls School in 1936 and 
Rani Bazar Girls School in 1942. Public interest further helped the 
opening of Jail Pathashala in and it was followed by Bhairon 
Ratan Matri Pathashala. Mahila Mandal and Mahila Jagriti Parishad 
wcre started in 1947 and 1949 respectively with the aim of awakening 
interest in and promoting social education among girls and women. 
Maharani Sudarshan College for women started in 1946, opened the 
doors for higher education for girls. 

The first Girls Primary School outside the city of Bikaner, was 
opened at Deshnoke in 1928. It was followed by the opening of 
Primary Schools at Napasar in 1930, at Naukha in 1945, at Lfdasar 
in 1945, Udramsar in 1946 and at Kalu in 1948, After the formation 



Education And Culture 


351 


of Rajasthan and the adoption of five year plans, the number of such 
institutions continued to grow slowly but steadily. On the launching' 
of the Democratic Decentralisation Scheme, Panchayat .Samitis be- 
came custodians of Primary Education in rural areas. This resulted 
in the transfer of 16 girls primary schools located in the rural area to 
their control. At the close of the Third Five Year Plan, besides the 
institutions maintained by the Panchayat Samitis, there were one 
Degree College, three Higher Secondary Schools, one High School, 16 
Middle Schools, 35 Primary Schools and one B.S.T.C. School exclu- 
sively for women education. 

The growth of v/omen education in the district after the forma- 
tion of Rajasthan, has kept pace with the growth of education as a 
whole. The number of educational institutions has increased but the 
number of students has increased faster. The number of students was 
2164 in 1948, it has increased to 11584 in 1960-61, and 16913 in 
1965-66. Out of these 359 were studying in College for general education, 
474 in professional colleges, 25 in Colleges for Special Education, 1609 
in Higher Secondary Schools, 21 in Secondary Schools, 5344 in Middle 
Schools, 1289 in Junior Basic Schools, 7767 in Primary Schools and 
25 in Special institutions, 

ADULT EDUCATION 

In 1948, 13 Night Literacy Centres were started by the erstwhile 
State of Bikaner. A literacy campaign was also launched on a State 
wide scale in which students and teachers took active part during 
summer vacations. To propagate the cause of Adult Education a 
separate section of Adult Education in the Education Department 
under the Deputy Inspector was established. The Sta^e was divided 
into three zones, namely Bikaner, Ganganagar and Rajgarh. Each 
zone was put under the charge of an Adult Education Organiser and 
by the end of 1948, 70 adult education centres were established. Thus 
23 centres with an average number of 20 students in each, started 
functioning in the district. The State Adult Education Department 
further collaborated with other social service organisations like Mahlla 
Jagriti Parishad, Bitcaner and Mahila Mandal, Bikaner to encourage 
adult education among women. 

After the formation of Rrijasihun two Social Education Organi- 
sers were posted, one each at Bikaner and Deshnoke in 1950, to 
implement the suggestions of Shri Salig Ram Pathik of .Allahabad, 



352 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


The key note of his plan was to take one High or Middle School as a 
Centre for the organiser who, with the help of the adult students of 
that school would take up adult education in five villages within a 
radius of five miles of the town. The Adult Education Centres hitherto 
in existence, were closed as the new scheme started from the second 
quarter of the month of August, 1950. As this scheme could not 
come up to expectations it was soon abandoned, and the old Adult 
Education Centres were revived. Three Centres were restarted in the 
district at Bikaner, Naukha and Udasar, with the headquarters at 
Bikaner which was later shifted to Naukha. 

With the establishment of Development Blocks under National 
Extension Service, adult education received a new impetus. Not only 
many new adult education centres were opened but Recreation 
Centres, Youth Clubs and reading rooms were also set up. After 
the democratic decentralisation in 1959, the Panchayat Samitis 
are entrusted with the task of organising adult literary classes and 
undertaking allied social education activities. By the end of 1960-61 a 
total of 245 Adult Literacy Centres were working, 1 1 Recreation Centres 
were organised, 67 Youth Clubs were opened and 31 libraries and 
reading rooms were established under the programme. The achieve- 
ments during the period 1961-62 to 1965-66 include the establishment 
of 24 libraries, 35 women associations, 610 adult education centres 
(where 5391 adults were educated) and 104 youth clubs. 

THE BHARAT SCOUTS AND GUIDES DISTRICT 
ASSOCIATION, BIKANER 

The Boy Scouts’ movement in the district received momentum in 
1921 when the State Association for Scouts and Guides was established. 
The first District Association was formed at Bikaner in 1938 
and the number in the succeeding year 1939-40 was 15 groups with a 
strength of 1085. The Bikaner District Association was split into 
three local associations, namely (1) Bikaner Urban Area (2) Bikaner 
Rural Area and (3) Naukha Mandi for Naukha tahsil. The number 
of groups in 1948-49 was 30 with a strength of 1743. The strength in 
1965-66 was as follows : 



Groups 

Strength 

Scouts 

73 

3,516 

Guides 

23 

1,188 

Total 

96 

4,704 



Education And Culture 


353 


NATIONAL CADE! CORPS 

With a view to instil a sense of discipline and promote qualities 
of leadership among the students, one troop of 90, Junior Division 
National Cadet Corps was organised in Bjkaner with Sadul High 
School, Bikaner as Centre, in 1951. The strength of groups during the 
years to 1960-61 to 1965-66 was as follows : 


Year 



N. C. C. 

groups 



Boys 

Girls 

Boys 

Girls 

Boys 

Girls 

1960-61 

350 

70 

360 

135 

3960 

660 

1961-62 

393 

124 

450 

135 

4200 

720 

1962-63 

600 

100 

500 ■ 

150 

2120 

180 

1963-64 

600 

100 

450 

150 

2300 

3<0 

1964-65 

1600 

182 

500 

150 

2340 

180 



Senior 

Division 


Senior 

Division 

1965-66 


2027 

57 


1331 

— 


The organisation is directly under the control of 5th Rajasthan 
N.C.C. Battalion, Bikaner. 


CULTURE 

Bikaner School of Painting 

Nothing at present is known of painting in Bikaner prior to the 
Muslim conquest of India. A number of crude drawings on poor 
paper, the oldest of which may belong to the reign of Rao Kalyan Mall 
correspond to the local style of painting. A local school of painting 
positively emerged in the times of Rai Singh, which later acquired a 
high level of perfection ofthcartof Central Rajputana of Dhundhar 
(Jaipur), Murwar (Jodhpur) and Mewar (Udaipur). Its beginnings arc 
represented by a set of painting of Kalidasa’s Meghduta but its 
maturity as art is exhibited by Rasikpriya-a set of 54 illustrations 
influenced by the Gujarati-Rajput style; and a large set of the Bltaga- 
v«ra Parana consisting of sixteen pictures of Usha-Charita, and the 
other set of Rasikpriya comprising 21 illustrations and associated 
with the art of Dhundhar (Amber). 

Some illustrations in a Gita Govmda manuscript in the 
Lallgarb collections, Dur£a-Sapta$arl manuscript in the Anup Sin^ 


354 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— 'Bikaner 


Sanskrit Library and an illustrated manuscript of the Satsai of Behari 
Lai court poet of Jai Singh of Jaipur dated 1647 in the collection of 
Maharaja Mandhata Singh, belong to the early Mughal School of 
Amber; while a set of Bara-masa (twelve months) may be regarded 
as the last representative of the old Bikaner School, and the miniatures 
painted by, Hamid Ahmad, son of GuHu resembles ‘Basolli’ paintings ■ 
of Himachal. The Mughal style was adopted during the rule of Karan 
Singh and Anup Singh who attached Mughal Painters to their retinue 
and the masterpieces of Nathu Ram and Hamid Ruknuddin, Rashid 
and Ustad Mohammad are its examples. 

The position, however, seems to have changed in the comprehen- 
sive pictorial work of Rasikpriya and Bhagwat Burma of which 187 
beautiful miniatures and 87 illustrations respectively, have been 
preserved. The Rasikpriya was begun by Rukn-ud-din and was 
completed by a number of his assistants, Muhammad Ustad, Bag, 
Lutf, Nuri, Nur Muhammad, Gulu and Hasan, son of Ustad Ahmad. 
The combined efforts of these Muslim artists created a work of genuine 
Rajput vintage. Their paintings represent the combination of Mughal 
and Rajput ideals and spirit of classic Hindi poetry. 

The years after Anup Singhi’s death saw a cultural revolution. 
He was succeeded by two minors, Sujan Singh and Zorawar Singh, 
whose mothers acted as regents. While young, Sujan Singh was 
under terrific zenana influence and thus painting became a 
mirror of zenana life. Though innumerable miniatures were 
produced yet the quality declined. Most of these pictures are small 
and almost neurasthenic. Even most of the religious pictures represent 
the mythological imagination of the Zenana gods and goddesses like 
dancing girls in fancy dress, pretty, fashionable, but not comic symbols 
and visions. In these circumstances, the story of Radha and Krishna 
came again into favour, specially the story of Krishna’s childhood, 
boyish pranks and dalliance with the milkmaids of Gokul. 

During the early years of Gaj Singh, Mughal influence became 
dominant. The paintings of Ustad Shah .Muhammad Abu Rezo, 
Ustad Abu Quasim, Hasan Mahamud, Ustad Abu Mahmad and Ustad 
Muhammad, are the best examples of bis times. The Mughal style, 
however, began to loose its influence after Gaj Singh’s visit to Jodhpur, 
Jaipur and Nalhdwara, in 1765. After 1780, the Rajput style 
exhibiting the mystic romanticism of Radba-Krishna, attained its 



Education And Culture 


355 


maturity during the reign of Surat Singh at the turn of the 191 
Century. The best examples of which arc the lateral doors of t c 
Anup Mahal. The quality continued to fall since the first decade o 
the 19th Century, and the attempts neither of Maharaja Sardar Singh 
to decorate Gaj Mandir nor of Dungar Singh to get Sardar Niwas 
decorated on the lines of Cfaandar and Anup Mahals, could resist t 
continuous decline of the art. 


Literature 

During the reigns of Maharaja Rai Singh and Maharaja Karan 
Singh, the State extended their patronage to learned persons an 
institutions. Rai Singh himself composed Rai Singh Maiots 
scribed a commentry on SripatVs Jyoiish Ratanmala an t 
ascetic Jankimala completed his commentry on Shabdaveda un g 
reign. Under the patronage of Maharaja Karan Singh, Ganga * an 
Maithli composed Kavya-kakini and Kama Bhusan Bhatt Hosi a ' 
posed Karan-vaiansa, and Mudgal completed Karanastosh an o 
minor compositions. The court of Maharaj Anup S'ngb. hnns=ll 

litterateur and the author of Am,p Viveka. Kama Prabodlu Shradha- 

Prayoga-Chintamani and the commentary on Gila Govinda, 

Anupodaya, not only attracted but sheltered a large number of schola 
and artists. Under his liberal patronage art and literature 

on an unprecedented scale in the history of Bikaner and a large num 
of Sanskrit works were cither composed or completed, ^ J' 
Jvoti-pattisar by Vaidhyanath Suri. Anup Vilas and Anup i yavalmr Saga 
by Mani Ram Dixit. Ayut-laksha-homc-kati Prayog by Bhadra Ram 
Tirathatankar by Anant Bhatta. Panditya-darpan by S'vctamb r 
Udai Chandra, and Bhava Bhatta, Sangitrai. the son of Sangiu- 
charya Janardhan Bhatt, the famous musician of the court o 
Shajahan composed his works on music, namely, Sangit Anup an- usj, 
Anup Sangii Vilas, Anup Sjngit Ratnakar, Nasthodhsta-Prahodhak. 
Dhropat Tika. A number of works on various subjects, whose author- 
ship is attributed to the Maharaja Anup Singh, were also compiled. 
cspUially Sanatan-Kalpa-Lata, Chikitsa-Maitimala and Sangrah-Ratan- 
• mala on medicine, Anup Ratnakar and Anup Mahodadin on astronomy, 
Sangit-rartaman and Sangiianurag on music; Laxmiaarain-StuU 
and iMxminaram pujasar on the Vaishnava worship and am i 
Sadashiva Stuti on the worship of Shiva and Kauiuka Sarodwar on 

humour. 



356 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers—Blkaner 


The other notable achievements during the reign of Anup 
Singh include Mahaslianti by Ram Bhatta and Shanti-Sudhakar by 
Vidya Nath Suri, a commentary on Dharm Shastra, Kerali Suryya- 
rtmasya by Pantuji Bhatt, Amril Manjari by Hoshing Bhatt and 
Shubh-Manjari by Ambika Bhatt on medicine, Sangit Vinod of Bhava 
Bhatt and Sangit Anupoddesliya of Raghunath Goswami, Kama 
Prabodh of Janardhan, Dash- Kumar Prabandh of Shiv Ram and 
Madhyvya-Karika of Shanti Bhatt on polity and ethics; and a number 
of treatises on the art of worship include the works of Nil-Kanth 
Ram [Bhatt, Vidya Nath, Shivanadan, Damodar Trilok and Saraswati 
Bhatacharya, The Maharaja equally patronised Rajasthani and 
got Shuka-Sarika and Vaital-Pachisi and other works composed, 
Alakhiya Sampradayi also contributed significaulty to the literature. 

The dialect of Rajasthani spoken in Bikaner is an off shoot of 
Bagar Apbhransha. A movement for propagation of Hindi was 
launched by the intelligensia under the leadership of Pandit Krishna 
Shankar Tiwari, during the reign of Maharaja Ganga Singh who 
recognised Hindi as the official language of the State, 

Bikaner played a leading role in the creation and development 
of the bardic poetry in Rajasthan which includes the floating mass 
of bardic literature tying interned either in the houses of Cbarans, 
in temples and maths, or on the lips of roaming ministrels. The 
works of Bitha Suja, a Charan who composed Chhanda Rao Jait 
Singhro and of Prithvi Raj Rathor, the brother of Raja Rai Singh 
of Bikaner, and one of the leading poets at the courts of Akbar the 
Great, inspired Rana Pratap for heroic resistance against the Mughal 
Emperor. In tne domain of Dingla, Krishna Rukminiri Ri Veli famous 
epic romance and ‘Dyal dass khyat', the bed rock of all subsequent 
histories of Bikaner, are the notable achievements. Among the 
modern writers the names of Laxmikumari Chundawat, Agar Chand 
Nahta, Murlidhar Vyas and Mai Singh, deserve mention. 

Among the modern poets in Rajasthani are Bharat Vyas, 
Kanwar Chandcr Singh, Bithu Gopi Dan, Murlidhar Manauj and 
Gajanand. Chander Dev, Meghraj Mukul, S.K.L. Goswami and 
V.S. Pathik are the progressive Hindi poets whose compositions 

For details about Alakhiya Sampraday audits founder Lalgir sec Alakhiya 
Sampraday, Chandradas Charan, Bhartiya Vidya Mandir Shodh Pratisthan, 
Pikancr, |964, 



Education And Culture 




represent originality of expression and poetic fervour of renascent 
India. The Urdu poetry of Mohammed Adllah Bedi is Characterised 
by simplicity of diction and delicacy of thought. 

libraries and other institutions 

Annp Sanskrit Library 

Maharaja Anup Singh (1669-1698) who was himself a litterateur 
and a great lover of Sanskrit established a library in Bikaner fort 
for the preservation of manuscripts and other rare and valuable 
books collected by him during his campaigns in the Decan. The first 
and Second fasciculus of the catalogue of Sanskrit manuscripts was 
brought out in 1945 and 1946, and the other manuscripts were also 
catalogued in 1946-47. It is admittedly one of the finest and best 
known collections in India and consists of about ten thousand 
manuscripts in Sanskrit, Hindi and Rajasthani and is now the personal 
property of the Maharaja of Bikaner. 

The King Emperor George V Silver Jubilee Library 

The King Emperor George V Silver Jubifee^Li^ary _^s 
founded on 1st March, 1937 and was declared-; open /'to" the public 
in 1938. It was shifted to its present •■buijdingjri"' September, 1954. 
At present it is one of the five governmental * regional libraries" in 
Rajasthan, and has a branch library, \locatcd' 'in" 'Daga-Buifding, 
K.E.M. Road, Bikaner. It contains 384 q!^ ;^ .book s on va rious subjects 
and subscribes 136 periodicals and newspapers.' ' The- 'number of 
members is 994 who borrowed 25286 books from the library. Its 
moving section maintained 109 collection centres and have 2064 
members and the section for children claia s 294 members on its roll. 

Shri Gun Prakash Sujjannlaya, Bikaner 

Shri Gun Pjakash Sujjanalaya was established in 1901. It is 
inside the KoteGatcin the midst of the most thickly populated 
area of the city and as such it is easily accessible to a large number 
of persons. The average number of daily visitors and readers is 
approximately 1 400 and 54. It contains 11000 books and subscribes 
60 newspapers and periodicals. 

Shri Abhaya Jain Granthahaya, Bikaner 

Shri Abhaya Jain Granthalaya was founded by Seth 
Shnnkcr Dan Nahata to ccmmcmoratc the memory of his deceased 



358 


Rfijasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


•son, Abhaya Raja in Sambal 1977 (1920 a.d,) It contains more 
than 5000 books and manuscripts on various subjects, written mos y 
between the thirteenth and nineteenth century, Panchangs for t e as 
300 years and firmans of a number of Rulers for the last 400 years. 
In Samvat 1984 (1927 A. d.) Shri Abhyaya Jain Granthmala, (senes) 
was started and 25 books have so far been published under this senes. 


Shri Ram Krishna Kutir, Bikaner 

Shri Ram Krishna Kutir was founded in October, 1949 .ny a 
•group of devotees under the inspiration of Swami Japananda to 
propagate the message of Swami Ramkrishna Paramhansa and Swami 
Vivekananda, The library contains 4545 books and subscribes 40 
magazines and newspapers. It has so far published 10 books, 

Gandhi Shanti Pratishthan, Bikaner 

Established in 1956 as Gandhi Adhyayan Kendra, it is known 
as Gandhi Shanti Pratishthan since January 1966. It is run by Gandhi 
'Shanti Pratishthan, New Delhi and is recognised by the Education 
Department of Rajasthan Government. It has 2500 books on d fferent 
subjects especially on Gandhian philosophy. The institute subscribes 
nearly 60 journals and newspapers. The reading room is attended by 
approximately 125 readers everyday. The institute aims at organising 
various literary activities with the help of educational institutions and - 
Social organisations especially to propagate ideas of Gandhiji. The 
' institute has successfully organised several programmes every year, ^ 

i f'/'C / 

Sa^ol Rajasthani Research Institute, Bikaner 

It was founded on November 12,. 1944 by Maharaja, Sadul 
.Singh of Bikaner with K.M. Pannikar, the then Prime Minister as 
jta first Rector, to organise and carry out research work in modern 
.Indian and Oriental literature. History, Oriental studies and Indology. 
,^Thc Institute has so far published 25 books and nine volumes of Rajas- 
thcin Rhartii its research magazine. The institute has established two 
chairs namely, 'Maharaja Kumbha Asan’ and Maharaja Prithivl Raj 
Asan’ an every year invites some eminent scholar to read an essay 
on Art and Literature. The institute also celebrates Maharaja Prithivi 
Raj Jayanti and L. P. Tessitory day. It has compiled an exhaustive 
Kosii^an'd Mtthavara Kpsly of. Rajasthani language. It poss^- 
Ss?s abopt 20QO bpoks, 



Education And CultUi'd 


359 


Rajasthan Gyanpitb, Bikaner 

Established in 1923 as ‘Rajasthan Sahitya Pith’, it was reorgani- 
sed as ‘Rajasthan Gyanpith’ in 1967. Principal aims of the pith include 
collections, study and publication of old Rajasthani literature and folk 
literature besides research studies. Important divisions of the pith 
are collection, publication and research. Several Ph. D. scholars hlso' 
have utilised the material available at the pith and availed themselves 
of the guidance by senior staff members. 

Hindi Vishwa Bbarli Shodh Pratishthan, Bikaner 

Run by Hindi Vishwa Bharti, the pratishthan is recognised by 
by the Education Department of the State and associated with Rajas- 
than Sahitya Academy, Activities of the institute .can be placed in 
these two categories.* Sanskrit 'and Rajasthani. In the former studies 
relate to Vedic and Pauranik literature, philosophy and theology arc 
carried out while in the latter relate to folk-literature, unknown saints 
Vani (words) and Rajasthani poets. 

Shri Sangeet Bharti, Bikaner 

The institute was established in 1956 and recognised by the 
Education Department of the State in the following year. The institute 
is run in a rented building. In 1964 the institute was recognised for 
B. A. Examinations of music. The institution receives 60 per cent aid 
from the government. The staff consists of full-time and part-time 
music teachers. There arc 48 students on the rolls of the institute. 

Shri Bhartiya Vidya Mandir, Bikaner 

Shri Bhartiya Vidya Mandir was founded on August I9, 1948 
to accelerate educational activities and encourage research work through 
the medium of Hindi, Rajasthani and other languages. It is a public 
institution managed by an executive elected by its general body. It 
imparts instruction for the various examinations of the Hindi Sahitya 
Sammclan Prayag and Rashlrabhasha Prachar Samiti V/ardha. The 
Mandir also runs night classes (since 1948) for the benefit of those who 
have to earn their livelihood during the day. As many as 7415 students 
have benefited by these night classes during the last 18 years. It also 
man.nges the Pancha Mukhi Siksha Sadan (since 1949) which imparts 
education to children through modern psychological methods of educa- 
tion, There are 243 children (3 to 14 years) in the school. The children's 
park outside Nathusar gate was started in 1960. A research centre in 1957 



360 


Rajasthafl District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


was established under its auspices which is recognised by Rajasthan 
Sahitya Academy, Udaipur. The centre has 418 manuscripts and 647 
rare books and subscribes 16 research magazines. It has so far 
published six books on Rajasthani Sahitya. Other two volumes are 
in press and five are ready for press. 

Mabila Mandal, Bikaner 

The institution was established on August 15, 1947 by Shrimati 
Gulab Kumari Shekhawat, Smt. Saraswati Devi Mohata and Smt. 
Ratan Devi Dhamani with the aim of promoting education among 
women, and to make them self-supporting by training them in useful 
arts and crafts. Started with a humble beginning, the institution is 
now humming with various activities, which primarily include the 
running of classes upto matriculation as well as Prathama and Madh- 
yama at various centres in different localities in Bikaner city, namely, 
Barh Guwar, Sunaro-ki-Guwar, Jassusarwas, Hanuman Hath and 
Damani Guwar. The Mandal maintains a child welfare centre, runs a 
Bal Bari and a production centre where training in tailoring, embroi- 
dery and other handicrafts is provided. The institute is also running a 
ladies co-operative society namely, Bikaner Mahila Girls Udhyog, for 
selling articles of domestic consumption. The Mandal has been imple- 
menting a programme of adult education for women, sponsored by the 
(Central Social Welfare Board, and has adopted a scheme of its own to 
complete the courses from the beginning to the High School classes 
tvithin six years. 

The managing committee of the Klandal consists of 15 members 
elected by the members. It is significant that only women can become 
members of the managing committee, as active membership is open to 
them only, though patrons may be of either seje. 

Ganga Golden Jubilee Museum, Bikancf 

This museum was opened near tbd Lfillgarh Palace on the Sth 
of November, 1937 on the eve of Golden Jubilee Celebration of Maha- 
taja Ganga Singh and was shifted to Gahga Niwas, inside the fort, after 
a period of 10 years and 4 months. Maharaja Kami Singh created a 
truit for the construction of the presettt building- (civil lines) which 
Was declared open to public on the 4th of September, 1954. Principal 
sections of the museum arc : J. Maharaja Ganga Singh Memorial Sec* 
IjoBj 2. Local Arts and Crafts Section, 3. Historical Scctiod^ 



Education And dulturc 


361 


4. Archaeological Section, 5. Armoury, 6. Miniature Paintings and 
Folk-Arts, and 7. Lithoprints of the British Interpretation of War of 
Independence, 1857. 

f 

Furg\l (Silk Robe)- 1596 a.d. of the Emperor Jahangir— It is 
one of the proudest acquisitions of the Museum. The Ftirgal was 
presented by the Crown Prince Salim (afterwards Emperor Jahangir) to 
Raja Rai Singh of Bikaner, who was one of the highest Hindu Gene- 
rals of the Mughal army. There are repeated inter-woven figures of a 
body and a girl in Persian style throughout the piece surrounded with 
floral designs, in red, green and yellow patterns. It is said that the 
piece of cloth was prepared in the special Karkitanas of the Shah 
of Persia. 

Historical Mughal Farmans— The history of Bikaner contains 
a colourful record of war adventure. More than half a dozen of 
Bikaner Rulers lost their lives while participating in the Imperial cam- 
paigns of Mughals, Various Farmans bearing original Imperial seals 
issued by the Emperors Jahangir, Shahjahan, Aurangzeb & Shah 
Alam, are preserevd in the museum, and which have a bearing on 
Indian History and are of great use to research scholars. 

Paintings — There is a vc>y beautiful collection of Rajasthani 
paintings of almost all the Schools of Rajasthan such as Bikaner, Bundi, 
Mewfir, Jaipur, Jodhpur etc. 

Terracottas — The tnuseum has got one of the finest collections 
of terracottas in India. These terracottas belong to the early Gupta 
period and were discovered in the year i9l7 by Dr. L. P. Tessitory 
from the ancient»-thcris of Rangmahdl, Badopal, Pirsultan-Ri-Theri 
between Stiratgarh and Hunumangarh in Bikaner Division. These 
tbferis arc still older and go slight upto Mohanjodero civilisation. Some 
of these sites are considered the oldest ih the whole of India. It was 
in this area that the sacred river Saraswnti is. believed to have flown. 

Saraswat! Jain (Il-12lh Cent. a. d,)— This unique piece of 
marble image of four feet eight inches in height, discovered from village 
Pailu (Bikaner Div.) is a pearless c.xamp!c of Indian scultpure. Its 
grace and pose, the charming perfection of its anatomy smile of 
beautitude and the liquid seftnfss of its dr« 3 my eyes, defy pen. 



362 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bika ner 


Nartaki-Dancer (10-1 Ith Cent. A. .d.)— This beautiful one foot 
high Jain bronze image was discovered recently from a large sand-dune 
of Amarsar village in tahsil Sojangarh (Bikaner Division). 

Lacquired Work — Bikaner lacquered work with its charac- 
teristic style has attended high reputation not only in India but abroad 
also. This work Is entirely idone by the artisans called Ustas (Ustads) 
on wood, metal, glass, stone, leather and estrich egg. Well known 
lacquered kiippis of camel hide aie peculiarity of this art in Bikaner 
and are in great demand in foreign countries. A good number of such 
kuppis, an object of Bikaner art, have also been sent to China and 
America through the Emporia of the Government of Rajasthan. 

Wood & Stone Carving — Bikaner stands almost unsurpassed 
in wood and stone carving work. A carved teak wood table and a 
wooden casket in the museum are the attractive specimens of modern 
art with elaborate carvings. The sharp and deep , grooves showing the 
mid-ribs of leaves carved on them, are simply marvellous. On the 
other hand Bikaner artisans skilfully .prepared a model of Gajner 
Palace (Bikaner), a typical Ekka and a Chariot with minutest details. 
These are masterpiece examples of Bikaner art displayed in the 
Museum. 

Shankar Dev Nahata, Kala.Bhavan, Bikaner 

Shankar Dev Nahata, Rala Bhavan was established, in Samvflt 
1999 (1942 A. D.) and is located in upper portion of the building of 
Abhaya Jain Granthalaya. It has a good collection of paintings and 
painted . cloth-sheets, statues, coins and terracotta. 

Botanical and Zoological gardens 

There is a small Zoo, located inside the publip park .in the .city 
.of Bikaner. It has a Lion, a Tiger, Leopards, Sloth-bear, Wild pig, 
.Wolf, Jackals, Porcupine,. Spotted , deer, black buck, Chinkara, Sara- 
.bhar. Blue Bull, Hare, Monkeys, Corcodiles and various kinds of 
birds, such as budgerigars, parrots and parakeets hawks, owls, ducks, 
flamingoes, the Great Indian Bustard and dilTcrent varieties of 
pigeons. 



Education And Culture 


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CHAPTER XVI 


Medical and public health services 

EARLY HISTORY 

THe Ayurvedic system of medicine was being practised from' 
very early times in the district. With the Muslim conquest of India 
came the Unani system of medicine in the country but Hakims 
could not penetrate into the rural areas and their practice remained 
confined mostly to the city. Besides, there were other practicising' 
quack surgeons known as Jarrahs, very poor and ignorant set of men 
bandaging fi actured limbs. The Jain priests who also practised the 
aft of healing depended mostly upon the Amrit-Sagar, an abridge- 
ment of Susruta’s treatise on medicine. The Pansaris or druggists 
prescribed medicines based wholly on their limited experience without 
any study of the science of medicine. People also put their faith in 
a number of ascetics, devotees, old women and clever charlatans who 
claimed to drive out disease by potency of charms. 

The Ayurvedic system of medicine provided for effective 
treatment of a number of diseases and made use of several chemicals, 
herbs and metallic preparations, such as impure calotriel, pure 
corrosive sublimate arsenious acids, sena cassia fistula, suipher, 
mercury, opium, musk, castor, herbs and roots of certain plants. 
Jarrahs sometimes successfully incised wounds, and operations of 
cataract were performed by travelling oculists who inherited the skill 
from father to son and carried on the hereditary occupation. Obste- 
trics and diseases of women were attended to by midwives and dais. 

The Bikaner State first became acquainted with the European 
system of medicines in I84S when Dr. Coleridge was called upon to 
take medical charge of Sardar Singh son of Maharaja Ratan Singh. 
Coleridge not only attended on the ailing prince but also began to 
be consulted, at first by other members of the Rulers’! faniily, and ' 
later, by the people in power and pelf, and the general public who 
could approach him. Coleridge has recorded that to enable him to 
stock medicines the Maharaja made a grant of 600 to 800 rupees 
per year, which was later increased to a thousand rupees for purchase 

[, Bj-l'cw StCK Aijrrini^lrtitlcn Repcifi. t£S3-5S, rara p, 



366 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


of the medicines which were dispensed to those who required them. 
In the beginning people were naturally skeptical of the efloacy of 
medicines, entertained various prejudices against their composition, 
and were reluctant to use them. Gradually, however, their worth 
began to be appreciated, and many more people began to consult 
him and take advantage of the medicines prescribed by him, so much 
so, that during the later part of his stay in Bikaner, Coleridge claims to 
have rendered medical aid to 600 to 1,000 persons a month.i After his 
departure in January 1869, the working of dispensary managed by him 
came to a stand still, and thereafter according to a letter dated 2.jl.l864 
from Dr. Coleridge quoted by Erskine, as no place was earmarked 
for the dispensary, as such a regular hospital was opened in 1870, 

Later, a small hospital was attached to the Central Jail, and 
these were the only two allopathic hospitals in the entire State till 
the end of 1885, when allopathic dispensaries were opened at Reni 
and a few other places of the State. These instititutions continued 
to grow and more dispensaries were established in the area now 
comprised in the district. Two more dispensaries were opened; one 
in the city and the other was attached to the palace by the end of 
1891. One hospital was set up at Bikaner in 1901 for the exclusive use 
of the imperial Services camel corps. New dispensing institutions 
were established by the government of the former State of Bikaner. 

Their number increased from 14 in 1887-88 to 46 in 1935-36, and 48 
in 1947. 


The following comparative statement of Medical personnel and 
patients treated, gives the idea of progress made from 1887-88 to 1947: 



1887-88 

1935-36 

1947 

Number of Doctors 

Patients 

17 

59 

94 

Outdoor 

Indoor 

Operations 

78708 

1734 

397281 

4710 

' 546873 

19571 

Major 

Minor 

Expenditure 

337 

5135 

32,398 

1791 

24848 

2,44,196 

2638 

36129 

10,93,748 

1. '^<^s)cioe. K.T>., Ra/piitana Gazelleer, Vo!. HI A, 
gnd tl;e Sikpner A^cpcy, 19p9, pp. 376-377, 

The Western R&jpiu^na I^esldenej’ 


Medical and Public Healtfa Services 


367 


Administrative Set-np 

Till 1910 A.D. the State Medical Department was under the 
charge of the Civil Surgeon of Bikaner who was attached to the 
Political Agent at Bikaner. Though his salary was disbursed from 
State coffers yet he was not under the administrative control of the 
State a,uthorities. The expenditure on the maintenance of the whole 
department was incurred by the State but recruitment, postings, 
transfers etc, of the medical subordinates were entirely controlled by 
the Chief Medical Officer in Rajputana, with his headquarters at 
Ajmer. The inevitable result was that the subordinate medical 
officers considered themselves wholly independent of the State, and 
displayed a regrettable lack of co-operation with State Officers, with 
the result that efficiency and discipline suffered alike. This problem 
as a whole was discussed at a conference at Mount Abu in May, 1910, 
and it was decided at this conference that the State should have a 
self-contained Medical Service of its own. Consequently the State 
Medical Department was organised and placed under the charge of the 
Principal Medical Officer, Bikaner. It was manned entirely by medical 
personnel in the exclusive employment of the State, 

On the formation of Rajasthan the administration of the then 
existing Medical Department was placed under the Director of Medical 
and Health Services, Rajasthan. The district administration was 
entrusted to the District Medical & Health Officer, who now supervises 
and controls all hospitals and dispensaries except the Associated 
Group of Hospitalsi in Bikaner city, which were placed under the 
charge of Principal Medical Officer, Bikaner. The District Health 
Officer, Bikaner is responsible for adopting preventive measures to 
check diseases and epidemics and in particular supervises the Primary 
Health Centres in the rural areas. 

VITAL STATISTICS 

The registration of births and deaths first commenced in Bikaner 
city in 1866, and in other towns in 1896, but the records remained 
incomplete due to the indifferent attitude of the citizens in notiJy'ing 
these occurrences to the authorities, as is evident from the percentage 
rate figures. This is indicated by the fact that the death rate per 

1. Prince Bijay Singh Memorial Men's Hospital. Prince Bijay Singh Memorial 
Women's Hospital, and Ganga Golden Jubilee Tuberculosis Hospital, arc 
Included among the Associated Group of Hospitals in Bikaner city. 



368 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


1000 reported in 1920-211 was 18.45 but it was 2.9 only in 1940-41, 
while the birth rate for the respective years has been reported to be 
11.13 and 23.8, These large fluctuations can be ascribed only to 
incorrect and faulty reporting. Figures of birth and death rates for 
Bikaner city only are available for the post- 1953 period. They are 
tabulated as follows® ; 


Year 

Birth rate* 

Death rater 

1954 

21.7 

11.3 

1955 

22.6 

12.1 

1956 

19.5 

12.5 

1957 

21.1 

10.6 

1958 

21.4 

10,4 

,1959 

18.0 

10,4 

I960 

24.0 

10.1 

1961 

10.5 

7.6 

1962 

17.2 

7.5 

'1963 

17.0 

6.1 

1964 

15.8 

7.7 

1965 

12.6 

9.2 

.1966 

17.1 

7.3 


conclusions from these figures 

sboB. thattbcpopulation’of^ho silv hLi” ° 

10 per 1000 every year On the aPP'^oximately by 

in population for tL period 1951 IPoV^’ variation 

is only 29.56 for the district and 28 6? r 

population cannot be corelatcd with thTsc f “ 
deduced that population is increasing rapSy. 

1- SH-aner State Administration Report 7920-21 

years 

Rates per 1000 of mid-year cst/ntatcd hopulatTom 


Medical and Public Health Services 


369 


Causes of Death 

According to the Reports of Directorate of Medical and Health 
Services the causes of recorded deaths from 1957 onwards, are as 
folio wsi ; 


Cause 

1957 

1958 

1959 

1960 

1961 

1962 

1S63 

1964 

1965 

1966 

I. Small Pox 

11 

28 


17 

60 

1 

4 

237 

170 

T 

2. Fever (Malaria 

& other) 

136 

158 

144 

138 

171 

156 

142 

160 

170 

133 

3. Dysentery & 

Diarrhoea 

79 

112 

87 

62 

83 

62 

54 

144 

127 

124 

4. Respiratory 
Diseases 

293 

268 

332 

325 

328 

269 

234 

249 

262 

52 

5. Inj'uries and 

suicides 

7 

19 

10 

27 

29 

27 

26 

15 

- 

278 

6 . Other causes 

723 

717 

661 

756 

572 

626 

606 

634 

806 

701 


These figures show that respiratory diseases are the main causes 
of death, followed by malaria, other fevers, dysentery and diarrhoea. 

Longevity 

According to the 1961 Census, infants aged upto 4 years, formed 
16.7 per cent, those aged between 5 to 14 formed 27.8 per cent, 
and persons betwee 15-34 formed 34,3 per cent, those aged 
35 to 54 were 16,7 per cent and those aged 55 or above, formed 
5.6 per cent of the total population. The high proportion of children 
under 14 years of age, that is 51.0 per cent of the population, is under- 
standable in the area where births far outnumber, deaths, and the 
population is increasing rapidly. While no conclusive estimate of 
longevity can be drawn, the sharp drop in the percentage of those 
above 35, and the small percentage of those aged over 55 indicate that 
expectation of life is rather low. This is because the people arc generally 
under-nourished. The vast majority being poor, cannot afford a balan- 
ced diet. The other reason lies in the arid nature of the tract and 

1. MJastUin Statistical Abstracts from 195S to 1967. 


370 


Rajasthan District Ciazetteers— Bikaner 


its extremes of temperature. Life is extremely hard in the sandy tract 
and the people are engaged in a constant struggle for survival. Para- 
doxically, the rigours of the climate keep them relatively free from 
common diseases while aging them rapidly. This picture is likely to 
improve with economic development and higher standard of living. 

COMMON DISEASES 

The following table shows the number of persons suffering from 
certain common diseases treated at the various hospitals and dispensaries 
during the year 1965-66. 


Tuberculosis 

2897 

Syphilis 

69 

Typhoid 

529 

Malaria 

40 

Rheumatic fever 

29 

Cholera 

18 

Dysentery 

4540 

Guinea worm and other 

55 

Infectious diseases 

3106 

Respiratory Infections 

9742 

Influenza 

66 

Pheumonia 

1108 

Bronchitis 

4317 

Diseases of Genital Urinary system 

7610 

Diseases of Pregnancy and Child Birth 

8044 

Diseases of skin 

17769 

Congenital mal formations 

91 

Diseases of Early infancy 

155 

Accidents and violence 

20093 

Poisoning 

13 

Diseases of Eye 

— 

Trachoma 

991 

Inflammatory disease of eye 

11676 

Cataract 

1321 

Digestive diseases 

10800 

Gastroenterities ■ 

1307 



Medical and Public -Health Services 


371 


The most common diseases are those of the respiratory tract, 
their incidence being very high in the cold winter months. It is primarily 
due to the extremes of temperature. The winter is very cold and at 
many places, temperature sometimes, falls below the freezing point. 
Owing to the dryness of the atmosphere, nature of the soil and lack of 
vegetation, the change of temperature from day to night is sudden, 
large and trying. Eye diseases, particularly inflammation and trachoma 
are prevalent owing to the blowing of winds for most part of the 
year, carrying particles of sand from the sand-dunes. People generally 
•take raw, unsafe and untreated drinking water which has given rise to 
numerous complaints of the digestive tract, most common of which 
being dysentery and diarrhoea. 

Vaccination 

An effort was made to introduce vaccination in 1860-61 but on 
the remonstrance of Dr. Coleridge, no work was done. Regular vaccina- 
tion programme was started in 1881 when one man performed 108 
successful vaccinations. At the time of the merger of the erstwhile 
State of Bikaner, there was only one vaccination centre in Bikaner city. 
The number has increased to eight, four in Bikaner city under Govern- 
ment control, and one each at Napasar, KolSyat, Lunkaransar and 
Naukha under the control of Panchayat Samitis. These centres have 
succeeded in checking the incidence of small-pox by a wide-spread 
vaccination programme. During the year 1965, 14207 primary vaccina- 
tion and 49124 re-vaccinations in all 63331, were performed. 

The anti-T.B. Campaign is conducted through itinerant teams 
of B.C.G. Vaccination. In the first round in 1954-56 a total of 60047 
persons underwent the tuberculin test and 1 7505 were vaccinated. In 
the second round during the years 1958-62, 29401 persons were tested 
and 13227 vaccinated. In the third round in 1963, 39446 persons 
were tested and 30732 vaccinated. In 1964, 3224 were tested and 
3224 vaccinated. In 1965, 23223 were tested, 5982 vaccinated and 7669 
v.'cre directly vaccinated. In 1966, 72925 were tested and 22754 %verc 
vaccinated. This disease is now under control and is not so common. 

An anti-malaria unit, with headquarters at Bikaner was estab- 
lished in 1958 under the National Malaria Control Programme. Dur- 
ing the year 196.5, 139382 houses (729SS in the first round in 397 
villages and 66394 in the second round in 371 villages) were sprayed 
with dichloro diprenye tricholorocthacc. 



m 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— BIKanw 


Epidemics 

Cholera outbreaks in 1891-92, 1896-97 and 1899-1900 claimed 
more than 4000 victims. Plague, though in existence in India, spared 
the State of Bikaner until February, 1918 when it claimed 1735 
deaths throughout the region. Its second visitation in March, 1922 
accounted for 45 deaths. Influenza outbreak in the autumn of 1918 
was pandemic and killed over 60000 persons within six weeks it lasted. 

Small-pox was the most fatal and used to cause considerable 
mortality in former days, but the virulence of the disease has been 
successively reduced by vaccination. Its severe outbreak in Bikaner 
city in 1924 carried away 429 souls. Since then the district has been 
free from any epidemic. 

HOSPITALS AND DISPENSARIESl 

There are 14 government hospitals^ and 11 government dispen- 
saries besides 4 Primary Health Centres in the district. Some of 
them are described below : 

Prince Bijai Singh Memorial Men’s Hospital , Bikaner 

The General Hospital in Bikaner city was built during the mino- 
rity of Maharaja Ganga Singh, Within few years it became evident 
that this hospital was incommodious and unsuitable. A new opera- 
tion theatre provided with modern equipments was added to it in 
1907. Despite the establishment of separate women’s hospital in 
1914, the General Hospital remained over-crowded and in due course 
became outdated. It was decided to construct two separate self- 
contained hospitals for men and women with accommodation for 137 
and 170 beds respectively: In March 1937, these two new hospitals 
were completed at a cost of Rs. 14,41,612. The General Hospital had 
its own X-Ray apparatus, Pliysio therapy department for Diathermy, 
Electric 'massage, Ultra Violet treatment, a Pathological and Bacteriolo- 
gicallaboratory and an anti-rabic centre. It was shifted' to the new 
building in 1937 and was renamed Prince Bijay Singh Memorial Men 
Hospital. Since then the hospital has added new departments and 

1. Details are given in the Appendix t. 

2. Distinction between a hospital and a dispensary has been made on the basis of 
jn-paficnt beds; a hospital has beds where fis a dispensary has non?( 



Medical and Public Health Services 


373 


wards with increased facilities. In 1965, the bed strength of the hosph 
tal.was 327. It has separate wards for each department: for Paediatrics 
six beds, Ear, Nose and Throat 24 beds, ophthalmology 47 beds and 
Venereal diseases 10 beds. It has also a Dental Clinic and an Anti- 
Rabic Centre. The same year a Mental Hospital with thq bcd strength 
of, 25 was; also attached to it, 

The staff consists of 38 doctors (incloding eleven specialists), 
91 compounders, 28 nurses, one matron and 13 sisters. 

Prince Bijai Singh Memorial Women’s Hospital 

In 1913-14, a well-equipped Zenana hospital was built at the 
capital at a cost of Rs. 50,413. It was replaced in March 1937 by 
the newly constructed Prince Bijay. Singh Memorial Women’s Hospital. 
Originally it had accommodation for 107 beds, but in 1965 its total 
strength was raised to 350 beds. It has separate wards for 
Pediatrics with 62 beds. Eye and Isolation with 10 beds each. 
Ear, Nose and Throat with 21 beds and maternity 47 beds. The 
staff comprises of 12 doctors (including one specialist), 10 com- 
pounders, 32 nurses, 3 midwives, one matron and six sisters. 

Ganga Golden Jubilee Tuberculosis Hospital, Bikaner 

The Ganga Golden Jubilee Tuberculosis Hospital was complet- 
ed at a cost of Rs. 188,715 and started working on the 1st February 
1940. It has 152 beds. The staff consists of 5 doctors (including one 
specialist), six compounders, two nurses and one matron. 

Police Line Hospital, Bikaner 

It has a total bed strength of 4. The staff of the hospital con- 
sists of one part-time doctor and compounder. 

Military. Hospital, Bikaner 

To meet the requirements of the armed forces of the former 
State of Bikaner, the Sadul-Military Hospital (now-Military Hospital) 
was opened in February 1914. It was thoroughly reorganised and 
equipped in 1935-36. On the integration of State Forces with the 
Indian Army, it was taken over by the Government of India, ft has 
a total strength of 25 beds. 

District Jail Hospital, Bikaner 

It was established in 1$S2, to cater exclusively to the needs of 



374 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


convicts and under trials in the Jail and the Jail staff. It has 

strength of 11 beds, and one doctor and two compounders are in-c ^ 
of the Hospital. 

Railway Hospital, Bikaner 

It is meant exclusively for the railway employees and is 
tained.by the Northern Railway. It has only two indoor be s an 
the staff comprises three Doctors, four Compounders and a Dai. 

Northern Railway Hospital, Lalgarh— It is maintained by 
the Northern Railway for its employees and its bed strength is six 
only. The staff consists of two doctors, three compounders and a dai. 

Government Hospital, Gajner — This Hospital has only six 
beds for indoor patients and is served by a doctor, a compounder 
and a mid-wife. 

A. P.' Hospital, Pogal — It has two beds only and the staff 
consists only of a compounder. 

Other hospitals in the district are at. Deshnoke, Palana, Ganga- 
shahr and Bikaner (City Dispensary No. I). Details about these are 
given at the end of this chapter in appendices I and III. Besides these 
hospitals, T. B. patients are treated at two places in the district. 

Primary Health Centres 

Primary Health Centres' are opened at places recommended by 
Panchayat Samitis. They work in collaboration with the Panchayat 
Samitis but are placed under the administrative control of the District 
Medical and Health Officer. 

The main features of the Primary Health Centres do not 
consist in the treatment of various diseases but in their prevention, 
popularisation of family planning and arranging mobile medical services. 
Each centre is equipped with a medical van for the purpose of providing 
medical aid and advise, both preventive and curative, in the area of the 
project. ‘Vaccinators and other sanitary staff of the Panchayat Samitis 
arc placed at the disposal of the Medical Officer of these centres. 

There are four Primary Health Centres in the' district started at 
Haukha gnd Kolayat during the Second Five Year Plan, and atNapiisar 



Medical and Public Health Services 


375 


and Kalu in 1963 and 1965 respectively. The details of these Primary 
Health Centres are as follows : 


1. Primary Health Centre, Naukha — The Centre has a bed stren- 
gth of 13. An Anti-Rabic Centre is also attached. The staff consists of 
a doctor, a compounder, 4 auxiliary health workers and four nurses. 

2. Primary Health Centre, Kolayat— U has a bed strength of 
six; The staff consists of a doctor, three compounders, one lady 
health visitor, one sanitary inspector and four midwives. 

3. Primary Health Centre, Napasar — Its bed strength is six. 
Anti-Rabic Centre is attached to it. The staff consists of a doctor, a 
compounder and 4 auxiliary health workers. 

4. Primary Health Centre, Kalu— It was started in 1965 
with a bed strength of six. It is served by a doctor, a compounder 
and a nurse. 

During the year 1966, maternity and child welfare facilities were 
available at the following places in the district. 


1 M C.W.C., Bikaner. 2. M.C.W.C., Gangashahr, 3. Mohta 
Maternity Home, Bikaner and 4. M.B.F.C. Temani Maternity Home, 
Bikaner. 

Besides, family planning centres have been set up at City Dis- 
pensaries, Nos. 1 and 2, Bikaner Gangashahr, Kolayat, Napasar, Lan- 
karansar and Naukha, In addition to these centres, a Mobi c Family 
Pianning Surgical Unit is located at Bikaner to popularise the ideal of 
family planning and the use and distribution of contraceptives. 


MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 

All the government allopathic hospitals and dispensaries of the 
district, except the Associated Group of Hospitals, arc under the 
administrative control of the District Medical Officer, Gangashahr 
The Associated Group of Hospitals arc supervised by the Principal 
Medical Ofiiccr, Bikaner. The following tabid shows (he services ren- 

dered by these institutions : 

1. Source ; St&tistkal Abstracl, R&jastbir. yearly volumes. 



376 


Rajasthan District 'Gazetteers— ‘Bikaner 


Year 

Indoor patients 

Outdoor patients 

1957 

13020 

307913 

1958 

11734 

298137 

1959 

12688 

351863 

1960 

13974 

385253 

1961 

14040 

393278 

1962 

14412 

409515 

1963 

16520 

.418990 

1964 

15700 

122536 

1965 

20209 

424984 

1966 

21944 

439958 


Medical and Health Personnel 

According to 1951 Census there were 878 persons (679 males and 
199 females) employed in the Medical and other Health Services in the 
district. Besides, there were 61 independent medical workers (44 males 
and 17 females). According to 1961 Census, the various categories of 
personnel, both private and public engaged in. the Medical and Health 
Services, both in rural and urban areas, was as follows : 


Total Area Urban Area 

Categories of personnel both S 

private and rublic engaged in « S 75 « "o — 

Medical and Health Service £ >5 § 5 I S 

2 iJL, 


1. Physicians & Surgeons 

(Allopathic) 86 

2. Physicians (Ayurvedic) 135 

3. Physicians (Homeo- 


■ pathic and others) 

35 

4. Dentists 

3 

5. Nurses 

146 

6. Nursing Attendants & 


'Related Workers 

53 

7. Pharmacists 

9 

8. Pharaceiitical 


Technicians 

252 

9. Other Medical and 


Health Technicians 

43 


71 

15 

ei 

15 

82 

132 

4 

105 

4 

109 

33 

2 

8 

1 

9 

3 

- 

•3 


3 

60 

86 

’ 60 

80 

140 

34 

19 

33 

19 

52 

9 

- 

‘9 

- 

9 

246 

6 

238 . 

6 

244 

18 

25 

16 

■20 

36 


Rural Area 


CO 



4-4 
26 - 26 

25 1 26 

- 6 6 

1 - 1 

8 - 8 

2 5 7 


Medical ana Public Health Services 


ill 


*frict^lV726 ,-f,lf°T > <0 1721 for (he 

The rural the urban area and 1 to 4579 in the rural area 

—ve, oh^ 

Research Centres 


ciapter^onM (details of which are given in the 

P ■ n Education) there is one Public Health Laboratory at Bikaner, 


indigenous system of medicine 

in the Ayurvedic system of medicine had its roots in the Vedic lore 
offln,, course of time it developed, independently 

shad/°!?^^ medicine, into a mighty banyan tree giving 

an7V vvithered 

me to make further progress in research and on funda- 

and V ^ ‘^oi^cepts resulted in its stagnation. The art of surgery 

of th anatomy suffered a progressive decline, partly because 

th prejudice against the dissection of dead bodies, and of 

e eJief in the inviolability of ancient tenets on medicine, to-Which 
ivine origin was ascribed, and to question theirfadt’horrtyr^as con'sir 
^ ered sacrilegeous and profane and partly becauSe't>?,thljjh’nfo^&s miide 
m its domain by Western Medical Science and''s^ufgery.^j5urX^i^^ 
system of medicine continued to flourish. un''the-'IradTtiqn’'^,bbund rpral 
3reas and under the patronage and pWteCtioi).^bf the State jmrT the. 
wealthy calsses in this district. Despite<thc intrqduction-of (he nflopd-' 
thic system of medicine, it is still widelj:;^faeiicvcd that flic indigenous 
system of medicine is better suited to our' tern pcrriruff'clifn ate. The 
Governjjient of the former State of Bikaner had established Ayurvedic 
dispensaries at Pandnn and a number of other places in the Slate in 
1930-31 and sanctioned grant-in-aid to Mohta Pathshala Bikaner, to 
revitalise the system. Out of the six dispensaries established in 1930-31 
only one at Panebn was located in this district. The number of Ayur- 
vedic aushdhalayas has since been increasing. Thus at . the beginning 
of the First Five Year Plan, there were three Ayurvedic, dispensaries in 
the district; their number increased to 14,25 and 40 in the year 1955-56, 
I9C0-61 and 1965-66 at the close of First, Second and Third Five Ycat 
Plans respectively. The work in the Aushadhnlayas or Ajurvcdic 
dispensaries is supervised by the Ayiincdic Inspector stationed at BTl;a- 
i5er. There is also one Unani dispensary in the district manar.ed by ;i 
Voidya. The location of most of these institutions and the number of 
patients treated in each in 1965-66 are given in Appendix 11. 



Rajasthan District Ciazettcers— cikbiici 


SANITATION 

In the rural areas where the climate is dry but healthy and .the 
population scanty and scattered, sanitary conditions are lar better 
than in the wetter and less sparsely populated parts of the State. In 
recent years, under the community development programme, efforts 
have been made to make the streets free from garbage. With the esta- 
blishment of Panchayat Samitis in 1959, steps were taken to improve 
sanitation by employing sanitary inspectors, watermen and sweepers,' 
Construction of sanitary latrines, drains, smokeless chulhas, etc. have 
also been undertaken. 

The maintenance of proper sanitary conditions in the urban 
areas is the primary responsibility of municipalities at Bikaner, Ganga- 
shahr, Bhinasar and Naukha. They employ staff like, Jamadars, Bhish 
ties and Sweepers for the maintenance of proper sanitary conditions. 
(The details of the sanitary arrangements in urban areas of the district 
are given in the Chapter XIV entitled Local Self-Government). 

WATER-SUPPLY 

Piped water-supply is available at Bikaner city only where the 
water is filtered and- chlorinated. Elsewhere, steps have been taken to 
improve water supply by disinfecting wells, and in some cases by cover- 
ing them. In a very large number of villages the shortage is so acute 
that people drink it from any source of supply without demur provid- 
ed it is not unpleasant to taste. For improving water supply, 91 wells 
and 66 Kunds (small tanks for storing water) were constructed and 293 
wells and 176 tanks were repaired at the total cost of Rs. 24,00,000 
during the First and Second Five Year Plans. These measures resulted 
in increasing and improving water-supply to a considerable extent but 
the problem is to great to be tackled in a short period and without 
large amount of expenditure. 

The underground water is the main source for improving water- 
supply for drinking and other purposes. Generally it is found at 91 
metres (300 feet) below the ground level and its column is only seven to 
eight feet deep, so the wells worked by power-driven machines are the 
most suitable means to meet water scarcity in the district. During the 
Thi d Five Year Plan a number of water-supply schemes were completed 
to meet the problem of shortage of water-supply. The details of these 
schemes arc as follows ; 



Medical and Public Health Services 


3/y 


S. No. Name of the place Approximate cost of the 

scheme in rappees 


1 . 

Panchnn 

1,63,00C 

2. 

Sarunda 

76,70C 

3. 

Berasar 

76, IOC 

4. 

Kalu 

10,000 

5. 

Lonkarnsar 

lO.OOC 

6. 

Deshnoke 

3,26,000 

7. 

Naukha 

2,65,000 

8. ■ 

Jasrasar 

1,58,220 

9. 

Kakra 

1,13,100 

10. 

Surpura 

1,00,000 

11. 

Rasidas 

2,29.000 

12 . 

Dcsalsar 

1,25,000 

13. 

Bersingsar 

2,00,000 

11 . 

Udairamsar 

15,8,00 

15. 

Koliiyat 

— 

16. 

Ncpiilsar 

1,10,200 

17. 

Sinthal 

1,68,000 

18. 

Ramsar 

40,000 

19. 

Gangashahr 

6,40,000 

20. 

Bhinasar 

2,67,000 

21. 

Mabajan 

88,000 

22. 

Kanolai 

45,C00 

23. 

Udasar 

1,50,000 


380 


Rgjastlinn District Gazetteers— Bikaner 



S.No. Name of Dispensary 


2 1 

Safe 
c 

o- 5 *— 


D 2 Q 


1. City Dispensary No. II, Bikaner 1 2 1 - 

2. Fort Out-door Dispensary, Bikaner 19-1 

3. Infirmary Dispensary, Bikaner 1 1 - - 

4. E.'S I. Dispensary, Bikaner 1 1 - - 

5. Govt. Dispensary, Napasar - 1 _ - 

6. Govt. Dispensary, Palana 11-1 

7. Govt. Dispensary, Lalgarh 12-1 

8. Govt. Dispensary, Hemmatsar - 1 - - 

9. Govt. Dispensary, Gaudiyala 1 _ _ _ 

10. Govt. Dispensary, Lunkaransar _ Iv _ - 

11 . Aid-Post Dispensary, Kalu 


1 


Technicians 


meoicai ano Heaitii s?rvip?g 




Appendix II 

Details of Ayurvedic Aushdhalayas in the district 


S, No. . 

Location 

Patients treated in 1965-66 

1. 

POgal 

2683 

2. 

Mill Ss at 

8303 

3. 

Sintal 

14229 

4. 

Chhatargarh 

1678 

5. 

Kesardesar 

7741 

6. 

RSmsar 

12037 

7. 

Sattasar 

2964 

8. 

Khajuwala 

779 

9. 

Jhajhu 

7531 

10. 

Akasar 

3184 

11. 

Khindasar 

4346 

12. 

Blkampur 

2916 

13. 

Vijja Barju 

2674 

14. 

Guda 

2078 

15. 

Barsalpur 

3920 

16. 

Bithnoke 

2015 

17. 

Siana 

270 

18. 

Panchon 

12525 

19. 

Kakora 

15783 

20. 

Jasrasar 

12285 

21. 

Jaisingasar 

8722 

22. 

Bcrasar 

18021 

23 , 

Kaku 

4171 

24. 

Dcslasar 

4525 

25. 

Janglu 

11445 

26. 

Rasisar 

7009 

27. 

Kuchor Athuni 

11886 

28. 

Sarpura 

5307 

29. 

Badhnu 

7963 

30. 

Gondusar 

14096 

31. 

Mahajan 

25760 

32. 

Jctpur 

10002 

33. 

Mahadeowaii 

.5119 

34* 

Karnlsar 

3967 

35. 

Shaikhsar 

8135 


382 


RSjasthan District Gazet’teers-r-Bikarier 


Appendix III 


Patients treated in Government Hospitals,' Dispensaries and Primary 
Health Centres in 1966 


S. No. 


P.B. M. Men’s Hospital, Bikaner 
P.B.M. Women’s Hospital, Bikaner 
G.G.J.’P.B. Hospital, Bikaner 
Polics Line Hospital, Bikaner 
District- Jail, Hospital, Bikaner 
City Dispensary No. 1, Bikaner 
Govt. IJospital, Gajner 
A.P. Hospital, Pogal 
City Dispensary No. 2, Bikaner 
Fort Ou,t-door Dispensary, Bikaner 
T.B. Clipic,- Bikaner 
Infirmary Dispensary 
E.S.I. Dispensary, Bikaner 
Government Dispensary. Deshnoke 
Government Dispensary, Gangashahr 
Government Dispensary, Napasar 
Governipent Dispensary, Palana 
Governipent Dispensary, Lalgarh 
Government pispensary, Hemmatsar 
Government Dispensary, Gadiyal 
Govermpent|Dispensary, Lnnkaransar 
Aid-Post Dispensary, Kalu 
Primary, Health Centre, Napasar 
Primary. Health Centre, Kslu 
Primary Health Centre, Naukha 
Primary Health Centre, Koiayat 
Railway Hospital Bikaner 
Railway Hospital, Liilgarh 

M n- - private 

" .Charitable Dispensary, Bikaner 


No. of Potents 


74,982 
48,081 
1,094 
3,055 
3,511 
71,222 
5,832 , 

1,564 ’ 
51,203 
38,771 
2,500 „ : • 
Not available 
Not available 
19,235 
30,693 
12,343 
16,540 
8,798 
4,514 
3,588 
6,147 
5,804 
33,610 
5,794 
36,281 
4,354 
2,64,858 
1,49,268 


19,782 

18,724 



CHAPTER xyn 


OTHER SOCIAL SERVICES 

Labour .Welfare 

The welfare of the working classes both inside and outsidd- thc 
factories has now become a major concern of the modern ' welfare 
State. The erstwhile State of Bikaner had adopted the Trade Disputbs 
Act of 1931 with the object of keeping peace in the factories;! Ai, 
there is still no large scale industry located in the- district,:, the 
provisions of, the various ameleorative labour lawsi relating to working 
conditions, wages provident fund, insurance, accident, sickness and 
maternity benefits, etc, are not applicable to' workers of small' 
scale registered industrial establishments employing approximately 
6000 labourers. As such there is no statutary obligation ,'o’n 
private employers to provide amenities to labourers..: The ■ only 
exception to the general reluctance of the employers to look after tli&; 
welfare of their employees, is Bikaner pypsum Bikaner, whose manage-; 
ment ntns a club, organises indoor and outdoor games, maintains . a 
canteen and a ration shop and provides maternity and other medical 
benefits to. .its workers. Similar facilities are also extended by the 
railway management to its labour.- All these measures together . have 
resulted in increasing wages, providing improved working conditions, 
alTording better opportunities for employment of labour and more 
amenities of life to the labourers and the members of their families. 

Organisational Set-Up 

Thc,Rcgional Assistant Labour Commissioner, Bikaner is in 
charge of all welfare activities in the Bikaner Division comprising the 
districts of Bikaner, Churn and Gangfinagar. He is assisted by two 
Labour Inspectors, one of whom helps him in supervising the activities 
of welfare centres, and other in enforcing labour laws. ■ 

1. Tlie provisions of the followlnr, lawsc arc enforced in the district ; 

Shops and Commercial Iistabtishraents Act. 195S 

2. Indian Factories Ac*. t9H£ 

3; Minimum NV.'igss Act, 1948 

4. Pavmcnlof Wapes Act. 59a& 

5. Fmplovmcni of Children Act. 19if> 

6. irmpiovecC Trovident l un-J Act. J952 

7. rmplo'-ces* Stale Ir.surnnec Act. 1943 

S, Workmen's Compensation Act. 192.' 

9. Matcrhity Benefit Act, 1923 



m 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— -feikaner 


The labour welfare activities sponsored by the State Government 
aim at stimulating the morale of labour by helping them to raise their 
standard of living through subsidiary means, to re-orient tneir 
psychology by widening their mental horizon through education, and 
to give them a zest for life by providing facilities for games and sports, 
music and other means of entertainment. To achieve these objects, the 
Government of Rajasthan have opened the following welfare centres in 
the district, namely, 

1. Government Labour Welfare Centre, Bikaner. 

2. Government Labour Welfare Centre, Jamsar.' 

These centres organise various welfare activities. Each centre is 
provided with a staff consisting of games supervisor, a lady tailor, a 
music master, a lady supervisor and five peons. 

Prohibition 

Not being a dry district, iquor and bhang can be consumed 
without any restriction, except liquor in public to avoid creation of 
nuisance. The possession and use ' of ganja and charas is 'strictly 
prohibited while opium is supplied to the addicts on ration cards on 
medical grounds but a quarterly reduction is made in their quota. This 
step has helped in reducing the open consumption of opium. There 
are 21 licensed vendors selling liquor, 6 sell bhang and one sells 
opium. 

The following table shows the extent of consumption of 
intoxicants in the district from 1958-59 to 1965'66L 


Year 

Country 

spirit 

(litres) 

Opium 

(Kg.) 

to 

C3 

O 

c cx eo 

CO 

C3 to 

Imported 
spirit wine 
(litres) 

Imported 

beer 

(litres) 

Indian 
made sprit 
(litres) 

Indian 
made beer 
(litres) 

1958-59 

50,224 

412 

. - - 

4,092 

283 

377 

21,590 

6,726 

1959-60 

62,730 

100 

— 

3,994 

347 

177 

22,038 

9,190 

1960-61 

59,139 

49 



3,033 



17,684 

— 

1961-62 

16,755 

28 


3,840 

— 


10,699 


1962-63 

1,01,945 

34 


"4,084 

* 


15,365. 


1963-64 

2,02,682 

52 

58,987 

5,271 

20 


12,101 


1964-65 

1,29,994 

38 

— 

4.655 

21 


12,104 


1965-66 

1,12,788 

43 

20,208 

4,703 

253 

5 

12,575 

15,029 


1. Sltaisiical Abstracts Rajasthan, yearly volums for various years. 




Other Social Services 


3S!> 


The consumption of liquor and bhang has increased partly as a 
result of the non-availability of opium and consequent change of 
habits. The district has no distiHery but illicit distillation is carried on 
in certain villages on a small scale. 

Social Welfare of Backward Classes and Tribes 

According to 1961 Census, the total population of the Scheduled 
Castes and Tribes in the district was 65,982 persons (33,923 males and 
32,059 females) and 1,034 persons (539 males and 495 females) 
respectively. The Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes put together 
formed 15.07 per cent of the population of the district. 

The male population of the Scheduled Castes and Tribes formed 
7.40 and 0.018 per cent respectively in the urban, and 19.81 and 0.23 
per cent in the rural areas, of the total population in the district. The 
corresponding percentage for females is 7.56 and 0.15 in the urban and 
20.72 and 20.21 in the rural areas. 

According to the 1961 Census the Scheduled Tribes consist 
predominanely of Minacommunity which formed 96.3 per cent of the 
total strength of the Scheduled Tribes. Bhils and others (being classified) 
formed 1 and 2.7 per cent only. Among the Scheduled Castes, 
Meghwals are in majority and formed 54 per cent of the total Scheduled 
Caste population. The other important communities including Thoris 
or Nayak, Bhangi and Chamar, arc 16.5, 7.7 and 7.3 per cent 
respectively. The other small communities include the following 

castes : 


Balai 

Kanjar 

Bawaria 

Khatic 

Bhand 

Koli 

Dabgar 

Majhabi 

Dhankia 

Mchtar 

Dhcda 

Nut 

Dome 

Sansi 

Gandia 

Sarbbangi 

Garoor or Garura 

Sargara 

Gavaria 

Stnphswal 

Jingar 

Tirgar 

Katbdia 

Vaimiki 

Kamad 




386 


Rajasthan ujstrict Gazetteers—Bika^net 


Persons belonging to Scheduled Castes and- Tribes ate mainly 
engaged in agriculture, cattle-breeding working as labourers and 
carrying on the occupation of tanning of hides and skins. Because of 
the traditional restrictions under which .they formerly lived^ and 
their being mostly illiterate, they are backward and poor. Those 
residing in border areas have to face the shortage of nvater and food 
besides rigours of climate. To ameliorate • their socio-ecojiomic 
conditions the Social Welfare Department has taken various measures, 
which have been described below : 

Hostels & Boarding Houses 

To provide opportunities to such students as belonging to 
Sdreduled Castes or Tribes, who cannot ■ afford higher education or 
travel long distance for the purpose, there exist three hostels for boys 
and one for girls where all expenses-board, lodging, books .and^ 
clothes etc. are borne by the Social Welfare Department of- .the 
Government. In addition to these hostels voluntary social organisations 
are maintaining three hostels, getting 90 per cent of their total expenses 
as aid from the' Government of Rajasthan 

Mahila Sanskar, Kendra 

To create a sense of self-hlep, mutual .co-operation and generally 
to promote social uplift among women, a social education centre is 
functioning at Bikaner since 1953 called Mahila Sanskar Kendra,- 
Bikaner. ■ It provides instructions in tailoring, - embroidery and 
handicrafts. .The average attendance of trainees is 35., 

Princes Cband Kunwar Orphange, Bikaner 

It was established by Maharaja Ganga Singh to 
perpetuate the memory of his daughter, Rajkumari ' Chand 
Kunwar in 1920. It maintains and educates the helpless and destitute 
children enabling them to, stand on their legs. At present it is run by 
the Social Welfare Department and all expenses are borne by the 
Government. The number of inmates during 1665-66 was 25. In 
1966-67 its capacity to accommodate was increased to 40 inmates. 

Industrial and Production Centre 

To Improve the economic condition of the Scheduled Castes and 
Tribes, industrial centres have been set up where every apprentice gets 
a stipend of Rs. 15 per month during the training period and financial 



Other Social Services 




help not exceeding Rs. 200 is provided to each of them on the 
completion of their training for the purpose of essential tools or equip- 
ments to enable them to earn their livelihood, A shoe-making centre 
has been working at Bikaner since 1955, where 15 apprentices afc 
, annually trained at the cost of Rs. 40,000. 

Other Measures 

The Government of Rajasthan has reserved l2i per cent 
'vacancies in Government service for the members of Scheduled Castes 
and Tribes, In 1965-66 their number in the various services in the 
' district was 157. Out of which 3 were gazetted and 100 subordinate 
• officers, 28 belonged to the clerical cadre and 26 were class four 
servants. To improve their living conditions, new colonies have been 
constructed, which include a Hanjan Basti of 15 houses at Badoi 
constructed in 1959-60 at the cost of Rs. 1 1,250, Mukta Prasad Bhangt 
Basti of 50 houses in Bikaner at a cost of Rs. 37,500 in 1959-60, 
Prabhudan Nayak Basti of 31 houses in Bikaner at a cost of Rs, 23,250 
in 1958-59, a Bhangi Basti of 25 houses at a cost of Rs. 18,750 in 
nauka in 1959-60, and a Bliaugi Basti of 14 houses in Desk noke at a 
cost of Rs, 10,500 in 1960-61, Gadia L)lnr Biui of 6S houses at a cost 
of Rs. 57,000 in 1958-59, Ranisar Basti, Bikaner of 20 houses at a cost 
of Rs. 7,000 in 1955-56; Gangashahr Bhangi Basti of 59 houses at a cost 
of Rs. 48,000 in 1962-67, Bhinasar Bhangi Bisti of 15 houses at a cost 
of Rs. 15,000 in 1966-67 and Horijan Basti at Palilna of 50 houses at a 
cost of Rs. 29,000 in 1956-57. Ten wells were constructed to provide 
drinking water. Adequate measures arc also taken to provide them 
light and w-atcr by the local bodies. 

The aim of all such Government schemes is to bring the 
backward sections of society at par with the rest. This is being 
achieved by giving them free education, absorbing such of them as are 
qualified into Government service, providing them living accommoda- 
tion and other amenities of life, encouraging and developing cottage 
industries and various crafts and rehabilitating the landless among 
them by allotroeni of land. Changing times have awakened them and 
they arc gradually becoming aware of their rights in its democratic 
set up. This awakening had a sobering effect on the communities 
higher up in social and economic ladder and they arc becoming 
increasingly tolerant towards them. The advent of Independence in 
1947 has proved a boon to the members of Scheduled Castes as it hac 



388 


Rajastbaa District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


roused them to the awareness of their new dignity as free and equal 
citizens of the State. The villages in this district are throbbing with 
social and political consciousness. Shackles of caste and untouchability 
are slowly but steadily, loosening their hold as is manifest from the 
unopposed election of Meghwal to the State Legislature for two 
successive terms. 

Trusts and Charitable Endowments 

Charitable endowments play a considerable part in the social 
life of the community by starting, materially assisting and financing a 
number of schools and colleges, hospitals, dharmashalas and other 
institutions engaged in social services. The prominent endowments and 
trusts in the district are given below : 

(1) Seth Ram Gopal Goverdhan Das Mohta Charitable Trust, 
Bikaner (created on 24th July, 1928 for helping institutions engaged 
in social services). (2) Shri Bhairav-Ratan-Matra Pathashala Trust, 
Bikaner instituted on November 6, 1943 for the maintenance of Shri 
Bhairav Ratan Matra Pathshala. (3) Seth Bahadur Mai Jasakaran, 
Sidhakaran Rampuria Trust, Bikaner created on March 18, 1933 for 
the maintenanc of Jain College, Bikaner. (4) Seth Hira Lai Sobhag 
Mai Charitable Trust, Bikaner created on December 13, 1948 for the 
maintenance of H.S. Rampuria Vidya Niketan, Gangashahr. 
(5) Musbmmat Jabbar Charitable Trust, Bikaner; instituted on March 
15, 1943 for helping the institutions rendering medical and educational 
service to women. (6) Mohta Trust, Bikaner cerated on October, 28, 
1928 for the maintenance of Mohta Hospital to provide both Ayurvedic 
and allopathic facilities of treatment, free of charge. 



CHAPTER XVIII 


PUBLIC LIFE AND VOLUNTARY, SOCIAL SERVICE 

ORCANlSA¥inN!i; 


Representation in Parliament (Lok Sabha) 

' . . I ^ I ■ . , , , . , , ,, 

Lok Sabha — In the First General Elections 1952, Bikaner ana 
Churu districts (excluding the Churu. Rajgarh and Tariinagar ^ah- 
siis), the NagaurtahSil {exoluding Nagaur, Mandwa and Khatu K.alan 
police stations) and the Ladnun and Baldwa police stations of the 
Didwaiia tahsils of the Nagaur district formed a single Parlia,mentar>; 
constituency.! In a total electorate of 3,97,481 valid voles past ,wci;c 
1,'87557. The seat was won by an Ir.dcpendenl candidate, who got 
1,17,926 votes (the percentage of votes polled by. him,^ei,ng •62.9)„-Jhc 
remaining three contestants, one from .thei .Congress,; one from the 
Socialist Party and one from the Kisan Janatg,.j§ajnyukla .Party, 
secured 54,227, 9,0l4 and 6,390 votes respectively. The last two lost 
th'eir deposits. 


At the. time of the- Second General ■ Elections 1957, Ih.e Tjarlia- 
mentary constituency had been delimited again and was made a two 
member conslitucridy (one thethber for general seat land 'the other, for 
.Scheduled Caste seat). This double member constituency comprised whole 
of Bikaner and Giinganagar districts and Churu district in part (exclud- 
ing Sojangarh tahsil except eleven .villages-). In a, lota! electorate of 
8,05,673; the total number of votes was 16,11,346 (being double mem- 
ber constituency) and the number of valid votes cast w,as 6,.85,550 (42.5 
percent)? The number. of contestants was,six3 out of. w’hoip tlij^jlndc- 
pendent candidate (seeming 2,78,267 or 33.3 per cent votes) won the 
^cncraT scat ' and the Congres 'candidate (Scheduled Ca'sta. securing 
1,41,293 or 20.6 per cent Voles) v,’on the rcscr\'cd seat.*' 


). The Daiimita.ijoo of f.-ifiiamsntary and Awnibly c{)a^ii{uency(Rt!jaqh.in) order 
1951 ;p. 3, 

2. BcUvuiaiicn of rar.stSuitr.dcs for Ucnercl Kkctlonr, ’Election DcrartfretU, 
" Government of Ruiaitliao, 3957, p.3 and p,26. The ,oa,Ti?s of the eleven viStaper 

,,, are Randh(snr,.Dh 2 tari. Joj^alia. . Jetatsr. Dh3dcru-?od.y.va!t5n; Dlnderubban- 
bbuwan: Bidarar, Darifca. B.metba Umajl. Baneth,! JoijBia and Upad'iya." ' ' 

3. Rffor: or, (hi Srocr^ Grponil rjfctwrs to lidia. 19S7, Vol. 51 fStstKtkal }. 
ticn Comniisvcn, In-dls, rp. !?4*1S5 j 



390 


Rajasthan District Ga 2 etteers — Bikaner 


In the Third General Elections 1962, the Parliamentary consti- 
tuency was again converted into a single member one and comprised 
eight Assembly constituencies^, four located in this district and the 
remaining four in Churu district. In a totil electorate of 4,68,948 the 
number of valid votes cast was 2,51,586, (55.52 per cent) which re- 
presented a rise of 13 02 per cent over percentage of valid votes polled 
during the 1937 Elections. Out of the three contestants-two Indepen- 
dents, and one Communist-one Independent candidate captured the 
seat securing 1,76,590 votes. 

In the General Elections 1967, the Bikaner Parliamentary consti- 
tuency comprised eight Assembly constituencies viz., Bikaner, Chhaper, 
Churu, Dungargarh, Kolayat, Ltlnkaransar, Naukha and Sardarshahr 
(four of this district and four of Churu district). In a total electorate 
of 5,51,193; 3,03,703 valid votes were cast. There were nine candi- 
dates (all Independents) who contested this Parliamentary seat. The 
seat was secured by an Independent candidate obtaining 2,15,636 valid 
votes (or 71 per cent). 

Appendix I gives detailed information about all the four Parlia- 
mentary Elections which have been held in the district so far. No bve- 
election has been' held for the Parliamentary seats of this district. 

Representation in Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) 

In the 1952 State Assembly Elections, the district had three 
constituencies, viz., Bikaner city, Naukha and Bikaner tahsil. In the 
Bikaner city constituency, comprising the area covered by the Bikaner 
city muncipality, there was a total electorate of 54,975. The number 
of valid votes cast was 24,997 (45.5. per cent). Ten candidates contes- 
ted the seat, which was won by ah Independent securing 5,095 votes. 

In the Naukha constituency, comprising the Naukha and Magra 
tahsils alongwith 25 villages of the Bikaner tahsil, out of 53,562 voters 
on the electoral roll, 21,250 (39.7 per ’ cent) persons cast their votes. 
Of the four contestants an Independent candidate won the seat by 
seeuring 7,1. '8 (33.6 per cent) votes. 

The third constituency named Bikaner tahsil constituency com- 
prised the area covered by the Bikaner tahsil (excluding the Bikaner 

1. DcUmltation of Constituencies for General Elections. Election Department, 
Government of RfijasthSn, 1961, p.3. 



iblic Life And Voluntary Social Service Organisations 


391 


.y and twenty-five villages of the Bikaner tahsil appended to Naukha 
instituency for the election purposes) and the Lonkaransar tahsil. 
he total number of electors was 49,427 of whom 21,776 cast (heir 
»tes (44.1). Of the five contestants, an Independent candidate was 
;cted securing 10,512 votes (51.4 per cent). 

In these assembly elections, there were nineteen candidates for 
e three seats. Independents (11) formed the largest group followed by 
e Congress (3), the Socialist (2), the Jan Sangh (1), the Ram Rajja 
arishad (1) and the Forward Bloc (1). 

BYE-ELEcrriON IN 1956 — A bye-election was held for the Bjkancr 
hsil constituency on 1st July, 1956 which had fallen vacant due to 
signation of the representative. Three candidates— one from the 
ongress, one from the Praja Socialist Party, and one Indepcndent- 
intested the eleotions. Out of the total valid votes (15,432) the 
jngress candidate secured 7,181 votes and was declared elected. 

In the 1957 State Assembly Elections, (he district had three 
instituencies, viz., Bikaner city, Ltinkaransar and Naukha. 

In the Bikaner City constituency, comprising the areas covered 
/ the Bikaner municipality excluding wards No. 9 and 10, there 
as a total electorate of 46,352. The number of valid votes cast was 
3,609 or 50.9 per cent which represented a rise of 5.4 per cent over 
ic 45.5 per cent valid votes polled during the 1952 Elections. Seven 
mdidates contested the scat, which was won by the candidate belong- 
ig to the Parja Socialist Party,securing 12,089 votes (51.2 per cent). 

In the Lankaransar constituency, comprising the areas co\’ercd 
y Lunkaransvir tahsil and the Bikaner tahsil (excluding Bikaner 
[unicipality and the twenU'-six villages of the tahsiljL there v.’as a 
»ta! electorate of 44,550, out of which the number of valid votes cast 
as 14,S95 (33.4 per cent). Of the six contestants, the Congre':s candi- 
atc won the seat securing 4, 83S (32.5 percent; voles. 

. B-tebasar, Sarupdesar; BarsinEpura. Palada, Lalamdcsat, Udra'ms.'.r SuiEndciar. 
Dcsbaoke, Sujasar, Ambasar (Ghifotan Chahanani, Gigasar: Sardinna Cbc- 
hanan; Satdhana' Padthatan, Jor Ikcr S.trScari, Bhojao SbiM R3ri; 

Gar.gasbahr, Bhinnsir, ICcsirdetaf, Borsn. KcJnrdr-sar Oartgagvfrsj!, Kcs.tf- 
des.ar Jaisin. RS.titsr, Siratsruni, Mundsiat and B-is?. 



392 


In the NaukhaconsUtuchcy'' comprising 'the i'reds covered 

Nauhha and iClagra talisilsi some of thfe'villdges'’in the Bikarier t’ahsil,'' 

(excluded from the LtJnk'aransar constituency) and’ wards 9 and 10 

of the '^vkaner municipality^ the tb’ta'l number of electorate was 89,965 

and the number of valid * votes 'cast ’was 5'5,t)b8^ It whs a double'' 

jn?mber,C9nstituency having one general and the other reserved seat. 

The total number of contestants was et^ht. 'Bqth the' seats were won 

jby the Independent candidates securing 9,6,bo^vdfes\(i6.5 per cent) for 

t4 aeheral seat and ^,094 votes''(18.3 per ■ceht)’,fo/'fhereseryed''seat. ' 

I, V (' -I i ... „ o-,.-,. ; ! 

In these General Elections for the Assembly, there were .twenty- 
one candidates fbfthr'ee general seats and bhe reserved se!at,’'The In- 
dependents' (14), formed the largest group ”of ckndidateS, 'followed by 

the Cb'rigress"(43, the T’fdja Socialist Party"(2) and the Jan Sartgh (1). 

•|.. o. I . i 

Bye-Elections in 1960 1 i. 

A"b'ye-elfe'ctidn''fbr’ 'Naulfha' cohstitueriCy was' hbld' dn'^29fh 
August, 1960 due to the declaration of the elections as void. Out of 
89,965 voters^ 33, 364*^ cast their Votes, ' tlie valitl votes totalling 32,097 
or 31.2 per cent only. '*Tihere were 'four cdntestan'ts, the Congfesi 
|Candidate vsfas declared elected having pcured 1^.901 votes.,. 


In the Third General Elections, the double^imember ' 'constitu- 
ency of 'Naukha was cohkituted into a' Single member' constituency 
for the Scheduled Caste seat 'and 'aii additional constituenc;^ was 
created. Thus, while the niimber of seats' remained four, the number 
of constituencies rose from three to four, namely, Naukha, Kolayat', 
Bikaner and Lonkat'ansdf.' ' 


* ' In the Naukha constituency, xomprising.the areas 'covered by the 
Naukha tahsil and a few villages!, in Bikaner talisil, the total electorate 
was 59,fi00 of whom 21,513 valid votes were -polled. , There were five 
contestants for the scat -.which .was -.won by an -Independent, candidate 
having secured 12,095 votes. 

In the Kolayat constituency, comprising the areas covered by the 
Kqlayat .tahsil (excluding Maganwala, Akalwala, Gulamwala and 

1. Villages in Bikaner tahsil included in Naukha Assembly constituency were : 
„ Deshneke, Kesardesar Dehran, Kesardesar Gangaguran. ftarosar, Mundsar and 
Suraisinghpura. vide DeUmitaCian of Constituencies for General Elections^ 1961, 

Election Deparlment, Government of Rajasthan. 



Public Life And Voluntary Social Service Organisations 



* “ * ' ' if' f 

Bhatiy^an wala villages and hamlets of Barsalpur village), wards 9 and’ 
IP of the Bikaner municipality and a few villages in the Bikaner tahsiU’ 
the total electorate was 61,514; out of whom 28,0^9 valid vote's wei'e 

■ t ' [•-♦I '• , 

pol ed. Out of the ten contestants the candidate of the Praja Socialist 
Party was elected with 7,976 votes. 


i .. ,Itv the BifeanQT Constitucncy„., 9 iOnapr,i,sing, the, area , covered by the 
Bikaner municipality (excluding wards numijcring 9 apd 10), there were^ 
48,03^ voters,' of i\vhopj only ,29,07^8 valid votes, were.poUcd. Eigh| 
candidates conteste,d.‘, the ^seat ,, of whom .the,, candjdate of, the Praja 
S.ocialist Party was declared elected, wi.th 11,725 votes. 




'The Lankaransar .'constituency ’ comprised the area included in 
the Lankaransar tahsil and the Bikaner tahsil (excluding the Bikaner 
ihuhicipality and ■ somc'bf the villages). -In an electorate of 61,432; 
25,165 valid votes were cast.' ’There were' iseven contestants in all, and 
the seat was won by the candidate’ of the Congress par-tyv securing 
7, '783 vbfes.' ■ • • 


, • Tn this, Election to the Assembly,, 30 .candidates contested for 
four seats. The largest number of contestants was that of ,thc Indepen- 
dents (18), followed by the Congress (4), the Praja Socialist (3), ihp 
Jan Sangh (3), the Swatantra (1) and the Communist (1). _ I 


In the Fourth’Cj'eneral Elections '^'(1967) ' also,' ' the district was 
delimited into ' the four consliluencics viz., Blfcaner" ''KolayAt, 
Lankaransar and Naukha. The ' Bikaner cohstltUericy comorised thi 
Bikaner municipality excluding ' wards' 22, 23, 24 and’ 28 to 32.1’ Of 
ii3,247 total voles, ohly 39, '651 valid votes \Vcfe polled. ’Tfic number 
of cohiestarifs tvas' tWelVc out ‘ofthen'i one was' Congress candidate'^ 
one Communist (M), one Jan Sangh'; one' Praja Socialist and eight 
(Independents. ' Thctscaf was .won hy the Congress candidate •securing 
16,581 voles. 


The Kolayat constituency was carved ' out of the arc.is- viz., 
Bajju revenue circle. Koliiyat revenue circle, (excluding patwar circle.:;— 
AjAkkasar. S^Bholasar, 7-Jhaju and S-Siyana), Patwar Circles 13- 
Godiyala, 16-Bikanptjr and H-Mandal Charnan, in Diyatrarjevcntie 
circle ■ in- Kol.'jyat tahsil; Kalbadf revenue -circle (excluding patwar 

' 1 . ’’jlSJasshin Gcrrife - Tsfr e'-ort'/rcf J.TiEicd Afn'l Pen V tD), r. 5. 

2. ib!J. 



394 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


circle 1 2-Napa3ar. 14-Tejrasar and 20-Ranisar) and wards 22,23, 24 
and 28 to 32 of Bikaner Municipality. Out of 66,521 votes 33,077 
valid votes were polled. The Congress candidate defeated his seven 
rivals by securing 12,362 votes. The defeated seven contestants included 
one candidate of the Swatantra Party, one of the Sarny ukta Socialist 
Party and five Independents. 

The Ltinkaransar Constituency was formed! of Ltinkarasar 
tahsil, Pugal and Jamsar revenue circles and Patwar Circles ; 
12-Napasar, 14-Tejrasar and 20-Ramsar, in Nalbadi revenue circles in 
Bikaner tahsil. The total number of voters was 69,385 and the number 
of valid votes 32,285. The Congress candidate won this seat defeating 
nine candidates (one Swatantra, one Praja Socialist Party, one 
Communist and six Independents) and secured 8,455 votes. 

The fourth constituency (Naukha) compriseds Naukha tahsil, 
Diyatra revenue circle (excluding patwar circle I3-Godiyala, 
16-Bikampur and 17-Mandal Charnan) and Patwar circles; 4-Akkasar, 
5'Bholasar, 7-Jhaju and 8-Siyana, in Kolayat revenue circle in the 
tahsil of the same name. This constituency had a total electorate of 
73,697 and total valid votes polled was 27,256. This seat was secured 
by an Independent candidate who obtained 11,390 votes. The three 
defeated candidates were one Swatantra, one Congress and one 
Independent. 

This election gave an opportunity to thirty-four contestants to 
contest four seats of the district Their party aifiliations were ; the 
Congress 4, the Swatantra 3, the Praj^ Socialist Party 2, the Jan Sangli 
1, the Communists (R) 1, the Communists (M) 1, the Samyukta 
•Socialist Party 1. Besides these, the largest number pf them was of 
Independents who were 21. The results were in favour of 3 Congress 
and one Independent candidates. 

Appendix It gives the details of the Assembly Elections which 
have been held in the district so far. 

POLITICAL PARTIES 

Congress Party 

The Praja Parishad PartyS of pfe-Iridcpendence days was merged 

1. Rijasthun Gazette - Extra-ordinary, dated April 23, 1966, Part V (D) p. 5. 

2. ibid., p, 5. 

3. The historical background of Praja Parishad has been mentioned earlier in 



Public Life And Voluntary Social Service Organisations 


395 


into the Indian National Congress and was rechristened as the Bikaner 
District Congress Committee after Independence. 

The Praja Parishad in collaboration with the All India States 
People’s Conference had followed the policy and programme of the 
Indian National Congress with some adaptations to suit the special 
conditions obtaining in the State. It had pleaded for the establishment 
of responsible Government under the aegies of the Ruler. Having 
been founded in 1942, it was the only political organisation which 
agitated for the establishment of a Government answerable to the 
people m the State. After 1946, its activities were extended to 
sponsoring and participating in agitations launched for the redress of 
the grievances of kisan%. Through platforms and press it also tried to 
convince the Government of the State to grant more freedom of expre- 
ssion to common man. Its activities in the Stale and outside, 
compelled the then State Government to come to term< with the popu- 
lar leaders for the formation of a popular Government in 1947. 

The scheme that ultimately emerged and sanctioned by the 
Maharaja, postulated a mixed Government, composed of equal 
representatives of the people and of other vested interests like jaghirdars. 
This Government of variegated political hues and opinion could not 
run smoothly. In the meanwhile the Ruler decided to merge his State 
into Rajasthan in 1949, 

The District Congress Committee 

The present District Congress Committee, as the rcpiescntativc 
of the premier political organisation of the country fDllows..{ts 
constitution. It has a President, Vice-President, Secretaries and a 
Treasurer who arc duly elected. Its ramifications extend to lahsils 
and villages which form the basic unit of the organisation. Tahsi! 
committees form the Committee at the disirict level. Thus it is a 
compact and %vell knit organisation and covers the entire population 
comprised within the limits of the Bikaner district. 

The p-irty contested nil the General flections except that it did 
not pat up any candidate for the Parliamentary se.at in 1962 and 1967. 

In Assembly cicclions it has been progressively improving its position; 
it c.npturcd only LtJnk.aransar constituency in 1957 and retained it in 
1962, but in 1967 As'-emldy ctcciioas, it captured three out of the four 
scats allotted to the district. 



..Raiasthan- District . Gazetteers —Bikan« 


m 

^rpja Socialist Party 

The Party was fot'OTed ia the district ,in, 1948 under the, name 
Socialist Party. At that time, a meeting of the General Council of the 
Socialist 'Party- of India’ was 'held' at 'Bikaner;- iri -which imanyleminent 
leaders of the party’ participated. At present with its new nomenclature 
hi 3fia]a Socia'iSs’i ^any, ’A Aruw.dr'. 

ihg to the constituencies* As there arc four, constituencies for- the 
legislative Assembly in the district, four branches, have been organi*' 
ied at Bikandr, Lnnkar^nsar, Naukhaand-Kolayat. 

. This, party .could, secure,. one seat in the Assembly from the^ 
Bikaner constituency in the Sepond General ]E)ections for the , first, time.^ 
lin the Third General‘EI‘^ctions,.it secured two seats. It failed, however, 
to capture, any. seat in.th*^ Fourth General Elections. 

Communist Party 

■1 , ... . .... 

It was started .with ten members on 15th August, 1951. ^ In the 

General Elections 1957, its candidate could secure only 6.8 per cent of 
the total votes polled for'- the 'Parliamentary seat, while in the Third 
General ’Elections it could secure only 5.4 per cent. These figures show 
that'the party hasdittle W^al for the clectora.te and, whatever influence, 
it possessed is on the decline. It-iC-ould not seeure any seat dn the 

A'ssembly ip. 1962 and 1?67 elections aI?.Q. 

(. .. 

Bbartiya Jau Sangjh 

The party was established in 19'51.’ '"{H’tlie-'. -different ’Assembly 
Elections it'sectired 3,1 -per cent -votes ,in 195Z; 1.3 .per cent in 1957; 
3'.7 per. cent. votes in 1962 and 5.3 per, cent votes in 1967 ip. the Vyho^e 
district. It is • evident from these figures .that so. far the .p.arfy, .l^as 
not' been able to-make.Uiuch headway in the political whirlpool, of tl^q 
district. 

Ram.Rajya Parisbad 

The exact date uf its opening in the district is not known, U 
contested one Assembly seat in the First General Elections and secured 
18.2 per cent voles iri the Bikaner city coristitdency and 6.7 peV cent in 
the district as a whole. This was' its first and last' entry iri'thc cledtibn 
affray in the district. The parly' is more or less dcfuhbt now. ' 

.Swatantra Party 

The party was established id India on 'the eve of Third General' 



Public Life And Voluntary Social Service Organisations 


397 


Elections. The organisational pattern of the party is based on the 
constituency delimitation. Each constituency area is further divided 
into panchayat samitis which in turn are composed of village-wards. 
In the third elections, for the Assembly seals, the party secured 8.1 
per cent votes or 2.0 per cent votes in the district. 


The following table shows the number of contestants party-wise 
in the General Elections so far held for the Assembly: 


Party 

1952 

1957 

Years 

1962 

1967 

Congress 

3 

4 

4 

4 

Communist (Right) 

- 

- 

1 

1 

Communist (Marxist) 

- 

- 

*•9 

I 

Jan Sangh 

1 

1 

3 

1 

Socialists 

2 

- 


1 

Ram Rajya Parishad 

1 

- 

- 

- 

Praja Socialists 

— 

2 

3 

2 

Swalantra 

— 


1 

3 

Forward Block 

1 

- 



Independents 

11 

14 

18 

21 

Total of District 

19 

21 

30 

34 

The populatily of the various political 

parties can be assessed 

on the basis of their performance in 

the last four Assembly Elections. 

The following table gives 

us the percentage of votes by each parly in 

the district. 







Percentage of votes 


Party 

1952 

1957 

1962 

1%7 

Congress 

23.9 

23.6 

28.6 

32.7 

Communist (Rightist) 


- 

5.8 


Communist (Marxist) 

— 

- 

- 

0.3 

Jan Sangh 

3.1 

1.3 

3.7 

5.3 

Swatantra 

— 

- 

2,0 

9.4 

Samyukta Socialists 

- 

— 


6.5 

Praja Socialists 

— 

20.9 

20.4 

9.5 

Ram Rajyn P.'trishad 

6.7 

- 



Independents 

66.3 

54.2 

39.5 ' 

35.3 

Total 

100.0 

m.Q 

100.0 

100.0 


398 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


The following table gives the electoral turnout during the four 
General Elections in the district. 




^ 

Percent Turn out 



District/ 

State 

1952 

1957 

Increase or 
decrease in 
vote conscious- 
ness over 1952 

1962 

jnerease-*^ increaseor* 

or decrease 1967 decrease in 
in vote con- vote conset- 

sci'obsness ousness over 

over 1957 1962 

Bikaner 

43.1 

42,0 ' 

-l.l 

48.3 

+6.3 , 51.74 

+3.4 

Rajasthan 38.2 

41.2 

+ 2,9 

52.6 

+11.4 58.19 

+5.5 


The table above is an indicator of the growing political 
consciousness among the people and their keenness to utilise their 
right to vote during the four general elections so far held in the area. 


NEWS PAPERS AND PERIODICALS 
In all 24 periodicaIsS were published from the district in 1967 
and all of them are published from Bikaner city. Of these, I w a Daily^ 
5 are Weeklies, 6 Fortnightiies, 9 Monthlies and 3 Quarterlies! 18 are 
published in Hindi, Sin Hindi and English (bilingual) and one in 
Hindi, English and Sanskrit (multilingual). Some of them are not 
regular in their publication. ,Brief particulars of the periodicals are 
described below ; 

Daily 

Kalam — The only daily paper of the district, first published in 
1966, is printed, at Shiv Printing Press, Bikaner. Priced at 5 paise per 
copy, it covers news and current affairs. Shri Lalit Kumar Azad is its 
publisher, owner and printer. Of the 2,000 copies printed, 1,571 are 
sold, and the rest are distributed free of charge. 

Weeklies 

^ Cliuru Express - — This Hindi weekly was started in 1961 and is 
printed at Lakshmi Printing Press, Bikaner by Shri Hazari Lai Tyagi 
as its editor, publisher and'owner. It is priced at 12 paise and it gives 
news of Jocai importance and current affairs. It has a- circulation of 
l,006 copies. 

I. Report on Gencial Elections, 1962, Election Department, RSja.stban, Jaipur, p. 67. 
7. J^ourth General Elections - ./t Statistical Review, 1967, Election Department, 

Rajastnsn, Jaipur, pp. 4,and 81, 

3. Press in India, 1967, Part, 11, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. 
- Government of India, New Delhi, pp. 625-63. 


Public Life And Voluntary Social Service Organisations 


399 


.Lokmat — It is the oldest periodical of the erstwhile State, first 
published in 1947 from Lokmat Karyalaya located in civil lines on the 
hospital road in Bikaner city. Its founder, Shri Amba Lai Mathur, 
continues as its editor, publisher, printer and owner. It is published 
in Hindi and printed at its own press known as Lokmat Press. The 
paper covers general information and local news and costs 19 paise. 

Senani — The publication of this Hindi weekly was started in the 
year 1950 from the Senani Karyalaya located in Pharon Ka Bazar, 
Bikaner city, by its printer and editor, Shri Sekfaar Chandra Saxena. 
Priced 20 paise, it covers local as well as news of national importance. 
40 per cent of its 5i900 copies which are published are supplied free 
while 60 per cent of them are solds. 

Times of RTijastIwn—Shvi Abbey Prakash Bhatnagar is the 
owner, editor, printer and publisher of this Hindi weekly published at 
its own press, Times of Rajasthan Press, Bikaner. Priced at 15 paise, it 
covers local news and current affairs of State importance. It claims 
1,627 subscribers out of the 2,0 0 copies printed. 

Vartman — First published in 1951, it is printed in Hindi nt 
Maheshwari Printing Press by its editor, owner and publisher, Shri 
Mangi Lai Mathur. ft contains general news of local importance and 
other information. Its office is housed in Chopra building on the 
station road. Out of the 2,000 copies printed, 1,800 are sold while the 
rest distributed as complimentary copies free of charge. 

Fortnightlics 

Fron/iVr First started in 1966, this newspaper is printed 

at Gopal Printing Press and published from Chhabili ghati goga gate, 
Bikaner. Its editor, publisher and owner is Shri Lalchand Vyas. Its 
circulation is claimed at 1,000 copies (sold 250 and distributed free 
750 copies). Priced at 15 paise per copy, it covers news and current 
affairs of local and regional importance. 

Jagrat Shramik — It is owned by the Gypsum Mine Workers’ 
Union, lamsar and covers topics of interest to labourers and workers. 
It was started jn 1963 and is published in Hindi. Its editor is 
Vireodra Nath Gupta and is printed at Adarsh Mudranaiaya, Bikaner, 

Maheshwari Sewak — Owned by Shri Ram Chandra Binant. this 
periodical in Hindi w.as first published in 1956. Its office is locafcd 'on 
the station road, Bikaner and is printed at Maheshwari Printing Pfess. 



400 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers-— Blkanci 


It covers topics of interest to the members of Mabeshwari community 
and is priced at 30 paise. Its circulation is claimed at 1,865 copies 
(sold 1,540 and free distributed 325 copies). 

Mazdoor Express — First published in 1965, it is edited, owned 
and printed by Shri Tikam Chand Kbatri. It is printed at Adarsha 
Mudranalaya, Bikaner and published from Chhabili ghati, Bikaner; It 
deals with topics relating to labourers and their problems and is priced 
at 15 paise per copy. 

Shak eel— Jhis was first published in 1962. Its owner is Shakeel 
Ahmed. It is printed at Adarsh Mudranalaya, Bikaner and its editor, 
publisher and printer is Ahmad Hasan Quadri, Its- price is 10 paise 
and it covers important information regarding films and movies in 
Hindi. The paper claims a circulation of 2,000 copies (sold 1,026 and 
. distributed free, 974;. 

Shramanopasak — ^It is owned by Akhil Bharatvarshiya 
Sadhumargi Jain Sangh, Bikaner. Its printer, publisher and editor is 
Jugraj Sethia and is published for the welfare of the community. It is 
printed at Educational Press, Bikaner and is priced at 25 paise. 
Circulation number is claimed to be 2,411, (2,284 to subscribers and 
127 copies for free distribution). 

Monthlies 

Gantantra Morcha — ^First published in 1965, this newspaper is 
edited, owned and printed by Shri Shiv Shanker Purohit. It is printed 
at Gopal Printing Press, Bikaner and priced at 15 paise each copy. It 
covers news and current affairs of regional importance. 

Rnjastlran Shikshalok — Published in Hindi and English, it was 
started in 1959. Its owner is Jugal Rish ore Joshi and editor Shri 
Girdhari Lai. It is printed at Maheshwari Press, Bikaner. Its price is 
50 paise. It covers educational topics. 

Rajastb'an Swayatta Sftasan — It is again a bilingual (in Hindi and 
English) periodical started in 1963 and, published every month by the 
Rajasthan Local Self-Government Institute, Jaipur. Shri Govind Narain 
is its editor and publisher who gets it printed at Maheshwari Printing 
Press, Bikaner. Its subscription is SO paise per copy. 

Rnjastimn Guidance News Letter — First published in 1965, it is a 



Public Life And Voluntary Social Service Organisations 


401 


bilingual monthly, dealing with matters of educational interest. It is 
printed at Government Press, Bikaner by the State Bureau of 
Educational and Vocational Guidance, Government of Rajasthan, 
Bikaner. Its editor is Shri Govind Narain Mathur. Dr. Gopal Krishna 
is its printer and publisher. 

Swasthya Sarita — This Hindi magazine was formerly published 
from its own press Swasthya Sarita Press but now from Maheshwari 
Press, Bikaner. Its editor and owner is Shri Govind Narain. Priced at 
50 paise, it deals with topics concerning health and medicines. 

Shivira Paprika — First started in 1966, it is published from the 
office of the Additional Director, Primary and Secondary Education, 
Bikaner. It is printed at Government Press, Bikaner and owned by 
the Department of Education, Government of Rajasthan. Its editor 
is Shri Anil Bordia. Priced at 50 paise each copy, it covers news 
regarding current affairs. 

Sahitya Sarita — First published in 1965, it is owned, printed 
published and edited by Surya Prakash Bissa. It is mainly a literary 
and cultural magazine, priced at 25 paise each copy. It is published 
from Surya Prakashan Mandir, Bikaner. 

Shiksha Jycti — An Educational monthly, started in 1963, it is 
published in Hindi and English at Jawahar Press, Bllancr and is priced 
at 50 paise only. The name of (he owner and publisher is Vidya Sagar, 
while the editor is Girdhari Lai. 

Vatayan — It is a Hindi magazine being published since 1961. Its 
office is located in Daga building, Bikaner and its publishing and 
proprietory right vest in Harish Bbadani. It is printed at Educational 
t ss. Bikaner by its printer, Shekhar Chandra Sazena and its editor 
is Shri Visbwanath. It is a literary and cultural magazine. Its circula* 
tion number is 3,566 (sold 2,625 and distributed free, 941 copies) and 
its price is 70 paise. 

Quarterlfes 

Hamca Sadka—'nih is ewnrd by the K.H, Medical Institute 
located on Gajner ro.ad. Bikaner. It is printed in Hindi by its editor 
R. N. Bhafi, si Javaher Frirtirg Press, Bikener. Its subscription per 
copy is 7S paise. ltdtn’s with topics on health and medicine. Its 
cifcubtion is 200 copies only. 



402 


RSjastban District Gazetteers'— BUcaner 


Naya Shikshak— This publication was started in 1950. It is a 
bilingual (Hindi and English) periodical. Published under the authority 
of the Director of Primary and Secondary Education, Rajasthan, 
Bikener, at the Government Press, Bikaner. Its circulation is stated to 
be 2,500 copies. It covers literary and cultural topics. 

' Vishvambhara— It is the only multilingual quarterly in Hindi, 

Sanskrit and English languages, published in the district. It bdongs to 
Hindi Vishva Bharati Nagari Bhandar, Bikaner. Vidyadhar Shastri is 
its editor and it is printed at Maheshwari Printing Press, Bikaner. It is 
devoted to literature and culture. It has a circulation of 400 copies, 
priced at Rs. 2 per copy. 

Others 

Besides the local news papers, a large number of All India news 
papers and periodicals have a considerable number of readers in this 
district. The major national dailies and Rajasthan dailies enjoying 
State wide circulation are sold in large numbers in Bikaner, Lunkaran- 
sar, Gangashahr, Naukha and Kolayat. The main daily papers in 
circulation are the following: 

The Hindustan, The Navbharat Times (from Delhi) and 
Rashtradoot, Rajasthan Patrika, Lokvani (publication suspended for 
some time) from Jaipur, Veer Arjun (Delhi) and Nav Jyoti (Jaipur), all 
Hindi dailies which are widely read in the district. The Hindustan, 
Times, The Times of India, The Indian Express, The Sunday Standard 
and The Statesman (all in English) published at Delhi also find a fair 
number of readers. 

The weekly papers in demand are Dharmayug (Bombay), 
Saptahik Hindustan (Delhi), Urvashi (Bombay), Yojna (Delhi), Ai’a/u 
(Jaipur), ///MS/rated IPeek/y (Bombay), Blitz (Bombay), Zink (Delhi), 
Sports and Past Time (Madras) and Rtjastimn (jarettP rwindi ^nd 
English). 

The following , monthly magazines and literary periodicals arc 
also fairly popular-5'arika (Bombay) , Sarita, Rangbhumi, Chitra Lok- 
all in Hindi and published from Delhi; Navneet (Bombay', and 
Niharika (Agra), in Hindi; and, in English Readers Digest (U.K.) and 
English Digest (U.K.). 



f ublic Lrfe.^nd Voluntary Social Service Organisations 


m 


VOLUNTARY SOCIAL SERVICE ORGANISATIONS 
Indian Red Cross Society 

The State Branch oF Indian Red Cross Society has been carrying- 
on its humanitarian work in the district. Apart from the normal 
activities of the society, relief to famine and draught stricken people is 
organised, which is almost a regular feature of the area. Articles viz.^ 
milk, multivitamin tablets, peas and various other materials are 
supplied to district authorities for distribution among the poor and 
the needy. 

The State branch has also been running a training school, at 
the district headquarters for providing training facilities in General 
Nursing of three and half years’ course, each of the trainees gets a 
stipend of Rs. 80 per month. According to the scheme, these trained 
nurses are likely to be absorbed in the Rajasthan Medical EJepartment 
hospitals which are short of them. 

Bharat Sewak Sanuij 

District branch of the Bharat Sewak Samaj was established 
recently in Bikaner to organise camps, arrange for plan publicity and 
encourage such activities as would lead to national integration among 
the various sections of the society. Besides undertaking these social 
activities, it started, in 1965, a College known as Nehru Sharda Rceth 
(Evening College for such persons who cannot pursue their studies in 
day-colleges;. The College, affiliated to the Rajasthan fJniversityv 
Jaipur, runs the degree classes in Faculties of Arts and Commerce. 
The college has been trying to build a good library for the benefit of 
is students numbering 153 (1966-67). 

Besides, the Samaj has collaborated with the district administra- 
tion in the distribution of rations in Bikaner city through five shops 
opened in various localities recently. Rifle training is imparled to the 
citizens so that they may serve the nation in need and adversity. It 
helps the landless peasants in getting land. The Samaj enjojs full co- 
operation of the people in general. 

Shri Bikaner Maliila Mandal 

This inslituti^;n svas started on 15th August, 1947 by a group of 
ladies prominent among them bcign Shrsmati Gulab Kumari Shekhawat 
and Sar.'iswati Devi Moh'aia. ii.s object is to promote education 



404 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers—Bikaner 


among women. It has been doing useful work for the all round 
development of women. Besides short term educational courses, it has 
started classes for knitting, weaving, tailoring, adult education, fine arts, 
dance and music. For the care of children accompanying mothers at 
the various classes, necessary provision has been made by the Institu- 
tion. It has extended its activities by opening several branches of 
this type in the city. The Mandal also organises social service camps, 
exhibitions, and public meetings for the purpose of attracting more and 
more women to derive benefit from the noble work being done by it. A 
Co-operative Society named Bikaner Mahila landal Grih Udyog Sah- 
kari Samiti is also being run by the institution. So far as its financial 
position is concerned it receives, besides donations from the philanthro- 
phists, grants from the State Government, and the Central Wel- 
fare Board. 

Mahila Jagriti Parishad, Bikaner 

The Parishad was established on 2nd May, 1949 with the object 
of providing training for all round development of women of the area. 
Under its auspices, adult education centres, and centres for giving 
training in knitting and sewing, home science and cottage industries are 
running since its establishment. Efforts have been made to eradi- 
cate outmoded customs and traditions by imparting education to the 
inmates. 

Rajasthan Mahila Parishad, Bikaner 

This institution started founctioning from 1st May, I960 and is 
a branch of the All India Women’s Conference. It aims also to work 
for the all-round development of women, it provides training centres 
for cottage industries and has started a Balbadi where 56 children 
were being educated in 1965-66. Milk and mid-day meal, free of cost, 
are provided to children belonging to the families of limited means. 
Besides establishing a circulatory library, it runs a Bal Dadi. 

Bharat Ynvak Samaj 

Recently a branch of the Bharat Yuvak Samaj has been esta- 
blished at Bikaner. Its object is to work among youth and students 
with a view to training them to be good citizens. Their programme 
includes holding of seminars, camps, study circles and cultural pro- 
grammes for the purpose. During national emergency caused by the 
aggression of China (in 1962) and Pakistan (in 1965) against 



Public Life And Voluntary Social Service Organisations 


40 *; 


India, the Samaj co-operated with the authorities in implcmenling the 
defence programmes and its volunteers worked hard in collecting funds 
for the welfare of the fighting forces. 

Harijan Sevak Sangh, Bikaner 

Since its inception in 1945. the Sangh has worked for the amelio- 
ration of the conditions of the Harijans in the district. It has tried to 
wipe out the bane of untouchability by conferences and community 
dinners. Education has been popularised, cottage industries started, 
landless persons rehabilitated, and living accommodation with amenities 
of light and water etc., provided to the Harijans through its activities. 

Defence efforts 

Under the chairmanship of the Collecior, five district level 
committees, viz; Public Relations; Public Co-opeiation; Medical Relief; 
Contribution of women in Defence Prepaicdness and Collection of 
Defence Fund were formed, which kept their liaison with the commit- 
tees formed att ho State level for the same purposes. All classes of 
people in the district contributed to the National Defence Fund 
created to boost up the morale of the people. 

Total contribution to this Fund from Bikaner district came to 
Rs. 4,36,334 at the time of Chinese aggression in 1962 and Rs 4,20,857 
at the time of Pakistani aggression in 1965. Besides contributing in 
money, people donated gold, silver and other articles of use to the 
armed forces and their dependents'. People throrged in large numbers 
to enlist themselves as members of the Armed Forces at all the recruit- 
ing centres in the district immediately after the aggressi n. Panchayai 
saraitis of the district took necessary action to step up food production 
in their areas. A new contingent of Home Guards was raised in the 
district and people were made familiar with civil defence measures. 

Bikaner being a border district, more awareness of the danger 
was visible among people during Pakistani aggrcsM'on. The disciplined 
way in which they carried out Black-out rehearsals and other civi? 
ckfence measures specially during the crucial months of Sep enther, 
October and November,' 1965 was an indication of their resolve to 
face danger and calamity manfully and heroically in times of nation;: 1 
peril. 



Appendix I 

Details of General Elections for Parliament (Lok Sabha) of Bikaner Constituency 


406 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikiane 


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CHAPTER XIX 


PLACES OF INTEREST 


Bikaner district provides a number of places of interest to the 
tourists. It presents a true picture of the Indian desert. Sand-dunes 
ripple like waves in the shimmering heat of the sun. The full-moon 
light transforms them into a molten mass of silver. It is a sight rare 
but magnificent, which a poet would dream to put in his song and the 
artist on his canvas. Important places are discribed below : 


Bikaner City 

Founded by Rao Bika in Samvat 1545 fl48S A.o.) Bikaner was 
the capitalbf the erstwhile princely State of Bikaner and presently is 
the district headquarters. It is the only city in the district and is locat- 
ed almost in its centre. Lying between 28*01' latitude and 73'’ 19' 
longitude, the city is situated on somewhat elevated ground at a height 
of about 232 metres above the mean sea level. Spread over an area of 
38.10 sq. kilometres, the city has a population of 150,634 souls according 
to the Census of 1961. 

Though surrounded by arid lands all around, the city contains 
many lofty houses and temples and a massive fort. Carvings in red 
stone used therein arc perhaps the most profuse of all such used in the 
former capitals of Rajputana States. Viewed from a height, it presents 
the appearance of an affluent city with an imposing wall interspersed 
with many a round tower: and with a few magnificent mansions of the 
rich, the doihcs of the temples and mintrets of (be mosques, ristng abovc 
the ramparts. 

Formerly it was a walled city, but with the change of time, the 
city wall lost its significance and its maintenance became unnecessary. 
Due to growth of the population, the city has outgrown the wall and new 
colonies and buildings have been constructed outside it. There are five 
entrances in the city wall named ns Koie gate, Jassusar gate, Nathusar 
gate, Scctla gate and Gogi! gate, resides eight sally-ports. Some ofthese 
are iFsnm;a!c^?:-Ki-D7irs {Mic Voiict'i gate). {the builder's 

gate), Kcsa(o?>A%Bms (the Butcher's gate), Pahtt-Bari and Jd^ah-Ban. 

In the centre of the city there is ore Jain temple known as 
Cbiniamanrs templet frpsn where five hitfcr streets branch off which 


I. a ticrh cVestfccticc rT^}Jth cemrkted in mj .s.o. 



412 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


following a tortuous course and often losing their identity in the 
intermingling of other streets lead towards one or the other of the large 
gate-ways. At a distance of about 274 metres (300 yards) from the 
Kote gate, is situated the fort and the linking road has developed 
into a fashionable market-place for the city. Near the fort, there is 
one big tank known as Sur Sagar which was constructed by and named 
after Maharaja Sur Singh. It is the biggest tank in the city and 
remains filled with rain water throughout the year. Now the water of 
the tank being dirty can at best, be used for irrigational purposes. 

The average annual rainfall in the city is about 306.1 mm. Extreme 
heat in summer and extreme cold in winter mark its climate. The 
temperature rises rapidly after March, June is the hottest month with 
the mean daily maximum temperature at 41.5°C (106.7°F) and mean 
daily minimum temperature at 29.3°C (84.7°F). The temperature 
sometimes goes upto 49°C (120°F) in summer. During the winter sea- 
son, the temperature sometimes touches 2°C or 3°C ' below freezing 
point. Water at Bikaner is obtainable generally at the depth of 90 to 
100 metres and is said to be rich in digestive properties. It is some- 
what hard from excess of lime derived from the stratum of Ka ikar bat 
otherwise pure and healthy. Here Alakh Sagar Well, which was once a 
principal source of water supply, outside Kote gate merits special men- 
tion. ^ It is one of the two wells Lalgir got constructed after he received 
some money from Maharaja Ram Singh on his return from pilgrimage. 
Other well is at Lalgir’s birth place Sulkhaniya. For the construction 
of the Alakh Sagar well at Bikaner, Lalgir also received money from 
people important of whom was Lacchi Ram Rakhecha. Re l-stone for 
the well was brought on camels from Dulmera. It was the biggest 
and finest well of the State. Water was drawn by eight pairs of oxen 
in four directions, and carried into the city in large earthen jars or 
leather pakhals. The construction of the well was started in Samvat 
1901 and completed in Samvat 1922. However, according to one 
source the woik commenced in Samvat 1909 and completed in Somvar 
19241. With the augmentation of water-works; which supplies filtered 
water, the well is now more a thing of historical importance. Besides 
the wells, Lalgir got constructed a math on Ganga Shahar road Anup 
Sugar (Chautina) well is also very important. 

1 S-c Ra/puiatia Gazetteer , Vol. Ill A. Ttie IVestern RiiJpiitSna Stales Residency and 
Bikaner Asency, 1909, p. 383, and Alkhiya Sampraday, Chandrndon Charan, 
Bhatliya Vidya MandirShodb Pratistuhan. Bikaner, 1964, pp. 25 and 55 56. 



Places of Interest 


413 


Inside the city, the roads are well laid and three-wheeler scooters 
and tongas cater to the travellers’ needs. There is a circuit house 
(State Hotel), a dak bungalow and a number of dharainshalas, besides 
a few holelst to stay at. For recreation, there is a posh club known as 
Sadul Club, besides, the Jubilee and the Railway clubs. Three cinema 
houses viz., Ganga Theatre, Prakash Chitra and Vishwajyoti Theatre 
are also operating in the city. 

Bikaner is a good educational centre. There is a medical college, 
a veterinary college, a post-degree college, a degree college for girls, a 
poly-tcchnic and an industrial training institute. A public school, 
known as the Sadul Public School also exists, besides many higher 
secondary and middle schools. 

The city is well connected both by rail and road with Delhi, 
Jodhpur and Jaipur. It is 463 kilometres from Delhi, .377 kilometres 
from Jaipur and 276 kilometres from Jodhpur by rail. A direct train 
also goes from here to Bhatinda passing through Hanumangarh 
on the way. 


A brief description of important places of interest, inside the 
city, is given below : 

Bika-ki-Tekri (Old Fort) — Built by Rao Bika three years before 
he founded the city, the old fort is situated on high rocky 
ground in the south-west of the city. The site of the fort W'as 
determined by one Napo who was great observer of omens. It is 
in ruins and now rather a shrine than a fort. In the vicinity are the 
cenotaphs of Rao Bika, Rao Haruji, Rao Lunkaran and Rao Jet Singh 
with inscriptions giving the dates of funerals and the number of satix 
who immolated themselves on the pyre. Bika’s cenotaph was originally 
built of red stone but was later re-crcctcd in marble. 


Large jort— This fort was constructed during the reign of Rat 
Singh. It is believed that the site of this fort too was dcfcimincd in times 
of Rao Bika by omens.lt is said that Napo and Naro were sent for the 
purpose. During their sojourn, they saw one early morning a rn.m asleep 

I, SicKT JiJr.tiary. j972. well knov^n Lalgatb end Gsjntr rajaces which hlj itceniv 
were the pBtnc« cftfce Mahareja of Banner have been conversed 

jrsfo hotels. 



414 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


using a tuft of bharut grass as a piilow, and a snake was sitting over 
the tuft in a coil. Napo and Naro watched the reptile instead of 
molesting it. When the snake moved, they followed it and were led to 
the same place where they had earlier seen the incident of sheep and 
wolves. The spot where the snake had first been seen was selected by 
Napo as auspicious for erection of the fort. 

The construction of the fort started in Samvat 1645 (1589 kx>-) 
by Karam Chand the minister of Rai Singh as the latter had been 
employed as Subedar of Burhanpur by Akbar from Samvat 1642 to 
1649. Rai Singh had planned the fort and Karam Chand executed 
the plan under his orders. The construction was completed in Samvat 
1650 (1594 A.D.) the year after Rai Singh’s return from the south. 

The fort is situated at some distance, near the Collectorate, 
from Kote gate and has a circumference of 985 metres (1078 
yards). It also contains palaces which give the fort an imposing look. 
The palace buildings were raised piece-meal by successive rulers, 
nearly every one of them adding some thing. There are two entrances 
each of which has three or four successive gates having different names. 
A moat runs all around in direction parallel to the curtains without 
following the curve of the bastions. The moat is about 9 metres (30 
feet) wide at the top but narrow at the bottom, and 6 to 8 metres (20 
to 25 ft.) deep. The main entrance facing towards east is known as 
Karan Pol. Next to it, is known as Suraj Pol on the two corners of 
which arc statues of great .warriors Jaimal and Patta riding on the 
elephants. A little ahead is a big courtyard with palaces on two 
sides. Stones in excellent design adorn the palaces particularly in 
Ganga Niwas Durbar Hall. A large door of the AnUp Mahal in the 
fort has a very superior gesso ornamentation. Besides, the gilded 
carved decorations on the walls of Anop Mahal are worth admiration. 

Frescos on the walls of palaces bear originality in the design of 
trees, flowers, clouds and figures. The sensitive drawing, luminous 
colouring and the graceful curves of figures are simnly marvellous. 
They are striking examples of Rajput School of Pair.ii.ig though not 
free from the influence of Mughal art. 

The historical heir-looms of the Rathors consisting of a throne, 
umbrella, a dagger, the Barisal Nagara etc. brought by Rao Bika from 
Jodhpur are also preserved in the fort. 



Places of Interest 


415 


In one of the parts of the palace, a small armoury section is 
maintained which exhibits old arras, both offensive and defen- 
sive. The important portions of the palace are Chaubara erected by 
Raja Rai Singh; Phool Mahal, Chandra Mahal, Gaj Mandir and 
Kacheri built by Maharaja Gaj Singh; Antip Mahal is best of all and 
dates back to Surat Singh’s time; Chhatra Mahal and Chini Burj built 
by Maharaja Dungar Singh; Ganga Niwas called after and built by 
Maharaja Ganga Singh, is a handsome room the interior of which 
consists of carved red stone, ceiling of carved wood and the floor of 
marble. The palaces are open to visitors on payment of a nominal fee. 


Lalgabh Palace— It is one of the most magnificent buildings 
in the city of Bikaner and is at present the residence of the Maharaja. 
The palace is situated outside the city at some distance. It was cons- 
tructed by Maharaja Ganga Singh in the beginning of this century in 
memory of his father Lai Singh. It is built of red stone and has 
attractive carvings. Details of highly carved work can also be seen 
in the main porch of the palace, which consisting of rich floral 
devices with their curly and sinuous tendrils, expressive figures of 
animals and gods and goddesses from Hindu mythology, all blended 
in harmonious patterns, create ornamentations of great beauty and 
charm. Inside the palace, the flooring has mostly been done in 
marble. Within the compound, beautifully planned garden has been 
laid out; and its one of the corners bristles with a swimming pool 
with attractive lighting arrangements. The palace has about a 
hundred suits and a very rich library containing some original 
documents and rare books. A full-sized statue of Lai Singh faces 
the palace. 


Ganga Niwas Porlic Park— Named after Maharaja Ganga 
Singh, the Park is situated in front of the fort near Sorsagar. 
Its inauguration ceremony was performed in a.d. 1915 by the then 
Viceroy Lord Hardings. Its main gate was called, Queen Empress 
Gate, and it is approachable through five other gates. The park is 
well planned and is attractively designed. In one corner 
stands Maharaja Dungar Singh's, statue of marble. Facing the 
m.ain gate is the bronze statue of Maharaja Ganga Singh on a horse 
back, .Adjacent to it is a tank named after Egerton who was 
the tutor of Maharaja Ganga Singh. Almost in the centre inside 



416 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


the park, stands a tower in red stone. The collectorate, court of the 
district & sessions judge, other executive and judicial courts, 
office of the State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur, office of the Urban 
Improvement Trust, Telephone Exchange, Ganga Theatre etc. ar 
located inside the park. 

Ganga Golden Jubilee Museum— A visit to the museum is a 
rewarding experience. Details about this have been given on pp. 360-362 
of this volume. 

Laxmi Narain Temple— Among the temples of Vaishnavas, 
the temple of Laxmi Narayan (also called Laxmi Nath) is 
considered to be the principal one. Situated near Bika-Ki-Telcri, it 
was built by Rao Lunkaran who ruled Bikaner between 1505 and 1526 
A.D. During the reign of Maharaja Ganga Singh, a beautiful park 
was laid in the compound of the temple for general use which has fur- 
ther added to its beauty. Other important temples of Vallabhacharis’ 
are Raj Ratan Bihariji and Rasik Shiromaniji near Collectorate; out- 
side the temples is a beautiful park. Unta Devi’s temple is unique as 
the goddess is shown mounting a camel. 

Bhandasar Temple— In the south-west of the city, there is a 
magnificent temple built by an Oswal MLahajan known as Bhanda. It 
is said to be older than the city having .been built in or about 
Sanivat 1468. The temple is so high that all the parts of the city are 
visible from the top of the temple. The building has elaborate stone 
carving. Another temple, namely, Neminath his been attributed to 
Bhanda’s brother. 

Dhuni Nath Temple — Containing the images of five chief deit- 
ies— Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesh, Surya and Ganesh, the temple is 
called Dhuni Nath Ke Punch Mandir. It was constructed by one Jogi, 
Dhuni Nath in 1808 a.d. {Sanivat 1865| during Surat Singh’s time. 

Zoo — Inside the Ganga Niwas Public park, a small zoo is main- 
tained where various types of animals and birds are preserved for the 
amusement of the visitors. The Great Indian Bustard, which is a rare 
bird these days, and, which generally does not survive in captivity, is 
Vicll preserved here. Other important birds and animals kept here 
include pigeons, doves both spotted and white, surya mukhi budgeri- 
gars, parrots, parakeet, hawks, owls, ducks, flamingoes, a lion, a tiger. 



Places of Interest 


417 


leopards, sloth bear, wild pig, wolf, jackal, porcupine, black buck, 
spotted deer, chinkara, sambar, blue bull, hare, monkey, crocodi- 
les etc. 

Deshnoke 

Deshnoke, a small town with a population of 6,880 in 1961, is 
famous for the temple of Karniji. worshipped as the tutelary deity of 
the erstwhile ruling family of Bikaner. Situated in the south of Bikaner 
city, Deshnoke is connected both by rail (33 Km.) and road (30.4 Km.). 
The temple is believed to have been built by Karniji herself, in the 
fifteenth or sixteenth century and is held in great reverence. According 
to old tradition, Karniji is described as a Charan woman, gifted with 
supernatural power, who lived from 1387 to 1538 A. D. Rao Bika, 
while entering this territory in 1465 A.D. paid his respects to her. She 
is believed to have prophesied to him “your destiny is higher than your 
father’s, and many servants will touch your feet”. This prophecy 
proved true and hence she was regarded as the protectress of the 
State. Even the marriage of Rao Bika w'ith Rang Kunwari, daughter 
of Shekhn the Bhati Rao of Pagal, was dictated by the wishes of Karniji. 
Shekha paid respects to Karniji on fourteenth of every fortnight and 
styled himself her brother. Shekha did not favour his daughter’s 
marriage with Bika. However, when Karniji was approached by 
Shekha’s lady for Shekha’s release who was taken captive to the Subadar 
of Multan by Multan garrison, Karniji promised the release of Shekha 
if the arrangements of Rang Kunwar with Rao Bika were made 
forthwith. Karniji herself was present at the marriage ceremony. When 
the circuit ceremony approached, Karniji fled off to Multan and 
brought Shekha and caused him to complete the ceremony!. 

In obedience of the direction of Karniji, Bika stayed for three 
years at Chandasar and then dwelt for six years at Deshnoke where he 
frequently waited on Karniji." In former limes no outlaw taking 
refuge in this temple could be arrested, but this custom was abolished 
in: 18705. 

Historical and religious significance apart, one very distinguishing 
feature of the temple is a large number of rats, locally known as 
Karniji’s Kishas, arc seen moving about freely on the floor of the temple 

1. Po’-sklt, P. W., (Jaxeltetr of the Hikoeer Sffl.v, J935, p. 2.. 

2 . ' 2 . 

3. Jv. I?,. /vc// f.’f Xot, IIPA, The fy^e^teett Stetes 

ftestdet'iy erd Blkcrer Ater.cy, 1909. p. 3S2. 



418 


Rajastban District Gazetteers — Bikaner 


as the Kabas are fed and not molested there. To see a white rat is believed 
to be auspicious Similarly.it is believed to augur well for a man if a rat 
climbs over his shoulders inside the temple. Though the temple is not 
aichaeologically very important, the stone carving on the entrance gate 
deserves special mention. This entrance was reconstructed during the 
reign of Maharaja Ganga Singh and has attractive sculptural models in 
white marble with floral and figural design. 

The town served with a municipality is electrified and has the 
facility of water supply through waterworks. There are a Dharamshala 
(built in Samvat 1967), a rest house, a Post and Telegraph office, one 
Higher Secondary School, one Middle School for boys, one Primary 
School for boys, one Primary School for girls, a Hospital, a Veterinary 
Hospital, a Wool Production Centre, Stke Bank of Bikaner and 
Jaipur and a Police Station. 


Devi Kund 

This place is situated 6 kilometres in the east of the city. The 
members of the ruling family of Bikaner, subsequent to Jet Singh, 
the great grand son of Bika, have been cremated here. On the sides of 
the reservoir of water lie the cenotaphs of the chiefs from Rao Kalyan 
Singh to the last Maharaja Sadul Singh, as well as those of their wives 
and other important members of their families. Several of the ceno- 
taphs have beautiful structures with graceful pillared domes having fine 
enamel work on or under their surfaces, which with the lapse of time 
,lias decayed and disappeared wholly or partially. Prior to 1828 a d. 
the material used for the buildings was red 5andstone of Dulmera and 
marble, from Makrana for the commemorative tablets, but afterwards 
all important cenotaphs have been constructed of marble. On some of 
the commemorative stones, the mounted figure of the chief is sculptured 
in bqs-rchef On the lower side stand the wives in order of preccLnce 
and below the chief the concubines who mounted his funeral pyre.This is 
the general rule observed is executing the bas-reliefs excepf in case 
of A„„p S.ngl, s coo, .ph, whore Iwotof, a,„„g„i,h ,h„o oonoubioos n o 
shown s,n„d,nE front of the chief. From a stady of the tables o “ho 
cenotaphs, ,t becomes evident that as many ns twenty., wo females bn nt 

S Steh ?hf.‘ Upto L time 

^ ^ number of S’atis was over twelve to each 

chief. The cenotaph of Maharaja Raj Singh is noteworthy for con- 
taining the figure of a man named Sangram Singh, who immolated on 



Places of Interest 


419 


Maharaja’s pyre like a sati. The cenotaph of Maharaja Surat Singh’s 
second son Moti Singh, who died in Samvat 1882 (a.d. 1825) needs 
special mention. His wife Dip Kunwar, a Udaipur Princess, was the 
last distinguished sati. People still speak of her courage : she wended 
her way with uncovered face from palace to the cremation place. In her 
honour, a fair is held in the month of Bhadon (August- September). The 
last cenotaph is that of Maharaja Sadul Singh. It is made of marble 
of various colours and is of modern style completely different from 
the rest. 

Near the tank is a small palace built for the convenience of the 
royal family when they are required to attend ceremonies at Devi 
Kand. Because of a water reservoir, Devi kund is sometimes used as a 
picnic spot in rainy season. 

Gajner 

At height of 233 metres, the village is situated between IT. 51' 
latitude and IV 03' longitude inthe south-west of Bikaner city at a dista- 
nce of 32 km. by road and 35 km. by train. It is famous for the beauty 
of the lake and palace where the members of the royal family took 
resort during summer. The palace is the personal property of the 
Maharaja. Gajner is perhaps the prettiest spot in the whole of the 
district. Some details of the lake have been given earlier. Its bank on one 
side is green and wooded, while the other side is covered by the impos- 
ing palace and garden watered from the lake. Imperial sand-grouse 
in the course of their far-off journey from southern Siberia perch on 
the shores of this picturesque lake which has acquired renown as a 
place for sand-grouse shooting. Wild bores, black bucks and chinkaras 
arc also availablc on the banks of the lake. The site presents exhilarat- 
ing spectacle in the spring. 

The village of Gajner is said to have been founded by Maharaja 
Gaj Singh. It is situated in a depression and the whole place was 
submerged in the floods that occurred in the year 1933 a.d. There is a 
police st.ation, post ofiicc and a dispensary in the village. Telephone 
facilities are also available. According to the Census of 1961 the 
population of village including that of the palace was 1415. 

.langlu 

Situated in the south of Bikaner at a distance of 40 km, a small 
village known as JSngUi is of some historical significance. It is 



420 


Rajastban District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


said that the village was founded by the Rani Ajai Devi of Samrat 
(Emperor) Prithvi Raj Chauhan. A small fort was built by Sankhlas, 
the ruins of which can still be seen. To this place belonged one Napo 
Sankhla whose help and sagacious counsel was of great significance in 
the establishment of the Rathor kingdom in this region. Before Bikaner 
was founded, Rao Bika lived here for ten years and converted it into 
a flourishing place. 


Kotamdesar 

Koramdesar is a small village situated at a distance of 24 kilo- 
metres west of the city of Bikaner. There is a small tank on the banks 
of which is built a temple of Bhainwji. Here also Rao Bika had dwelt 
for nearly three years before establishment of his capital at Bikaner. 
He set up the image of Bhainmji, he brought with him from Mandour, 
on the embankment of tank. Bika also constructed a small fort hsre 
which is in ruins now. 

The place is connected by a metalled road and is electrified. 
On one bank of the tank is a small palace with a small garden. It 
has now been converted into a hotel and caters to the needs of the 
tourists. There are also. three cf/jarams/ia/ar for the pilgrims coming to 
the temple.. 

Kolayat 

' Kolayat village is situated between 27°50' latitude and 73“5;' 
longitude. Itas^dl km. south-west of Bikaner known far and wide for 
the holiness of its tank. The place is considered to be one of the most 
sacred places not only in this part of the country but throughout India. 
Worshippers come even from such distant places as _NepaI. The cent- 
ral feature of the place is a tank with a temple of Kapil Muni regarded 
as the originator of the Sankhya system of Indian philosophy. An 
annual fair from KarUk Sudi 13 to Agrahan vacH 1 is held to commemo- 
rate his visit to the place which is believed to have been hallowed by his 
feet. Many other temples have also been built and several bathing 
glwts, separate for men and women, and shaded by Peepal Neem and 
Khejra trees adorn the banks of the tank. Many people visit Kolavat 
round the year to gain religious merit and some during rains for picnic 
and pleasure. '* 


The place is approachable both by rail (50 
road 51 km. from Bikaner. It is the headquarters 


km.) and metalled 
of the tahsil as also 



Places of Interest 


421 


of the panchayat saraiti. The village is electrified and recently water- 
works has been commissioned. There are a number of dharamshalasircni ■ 
free rest houses) which can accommodate hundreds of persons at a time. 
Besides, there is office of Public Works Department, rest house, a secon- 
dary school, a primary school, a primary health centre and a police out- 
post; post, telegraph, telephone and banking facilities are also avail- 
able. Heavy floods came in the area in samvat 1990 (1933 a.d.) which 
washed away the palace and on its site now stands the tahsil building. 
The population of the village was 834 according to the Census taken 
in 1961. 

Lunkaransar 

It is the headquarters of the northern most tahsil and panchayat 
saraiti of the same name. The village takes its name from Rao Ltin- 
karan, the third ruler of the State, and is about 68 km. by road in 
north-east of Bikaner. Distance from Bikaner by train is 81 km. 
According to the Census of 1961, the population of the village was o f 
the order of 2,791. There being no sweet^ryater available. even today, 
drinking water has to be supplied by dr&mP'liropt^Bikaner. There is a 
higher secondary school, a girls’ middle scllpol, a pnlice^tatiori ahd a 
dispensary. Post and telegraph?, fadifitTes are-dlso . available ’here.* 

Mokam 

At a distance of 16 kilometres'lfrom Na^ha^h^^ies a small 
village known as Mokam, thc':s^cre^’pl'aSe''bf,^b£'ffish6di community 
where the earthly remains of the heleb ra t cd_J.^blrt shwarji, founder of 
the sect, lie deposited. The village hasTBcen' in existence for more than 
five centuries. Twice a year a fair is held in commemoration of 
J ambheshwarji; the main fair is on Phalgun Krishna 15 which is 
attended by more than 12,000 persons coming from all parts of the 
country; and the subsidiary fair on Aswin Krishna 14 to Amavasya 
attended by nearly 4,000 persons. The village has four dharamshalas 
and a middle school. 

Naphsnr 

It is a village with a population of 6,634 souls situated in the 
south-east of Bikaner city at a distance of about 2S km. byroad and 
lies on the Dclhi-Blkancr branch of the northern railway. It Iks between 
2?®58' latitude and 73*33' longitude. The place is famous for the manu. 
tijcture of woollen blankets and Ms, and though on a verj- small scale is 
humming with Industrial activity. Tisc village comes under the jurisdiction 



422 


Rajasthan District Gazetteers— Bikaner 


of the gram panchayat and all civic amenities are looked after by it. It 
has a primary health centre, a higher secondary school, and a police 
station. Wells are the main source of water supply though piped vvater 
is also made available through waterworks managed by the gram 
panchayat. Electric facility is also available inside the town. Post, 
telephone and telegraph facilities are also available. There are four 
dliaraii.slialas in the village. 

Naukha 

Naukha is a prosperous numdi. It is situated between 27°35' 
latitude and 73°26' longitude. It is at -a distance of 60 km. by road 
and 65 km. by rail from Bikaner. The town has a municipality, a 
secondary school, a primary health centre and three dharamshalas and 
enjoys banking, telephone and telegraph facilities. It has population of 
7,740 persons according to 1961 census. 

Pugal 

Pogal is situated in the west of the district between 28'’31' 
latitude and 72®49' longitude. It is 80 km. from BTlianer and is 
a place of some historical importance. It is one of the oldest villages 
of this region and is said to have been taken by the Bhatis from the 
Parmaras in the middle of the ninth century. When Rao Bika invaded 
this area nearly five hundred years ago, he took to wife the daugh- 
ter of Shekha of Pugal, and several of his successors also married in 
the same family. Elphinstone passed through this tract on his way to 
Kabul in 1808 a.d. and described it as “a sea of sand without a sign of 
vegetation”. A few temples also exist there which belong to Bhati 
community. The place is famous for its milch cows and plough- 
bullocks. According to the Census of 1961, the population of the 
village was 963. The village is connected with Bikaner by bituminised 
road. 

Shco Bari 

About half way between Devi Knnd and the city of Bikaner but 
at some distance to the south of the road, lies the village known as 
Shco Bari. The place is known for its finely built modern temple 
dedicated to Lord Shiva. A fair is also held here in the month of Savan 

every year. The village has a population of 2,537 according to the 
census of 1961. 



A SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. A Descriptive list of Farmans, Manshurs and Nishans, Direc- 
torate of Archives, Government of Rajasthan, Bikaner (1962) 

2. A Guide to' Rajasthan Cattle Fairs, 1958-59, Department of 
Animal Husbandry, Rajasthan 

3. Agarwal, Govind, Swami Gopaldasji ka Vyaktitva Evam 
Kartitva, ISagar Shri Churu (V. S, 2025) ' 

A Aitchison, C. U.-, A Collection of Treaties, Engagements and 
Sanads, Vol. Ill (1932) 

5. Alkhiya Sampraday, Chandradan Charan, Bhartiya Vidya Man- 
dir Shodh Pratishthan, (1964) 

6. Baherjec, N.R., The Iron Age in India, Munshiram Manoharlal, 

Delhi (1965) 

7. Bikaner Pragati Ke Path Par, Public Relations Department 

8. Biswas, Chittaranjan; Bikaner, the Land of Marwaris, The 
Indian Publishing House, Calcutta 

9. Boilcau, A. H. E., Personal Narration of a Tour Through the 
Western States of Rajwara comprising Beekaner, Jesulmer and 
Jodhpur with the passage of the Great Desert and a Brief Visit 
to the Indus and Bahavvalpoor (1935) 

10. Bulletin of the National' Institute of Sciences of India, 
September 1952 

11. Census 1951, Rajasthan and Ajmer, District Census Handbook, 
Bikaner, Part I, General Description and Census Tables, 1956' 

12. Census 1951, Rajasthan and Ajmer, District Census Handbook, 
Bikaner, Part 11, Primary Census Abstract or Village Directory, 
1956 

13. Census of India, Paper No. 1 of 1962, 1961 Census, Final 
Population Totals 1961, Manager of Publications, Government 
of India, Delhi, 1962 

14. Census of India, 1961, Vol. XIV, Rajasthiln, Part II-B (i) &.(ii), 
General Economic Tables, MaiTaccr of Publications, Govern- 
ment of India, Delhi (1965) 

15. Census oflndia, 1961, Rajasthan District Census Handbook, 
Bikaner District, Government of Rajasthan, 1967 

16. Census of India, 1961, Vol. XIV, Rajasthan, Part H-A^ General 
Population Tables, Manager of Publications., Government of 
Indsn, Delhi (1964) 



424 


17. Census of India. 1961, Vol. XIV, Rajasthan, Part II-C (i), Social 
and Cultural Tables, Manager of Publications, Governtnent of 
India, Delhi (1965) 

18. Census oflndia, 1961, Vol. XIV, Part VI~B, Village Survey 

Monographs, Mudh, Manager of Publications, Government of 
India, Delhi (1965) 

19. Delimitation ofConstituencies for General Elections, Election 
Depanment, Government of Rajasthan for the years 1951, 
1957 and 1967 

23. Erskine, K. D., Rajputana Gazetteer, Vol. Ill- A, The Western 
Kajputana States Residency and Bikaner Agency (1909) 

21. Four Decades of Progress in Bikaner (1937) 

22. Fourth General Elections, 1967, A Statistical Review, Election 
Department, Rajasthan, Jaipur (1967) 

O^dS)”’ 

Administration in Bikaner State (18i8- 
lW),^unpubltshed Ph.D. Thesis. University of Rajasthan, 

(ed), Ain-i-Akbari of Abul FazW-AIIami, 

Samp^adaya Aur 

SSrcr,^196r Potentialities and Development in 

7m' V. Fart I. Ajmer 

Raj.sS* Development Department, 

Biography (^ 9 ^ 7 )’ the Maharaja of Bikaner A 

(1935) ' ^ State (Reprint), Bikaner 

34. Rcpoftof the Bikaner Bantino r ■ 

35. Report on General Elections 196^^1"^ Committee (1929) 

Slhan, Jaipur ’ ^^‘^‘^t'on Department, Raja- 

3<5- Report on the First Gencni ci .• 

Elocioa CommU*!.'™' “ “ 



425 


37. Report on the Fourth General Elections in India, 1967, Vol. II 
(Statistical), Election Commission, India 

38. Report on the Second General Elections in India, 1957, Vol. II 
(Statistical), Election Commission, India 

39. Report on the Third General Elections in India, 1962, Vol. II 
(Statistical), Election Commission, India 

40. Reports on the Administration of Bikaner State, for various 
years 

41. Reports on the Livestock Census of Rajasthan, 1961, 1966, 
Board of Revenue, Rajasthan, Ajmer 

42. Ruial Credit Pollow-up Survey (1956-57), General Review 
Report, Reserve Bank of India 

43. Second Five Year Plan, Progress Report, Rajasthan, 1956-61, 
Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Rajasthan, Jaipur 

41. Statistical Abstract, Rajasthan, yearly volumes for various 
years. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Jaipur 

45. Subba Rao, B., Personality of India, Baroda (1958) 

46. The History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol. I, George 
Allen & Unwin Ltd., London (1957) 

47. The History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol II, Bhartiya 
Vidya Bhavan, Bombay (1960) 

48. The History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol. Ill, Bhartiya 

Vidya Bhavan, Bombay (1962) 

49. The House of Bikaner, An official publication of the Bikaner. 
State, Bikaner (1933) 

50. Tod, James, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vols.T, II & 
111, edited by William Crookc, Oxford University Press (1920) 

51. Tiititya Panch Varshiya Yojna Pragati Prativedan, 1961-66, 
Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Rajasthan, Jaipur 

52. Webb, W.W„ The Currencies of Hindu States'of Rajputana (1893) 



GLOSSARY 


Ahadi 

Abimsa 

Asami 

Betalab 

Bh'ainin 

Bhajan 

Bidi 

Bara 

Chak 

Chorkha 

Cbhach 

Chiapas 

Chhutbhai 

t ‘ J 

Dal 

Dam 

Danedor 

Dharinda 

Dhanmshala 

Faujkharch 

Ghditi 

Gotra 

Gram 

Gramsabha 

Guru 

Halka 

Hat 

Havihhr 

Uaqa 

Khadi 

Khalsa Vi1laf!e 
Fhoiedar 


Habitation 

■Non-violence 

Client 

■Without a pond 
A Hindu deity 
Hymn 

Indian crude form of cigarette, tobacco rolled in 
leaves 

A gunny bag 

A territorial division of (agricultural) land in rural 
areas 

A spinning wheel 
Butter-milk 
Printers of cloth 

Among Rajputs, sons, generally Cadet, not asce- 
nding the gadi 
Pulse 

A coin of medieval period 

Granular 

Endowment 

A house for pilgrims; an inn built out of philan- 
thropy 

Military expenses, also a tax 

An indigcncous contrivance for crushing oilseeds 

Clan 

Village 

Village council 

Teacher 

Jurisdiction 

A mart; market place 

Police official 

Area 

Hand spun and hand woven cloth 
Land directly managed by the State; crown land 
Tenants on agricultural land enjo ing occupancy 
rights 



427 


Khejra 

Khillat 

Kirana 

Kirtan 

Kisan 

Kotwal 

Krishi Nipun 

Kuppi 

Lambardar 

Loliar 

Mahal 

Maharani 

Maktaha 

Mistri 

Mukhtyar 

Naka 

Namda 

Namaz 

Nazim 

Nazr 

Nigaratiidar 

Niwar 

Paiighat 

Papad 

Parda 

Pargond 

Palhshala 

PatU'dar 

Pcepal 

Quazi 

Raj 

Rosgtdla 

Hath 

Sagai 

Sapmd 

Samadin 

Sanad 


Prosopis Spicigera 

A robe of honour or other ceremonial present 
Grocery 

Recitation accompanied by music 

Farmer, Cultivator, tiller of the land 

Police officer 

Expert in agriculture 

A flask to hold oil or ghee 

A revenue official 

Iron-smith 

A revenue jurisdiction during the Mughal period 

Queen 

Urdu school 

A craftsman 

An attorney 

An outpost 

A kind of woollen blanket 
Muslim prayer 
Revenue official 

A present or offering from an inferior to a 

superior 

Supervisor 

Wide and compact cotton tape used in weaving 
a bedstead 

Place from where water is drawn 

Wafer 

Veil 

A revenue area 
School 
Land owner 

The bo-trcc, same as pipal 
Mohammedan judge; an official associated in a 
Muslim marriage 
The Government 

A typical round and spongy Bengali sweet 

Chariot 

Betrothal 

Collateral 

Cenotaph 

Grant or authority 



248 


Shradha 

A propitiatory rite performed for the dead 

Sirkar 

A division of the territory during Mughal period 

Sowar 

Rider 

Siibah 

A province 

Talao 

Pond, tank 

Thakur 

Chief 

Tbana 

Military outpost, also police station 

Thathera 

A tinker 

Thikana 

A chiefship, an estate 

Tonga 

A horse driven carriage 

Tulsi 

Holy basil or Ocimum Sanctum, Linn 

Vakil 

Pleader 

Yajna 

An ancient Hindu institution of religious sacrifice 
and oblation 



INDEX 


A 

Abhay Singh 42, 44, 45, 46 

Abhaya Jain Granthalaya 362 

Abhaya Raja 358 

Abhey Prakasb Bhatnagar 399 

Abu Mahmad 354 

Achalgarh 32 

Ac((s) 

Bikaner Compulsory Primary 
Education Act (1928) 326; 
Bikaner Hindu Marriage Act 
(1928) 103; Bikaner Municipal 
Act 321; Bikaner Prisons Act 
(1927) 30J; Bikaner Public 

Gambling Act (1923)304; Bikaner 
Specific Relief Act (1923) 304; 
Bikaner State Co-operative Soci- 
eties Act (1920) 191; Bikaner 
State Land Revenue Act 276; 
Bikaner State Limitation Act 
(1920) 304; Bikaner State 

Registration Act (1916) 304; 

Bikaner Village Panchayat Act 
329; Christian Marriage Act 106; 
Compulsory Primary Ed-ication 
Act 341; Co-operative Societies 
Act 190, 191; District Board 
Act (1935) 328; Employ- 

ment of Children Act 315; 
Factories Act 1 65, 315; Gambling 

Act (1889) 304; Hindu Inheri- 
tance and Succession Act (1956) 
101; Hindu Marriage Act 

(1955) 105; Hindu Succession 
Act. (1956) 101; Indian Biolers 

Act 315; Indian Divorce Act 106; 
Indian Evidence Act 306; Indian 
Registration Act (1908) 283; Land 


Revenue Act 263; Legal Practi- 
tioners Act (1925) 308; Limita- 
tion Act 306; Maternity Benefit 
Act 3 15; Minimum Wages Act 
1 76, 245. 256; Municipal Act 
324; Municipal Amendment Act 
(1928) 324; Native Coinage 

Act (1876) 79; Payment of Wage; 
Act 315; Police Act (1922) 293; 
Prison Act (1927) 301; Public 
Safety Act 66, 67; RajasthaE 
Animals and Birds Protection Act 
(1951) II; Rajasthan Cash Jagirs 
Abolition Act (1958) 280; Rajas-» 
than Forest Act 12; Rajasthan 
Land Revenue Act 281; Rajas- 
than Land Reforms and Resump- 
tion of Jagirs (Amendment) 
Act (1954) 280; Rajasthan Land 
Revenue Act (1956) 277, 281; 
Rajasthan Motor Vehicles Act 
284; Rajasthan Municipalitj 
Act (1959) 326, 327; Rajasthan 
Panchayat Act (1953) 330; 
Rajasthan Panchayat Samilis 
and Zila Parishads Act (1959) 
331; Rajasthan Passengers and 
Goods Taxation Act (1959) 21 1; 
Rajasthan Tenancy Act 280, 281, 
282;Rajasthdn Town Municipali- 
ties Act 322 323, 324, 32% 327; 
Registration Act(lg93) 304; Salei 
Tax Aci(I954) 285; Small Cause 
Courts 304; Stamp and Courts 
Fees Act 304, 306; Stamps Act 
284; Tenai.cy Act (1945) 272; 
The Rajasthan Discorttinuanct 



430 


of Cesses Act (1959) 281; The 
Rajasthan Gramdan Act 282; The 
Rajasthan Land Reforms and Res- 
umption ofJagirs Act(1952) 280; 
Weights and Measures Act 205 
Adarsh Mudranalaya 399, 400 
Additional Collector 264 
Administrative system 67 
Adoni 40, 41 
Adoption Sunnud 74 
Adult 

-education 351; -franchise 327; 
-suffrage 332 
Africa 87 

Agar Chand Nabta 355 
Agarwal 186 
Aggression 25 
Agreement 79 

Agriculture 130-136, 333. 349 
Ahadi (Imperial messenger) 39 
Ahmadnagar 37 . 

Ahmedabad 157, 166, 349 

Aln-i-AIcbari 266 

Ajai Devi, Rani 420 

Ajit Singh 42, 47, 51 

Ajit Singh (Mohil) 24 

Ajmer 27, 31, 35, 45, 297, 302, 340 

Akalwala 392 

Akbar 30, 31, 32, 33, 275, 356, 414 
Akha Teej 114, 115 
Akhai Raj, Rawal 47 
Akhil Bhartiya Charan Sabha 67 

Akhil Bhamtvarshiya Sadhumargi 
Jain Sangli 400 

Alakh Sugar 96, 412 
Alakbgirs 95-96 
Ali Khan 48 
All India 

-Congress Committee (also 
see Congress) 65; -Radio 318; 

-States Peoples’ Conference 395; 
Women’s Conference 404 


Allahabad 21, 351 
Alwana 54 
Alwar 313 

Amar Singh 37, 45, 120 
Amarchand 51 52, 53 
Amarsar village 362 
Amba Lai Mathur 399 
Amber 28, 35, 38 
Ambika Bhatt 3 -6 
Amir Khan 51, 52, 53 
Amrit Manjari 356 
Anand Hotel 215 
Anand Singh 45, 46 
Anga 266, 267 
Anil Bordia 401 
Animals 10 

Anti-locust Department 134 
Annp Mahal 414 
Anup Mahodadhi 355 
Anup Ratnakar 355 
AnUp Sugar 412 
Anup SangH Ratnakar 355 
Anup Sangit Vilas 355 
Anup Sanskrit Library 41,357 
Anup Singh 39, 41, 81, 353,354, 
356, 357,418; -his death 354 
AnUpgarh 35, 50, 305 
Anupoddeshya 356 
Anuppiir 45 
Appa Sahib 47 
Arabian sea 5 
Arbitration 69 
Archaeological finds 19 
Archaeologists 21 
Architecture 63 
Archives 313 
Arid tract 7, 62 
Armed Forces 405 
Army 26, 41, 51 

Arson 76 

Artificial insemination Centre 141 



431 


Aryans 21 
Ashladhyayi 22 
Asia 86 

Asiatic countries 87 
Assembly 65, 390, 407 
Assistant 

-EmpIoymentOfficer 247; -Settle 

ment Officers 275 
Attock 38 

Aurangabad 39, 41; Subah 37 
Aurangzeb 38, 39, 41, 361 
Aurel Stein, Sir 20 
Aushadhalayas 377 
Australia 139 
Avantika 117 
Ayodhya 1 1 7 
Ayttdh-jh'i-Kshatriyas 22 
Ayurved 251, 253; -dispensaries 377; 
Ayurvedic 

-Aushdhalayas, list of 381; system 
of medicine 365, 377 
B 

Babur 29 

Bachawat Karamchand 32 
Bada Bas 330 

Badinoo 207 

fiadopal (a village) 20 

Bag 354 

Bagar 356 

Bagh Singh 30 

Bahadur Singh Rawal 50 

Bahawal Khan 50 

Bahuwalpur 50, 55, 62; -district 1 ; 
-State 20 

Bahis 188 
Baid 35 

Bairam Khan 30 
Bajoo 289 

Bajra 114. 239, 240, 241, 242, 243 
Bakhai 47 

Bakhat Singh 42,44, 46; -of Naaaur 
43, 45, 46 

Bakhtawar Singh hkhta 44. 48 


Balai 385 
Baldwa 389 
Baluchis 32 
Baluchistan 6 

Banaras 60; -Hindu University 60; 

-School 101 
Bandi 1 1 
B mdra 163 
Banerjee, Dr. 21 
Baniyas (also Banias) 89, 105 

Banjar 273 
Banjaras 188 
Bank 

Central Bank of India 194; Cen- 
tral Co-opeiative Bank Ltd. 172, 
192 194; District Central Co- 
operative Bank 334; of Bikaner 
193; of Rajasthan Ltd. 172, 194; 

' Postal Savings, Bank 192^bnjgb 
Nationalk^^iririCtd. ^ 122.7^.4^ 

1 , 8 /;; 

m^^Ban096;'sTa'te'^nfW 
& 5^11^372,124; State" 
Bank '-'192,^1513; Uni^d 
dbq^ercia^^aBlr^t«5.'172/194 

Bahiang Jb r q tdf^^^mmittee fl929) 

186l')hy' 

Banmali Das 40, 41 
Bap 2 

Bar Association 225 
Bar Singh 27 
Barahgawar 350 
Barani areas 277 
Barhai Chaulh 36 
Barley 243 

Barsalpur (also Barssaipur) 148,289 
Barsingbsar 140 

2b6 

I Battle 26. 47 
i Baw&ria 385 



432 


Bay of Bengal 14 
Bayley, C. S. 80 
Begar 279 

Beggars Vagrants 233 

Behari Lai 354 

Bellary 40 

Bengal 32, 147 

Beniwal Pargana 53 

Besungpeer 207 

Bhadra 47, 53; -tahsil 53 

Bhadra Ram 355 

Bhagchand Bhati 40 

Bhagwat Parana 354 

Bhairon Ratan Matri Pathshala 350 

Bhairun (also Bhairo) 25, 98, 420 

Bhairun Singh 61 

Bhakhra 

-and Rajasthan Canal Projects 
310; -Hydel power 158; -Nangal 
Grid 157 

Bhand 385 
Bhang 384 

Bhangi 385 
Bharat 

-Sewak Samaj 403; -Yuvak- 
Samaj 404 
Bharat Vyas 356 
Bharu or Bharru 5, 319 
Bhati(s) 22, 23. 24. 26, 35, 37, 42. 
46, 54. 266; -Rajput 1 19; -Rao 
25,417; -Thakurs40 
Bhati, R. N. 401 
Bhatia 

-tank 3, 128, -Village 128 
Bhatinda 22, 159, 162, 172, 213,214, 
413 

Bbatiyanwala 393 

Bhatncr 19, 20, 22, 23, 29, 30, 33, 44. 

50, 53; ~Fort 31 
Bhatti(s) 48, 50; Chief 51 
Bhatti Khan Bahadur 50 
Bhava Bhatta 355 

Bhira Singh 44, 46; -of Mahajan 44 


Biramdeo 30 
Bhimraj 29, 30 

Bhinarsar 84, 142, 315, 322, 323 
-Municipality 327; -town 85 
Bhinl-ka-bach 267 
Bhoodan 282; -Yagna Board 28 2 
Bhujia 114, 171 
Bhukarka 43 
Bbunga 267 
Bhutneer 70 
Bichhwal 9, 10, 12, 140 
Bida 25,26,28,54 
Badasar 61, 163 
Bidawatfs) 28, 54, 58 
Bigor 50 

Bijay Singh 46,47,49,50 
Bika (also see Rao Bika) 1,24,25,26. 
27,28,37, 54,81, 91,115, 119, 120. 
261,266,411,413,414.420.422 
Bika Bhimrajot 41 
Bika-ki-Tekri 413.416 
Bikampur 38, 46 

I Bikaner (also Beekaner or Bikaneer) 
9, 12, 13, 16, 17. 18, 24, 27, 
29, 30, 31, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 
42. 43, 44, 45. 47. 48, 49, 52, 53, 
55, 56,57, 58,59, 62,63,64, 65, 66, 
67,69.70. 85. 90, 94. 97, 99, 
139, 141, 142, 143, 145, 146, 148, 
158, 159, 161, 162, 165, 167, 168, 
169, 170, 176, 185, 186, 199, 201, 
205, 206, 207. 208. 213, 214, 215, 
216.217,225.238.240.241,242,244, 
247,249, 252. 262, 266, 273, 275, 
277, 286, 288. 293. 295, 296, 306, 
311,312.313.315,316 317,319, 
320, 329, 340, 344, 352. 353, 356, 
358, 361, 374. 377, 378. 387, 389, 
396. 402, 404, 412, 417; -and 
Jodhpur divisions 317; -Banking 
Enquiry Committee 185, 188, 
196; -Chief 37; -Chief 



433 


Court 261; -City 1, 3. 6, 25, 26, 

42, 59, 63, 84, 144, 156, 158, 
166, 172, 193,210, 213, 223, 241. 
349, 350, 368, 371, 390, 391, 
398, 399, 407, 408; -Compulsory 
Primary Education Act (1928) 
326; -Conspiracy Case 66; -Dak 
Bungalow 215; -Darbar 80;-Day 
66; -district 2, 4, 16, 17, 19,21, 
24, 83, 86, 129, 135, 156, 161, 
165, 177, 191,201, 216, 222. 230, 
232, 234, 238. 250, 253, 255, 264, 
270, 278, 305, 314, 322, 343, 
352, 395,405, 411; -division 8, 
19,61,383; -dynasty 29; -employ- 
ment market 249; -force(s) 42, 

43, 51. 59; -fort 26, 32, 357, 413; 
founder of 24; -gadi 39; -gypsum 
383: -High Court 322; -Hindu 
Marriage Act (1928) 103; -Jail 
301,*-Mahila Grih Udyog 360; 
-Mahila MandalGrih UdyogSah- 
fcari Saraiti 360, 404;-Mandi 200; 

-Municipal Act 321; -Municipal 
Board 324; -Municipal Council 

(Municipality) 32-!, 323, 326, 
336. 341; -Nizamat 1, 2, 278; 
-North 2, 262, 277; -north sub- 
division 83; -Officers (officials) 
48, 50; -Panchayat Samiti 1 34. 
140, 332, 33S; -party 39; -police 
station 29S; -political case com- 
mittee 66; -Prisons Act (1927) 
30t; -Public Gambling Act(I923) 
304; -Railway 146,213; -Railway 
S'.ation 297;~Rajya P/sja Manda! 
67 : - Representative Assembly 6 1 ; 
-ruler 43.44; -School 354;-south 
2 , 262, 277; -south sub-dhision 
83; -Specific Relief Act (1923) 
304; -State 1, 2. 7, 19, 20, 22,23, 
24, 50, 53, 54, 61, 64, 65, 67, 


78, 79,85,91,95, 115, 190. 194. 
196, 198, 203, 205, 213,. 216, 
242, 261, 266, 271, 277, 279. 
285, :87, 297, 302, 308, 318, 
321, 322. 326, 329, 343, 350, 
365, 383; -State Code of Civil 
Procedure (1920) 304; -State Co- 
operative Societies Act (1920) 
191; -State Government 195, 283; 
-Slate Land Revenue Act 276; 
-State Limitation Act (1920) 
304; -Stale Motor Spirit Ration- 
ing Order (1941)203; -State Rail- 
way Employees’ Co-operative 
Society 190; -State Registration 
Act (1916) 304; -State Savings 
Bank 65; -Station 217; -TahsiS 
4, 83, 86, 129, 149, 222, 268, 
269, 272, 273. 274. 275, 337, 
390, 392, 407; -territory 43, 45; 
throne 261; -troops 45, 52; -vill- 
age panchayat Act 329; -Woollen 
Press 156; -wool 166 
Bilingualism 89 

Biramsar 163 
Birds 1 1 

Birth rate 36S; -and death rate 367, 
368 

Bisbnois 10, 89, 94 
Bithu G<'pi Dan 356 
Black buck 10, 417, 419 
Black cap 11 
Blacksmith 42 
Black-out 405 


Blankets 156 
Blind school 348 
Blue bull 10, 417 . 

Board(s) 

Dfstrict 328; Bhoodan yagna 
282; Municipal 321, 326, 327, 
32f; -of Revenue 275, 277; -of 
Secondary Education 348 , 

Bombay 66, 157, 166, 170,20 



Border 56; -area 54, 319; -district 
405 

Borstal Institution 301 
Boundary 50, 55 
Bradford, Captain 58 
Brahat Gujarat Sangit Samiti 349 
Brahmacharyashram 65, 200 
Brahinan(s) (also Brahmin) 99, 105, 
111, 186, 340 
Breeding season 1 1 
Bricks 20 

Brigadier-General G.S.P. Lawrence 
56 

Bristol 60 

British 53. 54, 55, 56, 58, 62, 64; 
-dominions 57;-Empire Exhibition 
198; -Force 58; -Government 48, 
52,53, 54, 55, 56, 58.59,62,68,69, 
72,75; -India 65, 66, 68, 78.185, 
205; -Officer 62; -Provinces 65; 

-Resident 53; -territory 70; 
-troops 53 

Buddha 91 

Buddhist 20 

Buffalo 138 

Bundi 361 

Burglary 76, 292 

Burhanpur 32, 34, 36, 41, 414 

Burton, Captain 56, 58, 216 

Bye-Election(s) 391, 392 

C 

Cabinet mission 64 
Cabul 70 

Calcutta 67, 166, 170 
Camel 135; -corps 59, 60, 366 
Capital 1, 26, 30, 143, 321, 41 1 
Caste(s) (also see Scheduled Cas- 
tes) 89, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 
107, 113, 385, 386, 388 

Cattle 137; —Fairs (also sec fairs) 
142, 155; -Guards 8; -theft 76 


Census 83, 84, 85, 87. 88, 109, 124, 
221. 222, 228, 231, 232, 235. 
237, 238, 249, 349, 385, 411. 
417,419, 421, 422 
Central 

-Arid Zone Research Institute 8, 
9; -Assembly 62; -Bank of India 
194; -Co-operative Bank Ltd. 172, 
192, 194; -Government Depart- 
men t(s) 249; -Statistical Organi- 
sation 1; -Telegraph Office, 
Bikaner 216 
Ceremony 104 
Chahamanas 22, 23 
Chahi 273 

Chalukyas (Solankis) 23 
Chamar (also see Scheduled Caste) 
93. 95, 385 

Chamber of Princes 60 
Chancellor 60 
Chandasar 25, 417 
Chandi 160 
Chandra Mahal 415 
Chandra Sen 32 
Charan(s) 25, 44, 356, 417 
Charan wala, village 129 
Charkhas 147 
Charles Metcalf 53, 69, 71 
ChauhaD(s) 22, 23, 24; -Ajaya Deva 
23; -of Dadrewa 28 
Chayal(s) 30; -Rajputs 28 
Chayalwara territory 28 
Chhabili ghati 400; -Goga gate 399 
Chhanda Rao Jait Singhro 356 
Chhapar 35, 53 
Cilhatar Singh 58 
Chhatra Mahal 415 
Chhattargarh 311 

Chief(s) 26, 47, 52,53,58, 69. 74; 
-Judge 261; -Medical Officer 367; 
-Minister 63 
Chieftain 54 



435 


Chila 148 

Chikitsa Maltimala 355 
Child 

-labour 227; -stealing 76 
China medal 60 

China wares & Potteries, Bikaner 172 
Chini burj 59 415 
Chinkara 10, 12, 362 
Chopra 

-building 399; -katla building ^47 
Choiasan 47 

Chowdharis 266, 267, 268, 269 
Christian(s) 89, 97; -Marriage Act 
. 106 

Cburu 1, 35, 50, 5?, 53, 66. 145, 
185. 196, 213. 262 273. 277, 286, 
311, 312, 317, 383; -district 28, 
55, 56, 67. 314, 318, 343, 389, 
390; -tahsil 389 
Cinema Houses 

Ganga iheaire 413; Prakash 
Chitra 413; Vishwajyoti 413 
Circuit House, Bikaner 215 
Civil 57; -Courts Ordinance (1950) 
306; -Procedure Code 304, 
306; -Surgeon 3ui, 367 
Climate 12 
Cloudiness 14 
Cnal mine 59 
Cobra 1 1 

Cold Storage Unit at Bikaner 166 
Colcridne, Dr. 365, 366, 371 
Collecior :62, 263.307, 3M, 335, 

405; -additional 264; -his court 
277 

Collcgefsl 

B-J. S R. 346; -Degree College 
35l:~Dung3r College 299, 346 
34S; Dunsar Memorial College, 
345; -Education 34] ; Jain Degree 
College 346; Mahanmi Sudar- 
shna College for Women 3*16,350; 


Mayo College 59, 340; -Nehru 
Sarada Peeth 346, 403; Teachers 
College 224; -of Vcteiinary and 
Animal Husbandry Science 347 
Colonisation Commissioner 310 
Colonisation Minister 276 
Commanders 27 
Commerce 88, 349 
Commercial Taxes Officer Appeals 
286 

Commission 61 
Commissioner 277 
Committees municipal 321 
Communist 390, 393; -Right 397; 
-Marxist 397 

Community Development 250, 252 
Compulsory 

-insurance 224; -Primary Educa- 
tion Act 341; -State Insurance 
Scheme 195 
Communication 62 
Confederacy 30 

Concress 65, 389, 391, 392, 393, 
394. 397 

Consolidation of holding 251 
Constituency 389, 390, 391, 393 
Constitution Committee 64 
Constituent Assem ly 64, 68 
Cooperative 

-Credit System 189; -Movement 
190 31 7; -Society 404; -Societies 
Act 190, 191 
Coronation 60 

Cotton Cloth and Yarn (Control) 
Order (1943) 204 
Cotton Ginning &. Baling 178 
Council 58, 63 

Cour((s) 75. 303; -Collectoiatc 277; 
High Court 62. 304 322; Munfif 
Court 307; -Of wards 27U, 271; 
-of Tahsildars 277 
Cow 137 



436 


Crime(s) 292, 293 

Criminal 57; -Procedure Code 306^ 
307 

Cripps Mi'Sion 64 
Crops 144 

Culpable homicide 76 
Cultivators 87, 88 

Customs 275; -Act and Manual and 
Tariff 285; -and Excise Depart* 
ment 285; -Office 318 

D 

Dabgar 385 
Dabli 50 
Dacoits 55 

Dacoity (Dacoitee) 54, 56, 75, 2 2 
Dada-ji-ka-Mela 1 19 
Dadav 3 

Daga Building 357, 401 
Dak Bungalow(s) 215, 413 
Dal Mills 180 

Dalpat Singh 33, 34, 35, 36, 8l 

Damodar Trilok 356 

Dams 32, 266 

Dara 38, 39 

Darogas 89, 95 

Darshani 1 87 

Dash-Kumar Prabandh 356 
Daitayvez 188 
Daulatabad 37 
Daulatkhan 28 

Dawa-Silwa, a village 6, 163 
Dearness allowance 223 
Death 

Causes of 369; -feasts 190; -late 
367, 368 

Deccan 32, 36, 39, 40, 41, 42 
Defence fund 405 
Degree College 351 
Dchra Dun 349 
Deities 416 


Delhi 6, 29, 32, 35, 36,37. 39, 42, 
48,53,55, 66, 166, 170, 171, 172, 
213; -Sultan 25 
Deluxe Hotel 215 

Democratic Decentralisation 250, 
263; -Scheme 122, 351 
Department (s) 

-of Commerce and Industry 198; 
-of Customs and Excise 285; -of 
education 401; -of Excise and 
Taxation 285; -Industries 206; 
-Revenue and Irrigation 276 
Deputy District Development Officer 
263 

Derawar 22 
Desert 22, 23, 25, 319 
Deshnoke 9, 25, 44, 48. 141,142,168, 
315, 323, 344, 351; -Fair 117; 
-Hospital 374; -Municipality 328; 
-Police Station 296: -town 85. 
417 

Development 331; -blocks 352 

Developmental works 3 19 

Devhuti 116 

Devikund 54, 418, 422 

Dewan 57. 61 

Dliaman 10 

Dhankia 385 

Dharmpura 300 

Dharamshala{s) 215, 388, 413, 4 IS, 
420, 421, 422 
Dharm Shastra 356 
Dheda 385 

Dhirera (also Dheerera) 5, 159, 288; 

-Railway station 159 
Dholera 5 
Dhonkal Singh 51 
Dhuan, a house tax 267, 290 
Dialect(s) 89, 356 
Diarrhoea 369 
Didwana 45, 239 
Dip Kunwar 419 



437 


Director 313, 340; -of Civil Supplies 
203; -of Education 63; -of 
Primary and Secondary Educa- 
tion 402 

Directorate of Economics and 
Statistics 243 
Diseases 370, 371 
Dispensaries, list of 380 
District(s) 1, 2, 3. 12, 17, 56, 83, 87, 
97, 99, 100,103, 110, 131, 139, 
221, 227, 292, 317, 340, 344, 372, 
383, 405; -Administration 317; 
-and sessions judge 264: -Board(s) 
328,329; -Board Act (1935) 328; 
-Development Officer 262, 263; 
-Employment Officer 247; -Jail 
Hospital, Bikaner 373; -Level 
Officers, list of 265; -Level 
Officers, meeting of 264; 
-Magistrate 2, 66, 262, 263; 
-ofNSgaur 37; -ol Rajasthan 
205; -Record Officer 262; -Sirsa 
72 

Divisional Commissioner 2, 262, 277 

Divisional Forest Officer 8 

Diwan Rao Mehta Bakhtawar 48 

Diyatra 289, 296 

Dome 385 

Domination 25 

Draught 403 

Dravidian 21 

Dress III 

Drinking v^aier 37 1 

Drishad Vati 19 

Dronpur 28 

Dry land 19 

Duda 27 

DuahwakhSra 67 j 

DufT'jrlrt 7K .. i 

Dalmera 5. 6. 159, 162, 213, 412 ! 

418 , 'j 

Dungar College 299, 346, 348 | 


Dungar Memorial College 341 
Dungar Singh 48, 58, 59, 82, 197, 
198, 261,415 
Dnngargarh 390 
Dangarpur 42 
Durand, H. M. 78 
Durbar 24, 25, 39, 53, 270 
Dttrga saptasari 353 
Dwarika 117 
Dysentery 369 

E 

Earthquakes 7 

Edinburg (also Edinburgh) 60 
Education 319,340.341,347, 405; 
Adult 351; Board of Secondary 

348; College 341; -Department 
342,349,351,359; Director of 340; 
Director of Primary and Secon- 
dary 402; General 345; -for Girls 
350; Primary 334,341,351; Profe- 
ssional 345; Social 351; Special 
345, 351: Women 351 

Educational 

-Institutions 351; -Levels 236; 
-Press 400 
Edward Trevelyan 53 
Egerton 415 
Egypt 60 

Elcction{s) 323, 332; Bye 391, 392; 
Details of General 406-410; First 
General 389,406, 407; Fourth 
General 393,409-410; Second 
General 389,406.408; State Ass- 
embly 390; Third General 390, 
392. 396, 397, 406, 408 
Electric power 59 
Elphinstone 52, 133 
Emigration 84 

Emperor 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39. 
48, 361; -Ahmad Shah ,48; 
-Alnrngtr II 48; -Parruk Siyar 
197; -labangir 32-/-33; -of -Delhi 
54 



438 


Employment 247; -Exchange 247,248, 
249; -in Woollen, Carpet making 
or shawl weaving establishments 
256; -Market information 249; 
-Market Information Programme 
247; -of childrcn Act 315; 

Emporia of Rajasthan 170 
Engineering 349 
England 60 

English East India Company 69 
Enquiry Committee 185 
Entertainment 334 
Epidemices 84 

Erskine, K. D. Major, 156, 209, 216, 
239, 244, 366 

Establishment Reporting System 249 
Europe 63 

European(s) 56, 72; -countries 63 
Excise 

-Manual 285; -stamps 275 
Extradition 78; -Treaty 57,75 

F 

Factories Act 165, 315 
Factories,' list of 178, 182 
Fagan, P.J. 58, 268 
Fair(s)115: cattle 142, 154, 155; | 
-Beshnoke 117; Jain 1 19; Jctha ' 
Bhutta 118; Kcnyara 118; Kod- 
emdesar 118; Kolayat 1 16, '154; 
Mabajan cattle 154; Mokam 
116; Naginiji 118; Nar Singh 
Chaturdashi 118; Naukha Cattle 
154; Kidmalsar 1 19; Shiv Bari 
118; Sujandesar 118 
Family Planning 318.319 

Faminep) 55,59,143, 147,403; -relief 
331 

Far East 63 
Farm workers 226 
Famik Slwhi rupee 197 
-Fatchgjrh 50 
Fatehpur 28 
Paitfdar 36 


Fatijkharch 51 
Fauna 10 
Field publicity 319 
Fine & Pharmaceutical, Chemicals 
etc. 182 

First and Second Five ‘Year Plans 
(also see Planj 173 
First Five Year Plans (also see Plan) 
209,250.343,344,'377,378 
First General Election(s) 389, 406, 
407 

Five Year Plan (also see Plan) 131, 
263 

Flowers 99 
Fodder 137, 147 
Folk songs 111 

Foodgrains Control'Order 203,241 
Foodgrain Futures and Option Pro- 
hibition' Order (1942) 241 
Follow-up Survey 245 
Forces of Jaipur 51 
Forest(s) 10,156; -Department 7, 8, 
9; -Guards 8; -Nursery 9 
Forgery 76 

Fort(s) 25, 26, 29. 32,42,44,47,49,50, 
52, 54, 357,413, 414; -of Bhatncr 
42,51; -Bikaner 26, 32, 357, '413; 
Old Fort 44 
Forward Block 397 
Fourth General Eleclion(s) 393, 409, 
410 

France 60,63 
Franchise 64 
Freeman 60 
Fullers’ Earth 5 

G 

Gadi 46, 58 

Gadia Lohar Co-operative Society 
at Bikaner 168 
Gai Bhitm ka Bahru 30 
Gaj Mandir 355, ^15 



Gaj Singh 46, 4?, 48, 49, 50, 82, 
143, 197, 354, 419 


Gausliala(s) 142; . -at . BhinSsar, 
Bikaner, Deshnoke, Napasar and 


Gajanand 356 

Gajner 10, 12, 16, 52, 126, 168, 
419; -Lake 3; -Palace 362; 
-police station 296; -preserve 8 

Gambling Act of (1889) 304 
Game Sanctuaries 12 
Gandhara 20 
Gandhi 

-Adhyayan Kendra 358; -caps 65; 
-Shanti Pratishlhan 358 
Gang Canal 62, 261, 276 
Ganga (also Gances) 35, 95 
Ganga Golden Jubilee Tuber Culbsis 
Hospital, Bikaner 373 
Ganga Niwas 360, 414, 415 
Ganga, Rao of Jodhpur 29 

Ganga Shahar 6, 84, 140, 163, 168, 
216, 322, 323, 326, 344, 378, 402, 
412; -Hospital 374; -Municipa- 
lity 326; -town 85 

Ganga Singh 48, 59, 62, 64, 66, 82, 
126, 197, 198 , 261.271,278,280, 
283. 294. 303, 304. 356, 360, 372, 
415,416, 418 
Ganga Theatre 413 
Ganganagar 7, 185, 191, 196, 262, 
273, 276, 278, 286, 295, 311, 312, 
315, 329, 351, 383, 389; -District 
I, 22, 23. 40, 42, 50, 67, 314, 
318, 343; -Division 261,276 
Gangarada 47 
Gangasarowar 3 
Ganpati Niwas 59 
Gr.nthil 10 
Garabadesar 46 

Gnfoor or Garora 385 
Gsrsar Police Station 29f> 

Garwra Brahniln 94 


Naukba 142 
Gavaria 385 
Gaya 54 . 

Gazette oj India 79 
Genealogy of the rulers 81 
General Arnold 53 
General Education. 342, 345 

General Elections (also see elections) - 
406-410 

General Elpbinstonc 12 
Geneva 60 


Geological History 4 
Geological Survey Laboratory 161 
George Thomas 50 
Ghaggar 19; -Canal 59, 144 
Gharisar 163 
Ghazni 23 

Girda\var(s) 276, 293; -Circles 
262, 263, 277; -Inspector and 
Patwar Circles in Bikaner , 
District, list of 288*289 
Girdhari Lai 400,401 
Girls’ Schools 342; Primary 350 
Gita Govinda 353, 355 
God Hanuman 51 
Godnra 26 
Godwar 48 
Goga Gate 41 1 
Gogaji 94, 98 
Gogra 71 
Gokal 148, 

Gokul 354 
Golconda 40 
Golden Jubilee 63, 360 
Gopal Krishna 40} 

I Gopal Printing Press 399, 40t 
Gopalpura 61 
Goshalns 142 

Govemmeat 66, 74. 78, 157, |69, 
187, 24 L 267, 285, 311, 321 



440 


323, 326. 329, 330, 335, 341, 386; 
-high school 63; -Hospital, 
Gajner 374; -Labor Welfare 
Centre 176; -of Bikaner 185; 
-of India 1, 5, 63, 134, 172, 
287, 306, 373; -of Rajasthan 9, 
159, 171, 273, 314, 327, 348, 
362, 386, 387, 401; -Policies 

317; -Poly-technic, Bikaner 
174; -Press 166, 401,462 
Governor 40; -General 53, 55,56, 58, 
61, 69, 72, 75, 79; -of Bhatner 
35; -of Surat 32 
Govind Narain 400, 401 
Grains 11 

Gram 239, 240, 241, 242, 243 
Gram Panchayats 337 
Gramdan 282 
Gramsabhas 282 
Grass hoppers 11 
Gratuity scheme 224 
Great Indian bustard 11, 362 
Great Indian Desert 2, 19 
Greeks 21 
Green Hotel 215 
Grit (Bajari) 6 
Groves 9 
Gtiar 242 

Gndah village 127 
Gujarat 22, 31 
Gujarati Rajput Style 353 
Gujarmal, Rao 45 
Gulab Kumari Shekhawat 360 
Qulamwala 392 
Gulu and Hasan 354 
Guptas 21 
Guriala 139 
Gurjaras 22 
Guru Gorakhnath 119 
Gypsum 5, 166, 249; -mine(s) 171; 
—Min# Workers Union, Jam'^ar 
399 


Habitation 19 
Hakims 275, 365 
Hakra 20 
Hakumats 275 
Halgat 267 
Hali 267 
Hamera 148 
Hamid Ahmad 354 
Hamid Ruknuddin 354 
Hansi 56 

Hanumangarh 19, 20, 22, 23, 29, 51, 
146, 361,413 
Haqq daiil 267 

Harappa 20: -Culture 20; -Period 
19, 21 

Hares 10, 12 

Harijans 65, 405 

Harish Bhadani 401 

Harkaras 38 

Hasan Khan Bhatti 44 

Hasan Mahamud 354 

Hashim 36 

Hasil 266 

Hastinapur 21 

Hath Udhar 188 

Hathi Singh Champawat 35 

Havaldars 267, 275 

Hayat Khan 40 

Hazari Lai Tyagi 398 

Heirlooms 27 

Herman Goetz 20, 21 

High Court 62, 304 

High Schools 345, 351, 352 

Higher Secondary Schools 351 

Highway 54 

Hills 2,10 

Himalayan boundary 6 
Hindi 63; -poetry 354; -Sahitya 
Sammelan 359 

Hindu(s) 41, 89, 95, 97, 100, 105, 
107; -Inheritance and Succession 



441 


Act (1056) 101; -Law 74, 101, j 
102, 106; -Marriage Act (1955) 
106; -Society 100, -Succession 
Act (1956) 101 
Hindukush mountains 7 
Hing Laj Mata 98 
His Highness Silver Jubilee 145 
Hisar 25, 26, 28, 30, 35, 36, 45, 47, 
48, 56; -territory 26 
Home Guards 405 
Hospitals 62, 372, 388; A. P. 
Hospital, Pogal 374; Deshnoke 
374; Dispensaries, Hospitals and 
Primary Health Centres, list of 
382; District Jail Hospital, 
Bikaner 373; Ganga Golden 
Jubilee Tuberculosis Hospital, 
Bikaner 373; -Gangashahr 374; 
General 372; Govt. Hospital, 
Gajner 374; Military Hospital, 
Bikaner 373;. Northern Railway, 
Hospital, Lalgarh 374; Palana 
374; Police line HospitaJ,Bikaner 
373; Prince Bijai Singh Memorial 
Women’s Hospital 373; Railway 
Hospital, Bikaner 374; -Rajas 
than Medical Department 403; 
Zenana 373 
Hostel 347 

House Rent Allowance 223 

Household Industry 230, 234, 236, 
238, 254 
Htikmanama 270 
Humayun 29 
Humidity 14, 17 
Hukum Engineering Works 16S 
Htikumafs 267 
rnmdis 187 

I 

fjara 266 

Imptria! 45; -Army 29, 30,, 38; 
-Court 32,34,35, 4|‘-db'pkasurc 


' 34, 39; -forces 36; -messenger 

39; -Post offices 216; -postal 
unity 216; -Service 31, 366; 
-Service camel corps 145; 
-Service regiment 60; - throne 
38; -troops 27; -War cabinet 
60 

Indaka Baia 6, 160 
Indebtedness 189 
Independence 64 
Independent 390, 391, 392, 397 
Indigenous Bankers 186 
Indcr Raj 52 

India 20, 21, 43, 55, 58, 59, 61, 62, 
63, 64, 65, 68, 74, 86, 137, 157, 
167, 299, 349, 353, 405 

i Indian 

-Army 60; -Boilers Act 315; 
-Civil Service 80; -Council of 
Agricultural Research 138; 
-desert 411; -Divorce Act 106; 
-Evidence Act 306; -Historyl93; 
-National Congress 65, 395; 
-Penal Code 306, 307; -Red 
Cross Society 403; -Registration 
Act (1908) 283; -Round Table 
Conference 60; -Sculpture 361 
Indigenous bankers 187 
Indigenous system of medicine 377 
Indo»Pak border 319 
Indology 358 

Industrial 

-area 168; -Estate 165. 167, 172, 
176; -Training Institute, Bikaner 
174 

Industry 334, 383 
Infanticide 54 
Influenza 84 

I Inmates , of penal, mental, and 
I charitable instiiotions 233 
1 Instcis il 



442 


Inspector General 295; -of police 
294: -of Customs and Excise 285 

Insurance 194, 226, 383 
Interim Government 64, 68 
Iron Age 21 

Irrigation 59, 137; -works 334 
Ishwari Singh 46 
Islam 41 

Ismail Kuli Khan 32 
J 

J. Adam 71 
Jackal 10 
Jackson 55 
Jagat Singh 51 

Jagir(s) 36, 43, 145; -lands 270;, 
- Militia 293; -villages 67 
Jagirdars 8, 57, 61, 67, 92, 303 
Jahangir 361; -his reign 36 
Jai Appa Sindhia 47 
Jai Jangaldhar Badshah 39 
Jai Narain Vyas 66 
Jai Singh 354; -of Jaipur 45 
Jail 

Bikaner 301; Central 300, 301, 
302, 366; -Dispensary 302; 

District 300,301, 302; -Pancha- 
yat 302; -Pathshala 350 
Jaimal 30 

Jaimal and Patta 414 
Jain(s) 89, 91, 97; -bronze image 
362; -Degree College, Bikaner 
346; -fair 119; -Priests 365 
Jaipur 46, 50, 51, 96, 171, 172, 2l6, 
293, 313, 317, 353, 354; 

-Maharaj 45; -Radio station- 
217; -Ruler 44, 50 
Jaimalsar 5 

Jaisalmer 22, 26, 28, 36, 37, 47, 59, 
311; -district 1, 2; -State 22 
Jakhaniyan 37 

Jamadars 216 
Jambhcslnvarji 116, 421 


Jamsar 5, 139, 159, I66„ 171„. 176, 
288 

Janardhan Bhall.355 
Jangal territory 21 

Janglu 24, 25, 148, 419; -territory 
25 

Jan Sangh 391, 392, 393, 397 
Japri 37 
Jarasar 330 
Jariba 269 

Jasrasar 289; -Police station>296 
Jassusar gate 41 1 
Jaswant Singh 58 

Jat(s.) 23, 25, 26,36, 68, 89, 92,. 
186 

Jawahar Press, Bikaner 401 
Jesulmer 207 

Jet Singh 29,47; -Rawal 28 

Jetha Bhutta fair 118 

Jetsar 7 

Jetsii Rao 81 

Jhajba 148 

Jhambho ji 94 

Jhans or Jhansal 26 

Jhujhar Singh 36 

Jhunjhunu 286, 312; -district 319 

Jingar 385 

Jodha 25,27; -Rao 24 

Jodhpur 24,25.27,29,30,42,43,44,45, . 
46,47,48,50,55,91,172,213,239.261, 
313,353.354,413,414; -Army .24;' 
43, 52; -border 59; -district. 1; 
-division, 8, 44; -Gadi 29, 51; 

-ruler 44; -Sirdars 51;:-troops, 
43, 45 

Jogai25 

j Jogira Talao 6 
Johar, Bir 8, 9, 10 

Johiya(s) 22, 23, 28, 40, 42, 44; 

-War territory 22 
^ Jowar 241,243 



443 


Judge 

District 307,* District and Sessions 
264, 299; Sessions 301, 306 
Judicial 

-Functions 332; -system 303 
Judiciary, Separation of 62 
Jugal Kishore'Josbi 400 
Junior Basic Schools 351 
Jurists 224 
Justice 66 
Jwalaprasad 54 

K 

Kabas 417,418 

Kabul 12, 32, 33, 36, 52, 55, 422; 

-expedition 58 
Kachhawahas 23,33 
Kaisar-i-Hind 60 
Kalbelia 385 
Kalidas 353 
Kalikaran Kchrot 25 
Kalu 350 

Kalyan Mai Lodha 52 

Kalyan Singh (Rao) 29,30,31,81,418 

Kalyanmal 28 

Kalyanmal, Rao 353 

Kamad 385 

Kamdars 271,280 

Kararan 29 

Kanchi 117 

Kandhal, Rao'24,25,2r> 

Kangra 6 
Kanjar 385 
Kmkcra 10 
Kannauj 22.27 
Kaoni 319 
Kanungo 265 
Kanvni $ 

Ran'var Charter Ssr.^'h 356 
'Kanya Patnsbala 550 
RrtpU Musi t!6, 117,420 
RapUayatan 116 


j Kapra Rangai Chhapai Utpadak 
Sahkari Samiti Ltd. .Bikaner 170 

Karachi 157 

Karam Chand 32,36,414 

Karan Singh 37,38.39,40,81,354.355 

Karanpur 7 

Kami Singh (Maharja) 360 
Karniji 25, '44, 48, 98, 117, 417 
Rasi 117 
Kasids 216 

Kasturba memorial fund 67 
Kautuka Sarodwar 355 
Kayam Khanis 28 
Keatinge, R. H. 77 
Kcnyara fair 1 1 8 
Kerali Suryyarmasya 356 
Kesari Singh 38,39 
Key Village Scheme 1^0 
Khadi 65,249; -and Village Industries 
Board of India 169; -Bhandar 67; 
Ooni Giah Udyog 169; -Gramo. 
dyog Pratishthan 16y;-Mandir 
169: -Organisation 147 
Khaha 267, 269, 270 27!^, 273, 279; 

-Villages 58, 277 
Khan Azam 33 
\ Khan Khana 32 
Khan of Nagaur 28,29,3 1 
Khandcla 27 
Khandi 188 
Khanejahan Lodi 36 
Khangarh 5! 

Khara 148 
Kharbara 40,129 
JC/ianr 240 
Khata Pet a 1 88 
Khatcdnri rights 281 
. Khotedars 279 
' Khatic 385 

’ Khejri in 

KhcfM h!af.i 94 
I Khctri Raja 55 



444 


Khiali of Jaipur 55 
Khillat 53,54 
Khillut 72 
Khoji 295 
Khokhera 330 
Khorasaun 70 
Khuda Bakhsha 50,51 
Khudi 3 

Khunta bandi and Pancharai 279 
Khurdgot 293 
Khursan 33 
Khwaja 

-Hasan 36; -Miiinuddin Chishti 31 
Khyata 24 ! 

Kilns 20 

King Edward VII 60 
King Emperor George V 357 
Kingdom 22,23,30,31 
Kinia 3 

Kisan Janata 389,406 
Kisan Janata Samyukta Party 389 
Kisans 67 
Kismidesar 6,161 

Kolayat 3,19, 124,129, 134, 139,141, 

1 42, 160, 1 64,1 66,250,277,289,37 1 , 
390, 396, 401, 408, 410; -Cons- 
tituency 392; -fair 116; -lake 1 17;| 
-Out-post 296; -Panchayat Samiti 
332, 339; -tahsil 2,4,5,6,10,83,86, 
148,215,262,268,269,272,273,274, 
275,337; -Village 420 
Koli 385 
Korad 279 

Koramdesar 9, 25.26, 140, 142; -fair 
118 

Kota 313 

Kotc Gate 357,411,412,414 
Kotri 6,160 
Krait 1 1 

Krishan.Sliankat Tiwari, Pandit 356 
Kshatriyas 94,99 
Kuchaman 51 


Kukoo 207 
Kumbha Asan 358 
Kumbhana 288 
Kunta 266 
Kttru Jaugalah 21 
Kushanas 21 

L 

Labour Welfare 383, 384; -Centre, 
Bikaner 384; -Centre, Jamsar 384 

Lachhi Ram 96 
Ladnu 57,389 

Lady Elgin Girls School 350 

Lag 266, 283 

Lakelets 3 

Lakes 23 

Lakshmi Das 41 

Lakshmi Narain Temple 96 

Lakshmi Printing Press 398 

Lai Chand Vyas 399 

Lai Singh 47, 415; -of Bhadra 44 

Laleshwar 118 

Lalgarh (also Lallgarh) 320, 353, 
-Outpost 298; -palace 360,415 

Lalgir 95,96,412 
Lalit Kumar Azad 398 
Land Revenue Act 263 
Language 41, 88, 358; -of the State 
356 

Large Scale farming 246 

Lalai and Batai 271 

Law of Primogeniture 100 

Laxmi Narain 41 

Laxmikumari Chundawat 356 

Laxminarain Pujasar 355 

Laxminarain Stuti 355 

League of Nations 60 

Legal practitioners Act (1925) 308 

Legislation 61 

Legislative Assembly 61,64,390 
Letter Press and Lithography, Print' 
ing and Book Binding 181 
Levies 63 



445 


Lieutenant A. H. E. Boileau 207 
Life Insurance Corporation of India 
195 

Lighting 328 
Limestone 6 
Liquor 384" 

Litigation 190 
Livelihood Pattern 238 
Livestock 137 

Local Self-Government 62,32'i 
Loco shed 320 
Lodha 52 
Lohasana 55 
Lokmat Karyalaya 399 
Lok Sabha 389 
London 60,66 
Lord Irwin 62 
Ludasar Tank 46 
Lunkaran (Rao) 27,28,81,416,421 
Ltlnkaransar 3,5,10, 13, 16,85, 129, 
134.139,141,142,148,159,199,201, 
2 1 6,250,268,277,288,296,305,31 1, 
322,323,344,371,390.391,396,402, 
408,409,410; -Constituency 392; 
-Panchayat Samiti 332,339; 
-Poljee Station 296; -tahsil 2,4, 

83,86,149,262.269^72, 273, 274, 
275.337 

M 

Machali 30 

Madho Singh of Jaipur 47 
Madhya Pradesh 147 
Madhyyya-Karika 356 
Madras 147 
Mcdrcya Janyalnh 21 
Magan^’ ala 392 

M agist ratefs) 57, 301; -District 

30i. 306‘. Mun-df 306; Sub- 
Divisional 306 

Ma%ro 4,!6,39Cf 

hfah:ibharata -21 


Mahajan Chieftain 49 
Mahajan, village 46, 57, 139, 141, 
216, 288 
Mahals 26 

Maharaja (also Maharajah) 12,40, 
4 1 . 42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,5 1 , 
52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60.61,62, 
63,64,65.66.67 68,69,70,72,75,77, 
81,82,96,12 ,144,197,198,261,270, 
271,278,280,283,294,303.322,354, 
355, 356, 357;358.360,365, 372.412. 
415,418 

Maharana 42, 48; -Amar Singh 33; 

-of Mewar 48; -of Udaipur 44,54 
55; 

Maharani Sudarshan College 346, 
350 

Maharisbi Kard&m 116 
Mahashanti 356 
Mahatma Gandhi 65 
Maheshwari 186; -Printing Press 
399, 400, 401,402 Mahila 
-Jagiriti Parishad 350, 351, 404; 
-Mandal 171,350,351,403; -Sans- 
kar Kendra, Bikaner 386 
Mainasar 51 
Maize 242 
Majhabi 385 

Major 55 
Makrana 418 
Makrfi^ar 5 
Malaria 369 
Mai Singh 356 
Malarial fever 84 
Malba 267 

j Malba or Ppcldwlra 279 
! Maldeo 2930; -of Jodhpur 32 
j Malhar Rao Holbar 46 
; MalUs Khan 27 
I Maln'.anrU D; par trier, t 205 


Mahaianls) (or 
1 85. 340 


Banias) 56, £9, Mabesh 36 

.| Mar. Mg! 96 



446 


Mansab 32, 37, 39, 40, 48 
Mansabdar 36 
Man Singh 28,33,35,51,52 
Managers 226 
Manchester 60 
Mandala 25 
Mandan 25 
Mandanwar 25 
Mandhara Singh 354 
Mandis 62,188,253 
Mandor 90 

Mangi Lai Mathur 399 
Mani Ram Dixit 355 
Mankarasar 148 
Mann 116 
Manufacturing 

-of Bicycles 182; -of Ice 182 
Maratha(s) 41,46, 47 
Marh, a village (also Madh) 6, 160, 
216 

Market Committee 201 
Maroth 50; -fort of 36 
Marriagefs) 104,105,106 
Marwar 22, 24, 35, 91, 213, 353; 
-Junction 213 

Marwari(s) 87, 110 111; -women 
119 

Maternity Benefit Act 315 
Matrimony 37 
Mauryas 21 

Mayo College, Ajmer, 59, 340 

Meat 1 1 

Medical 

-Department 367, 375;'expcnses 
245; -Relief 405; -Science 345 
Meerut 53 
Meghduta 353 
Meghraj Mukul 356 
Mcghwal(s) 89, 93. 94, 385, 388 
Mehta Bakhtawar Singh 48 
Mchtar 3p.S 


Members of the British Parliament 
66 

Merchants 61 

Merger 318, 320, 345; -of State with 
Rajasthan 8 
Merta 27, 30, 44, 46 
Meteorological Observatory 13 
Mewar 28, 33, 48, 353, 361 
Middle 

-and Primary Schools 224; -East 
front 60; -School(s) 344, 351, 
352 

Milch cattle 10 

Military Hospital, Bikaner 373 
Milk Supply Schemes 171 
1 Minerals 5 

Minimum Wages Act (1948) 176, 
245; -list of wages 256-259 
Mining, Quairying, Livestock and 
Allied Activities 230, 234, 236, 
254 

Ministcr(s) 49, 63 
Mirgarh 50 
Mirza 

-Abdur Rahim 32; -Muhammad 
Hussain 31; -Rustam 34 
Mitakshara Law 101 
Mithri 5! 

Modi 186 

Mohammed Adllab Bedi 357 
Mohammedan Law 101, 106 
Mohenjodaro 20, 21, 361 
Mohalta Rasayan Shala, Bikaner 
167 

Mohils 23, 24, 26; -country 26 
Mbhilvati 24 

Mohta Trust, Bikaner 388 
Mojgarh 50 
Mokam 421; -Fair 116 
Money lenders 226 
Monsoon 14, 15 
Moons; 241 



447 


Moong'khdal 114 

Morley Minto Reforms 62 

Mortality II 

Mosques 411 

Mofh 239, 240, 241 

Moll Singh 419 ■ 

Motor Services Association 217 

Mount Abu 32, 367 

Movement 352 

Muddati 187 

Mudh (also Marh) 127, 135, 247; 
-valley 127 

Mughal 29; -Array 361; -Art 414; 
-Court 40;-Emperor 31, ’-Empire 
54; -Force 32, -Painters 354, 

- School 354; Throne 33 
Muhammad 

-Ghori 90;-Shah 42; -Ustad 354 
Muhnot Nensi 24, 90 
Mukam 94, 135 
Mukhtars Maqbtdla 308 
Mukund Rai 40 
Multan 37, 417 
Multan-Delhi route 50 
MuUani Mitti 5 
Municipal 

-Act 324; -Aministration 321; 
-Amendment Act (1928) 324; 
-i\rea 322; -Bodies 341; -Com- 
mittcc(s) 321,324; , Council 299, 
3 >5; -Funds 323 

Municipal Bonrd(s) 321, 322, 323, 
325, 327; -Bhinasar 327; -Desh- 
nokc 328; -Gangashahr 326; 
-Naukha 327, -MunicipaHty(ics) 
325. 326, 341 
Mmja 10 
Murder 76 

Mtirlt Dhar ManauJ 356 
MuTlidhar Vyas 355 ■ 

Musrthib Ptirohst Man Mahesh 35 
M««.a{man$ 29, 38 ■ 


Museum 360 

Mushmmat Jabbar Charitable Trust, 
Bikaner 388 
Music Department 349 
Muslim(s) 89. 96, 98, 100, 104, 105, 
107, 112, 353; -array 30, 38; 
-league 68 
Muisaddis 25 

N 

Nachna, tahsil of Jaisalmer district 
274 

Nag Raj 30 

Nagaurl,28, 31,37,47, 52, 196, 

311, 318; -Chief47; -district 1, 

312, 319, -pargana 36; -tahsil 
389 

Naginiji Fair 118 
Nagpur 97 
Naib-tahsildars 263 
Naira or Nera 1 

Nal 42, 215; -Railway station 319 
Nankar 267 
Nanwa X19 

Napasar 84, 139, 140, 142, 156, 166, 
168, 169, 216, 322, 323, 330, 350, 
371, 421; -police station 296; 
-town 85 

Napo 25, 26,413, 414, 420 
Nar Singh Chaturdashi Fair 118 
Narendra Sawai 54 
Nari Jagriti Parishad at Bikaner 171 
Nar i Shah 171 
Narnaul Singh 92 
I Naro (Nariiji) 27, 81, 413, 414 
i Nasir Khan 33 
: Nasirabad 58, 294 
, Nasthodhhta-Prahodhak- Dhropat 
I TikaSSS 
; Natbdvvara 48, 354 
] Nathu 25 
I Nathu Ram 354 
j N’nthusar 411 



National 

-Defence 405; -Extension Service 
block 250, 352: -Integration 319; 
-Malaria Control Programme 
371; -Observatories 6; -Savings 
3l8, 3l9; -Savings Certificates 
196. 318;>Slogans 67 
Native Coinage Act (1876) 79 
Native State 79 

Naukha 16, 130, 134, 139, 141, 14 >, 
166, 168,199, 201,206, 250. 252, 
277, 315. 322, 323, 328, 344, 
350, 371. 390. 391, 396, 402, 407, 
408, 410, 422; -Constituency 

392; -Mandi 84, 289, 352; 
-Mandi town 85; -Municipal 
Board 201; -Municipality 327; 
-Panchayat Samiti 142, 332, 
338;-Police station 296;-Railway 
station 6; -Tahsil 2, 4, 6. 10, 83, 
86, 149, 262, 269, 272, 273, 274, 
337, 352 

Nawab Hindal 27 
Nawab of Narnaul 28 
Nawab Zabdin Khan 35 
Nayak(s) 93, 385 
Nazar 46, 53 
Nazim{s) 1, 261, 271, 276 
Nazrana 56, 270, 279 
Nchiu Award 280 
Nehrii Sarada Peeth, Bikaner 346 
Nehru Sharda Peeth Evening 
College 403 

Nensi 24, 90 
Neota 63 
Nepal 420 

Nigam, B. L. 169 (fn.) 

Nil Kanth 356 
Nishan 33 

Nizamat{s) 271, 276; Bikaner 1 
Nobles Girls School 350 
Nobar 42, 305 


Non-Pfl/n 273 
Northern 

-Railway Hospital, Lalgarh 374; 
-States of India 137 
Nullahs 3 

Nur Muhammad 354 
Nuri 354 
Nut 385 

Nyaya Panebayats 306, 332, 333, 
338 

O 

Oasis 23 » 

Occupational division 88 
Ocean 19 
Octroi 322 
Official language 63 
Ojha Kashi Nath 53 
Ooderamsir 207 
Opium 107, 384 
Orans 9 
Orchha 36 
Osvval 186 

Oujha Kashee Nautt 69, 7i 
P 

Pabuji 98 
Pachotra 269, 279 
Padam Singh 38, 39 
Padampur 7 
Paina 11 

Pakistan 1, 5, 20, 87, 299, 318, 404 
Pakistani aggression 405 
Pala 273 

Palana 5, 13, 59, l-.0, ]48, 157, 161, 
330; -hospital 374 
Pallu 361 
Palsana 51 

Pancha Mukhi Siksha Sadan 359 
Panchayat{s) 57. 252, 261, 263, 287, 
316, 329, 330, 332, 335, 338; 
-circle 330; -system 330 
Panchayat Saraiti(s) 148, .195, 200, 
250, 252, 263, 317, 330, 332, 333, 



334, 335, 338, 343, 344, 351. 
352, 371, 378, 405; -B/knner 197, 
140,332,338; -Kolayat 141, 200, 
332, 334, 339; -Lunkaransar 
197, 332,334, 339; -Naukha 142, 
201, 332, 334, 338; Physical 
Achievements of 260 
Panchun (also Panchn) 139, 289, 
330, 377 ' 

Pandit Jawahar Lai Nehru 64, 68 ' 

Pandit Manphool 57 
Panikkar, K.M. ( also Pannikar ) 
358 

Panwars 37 
Papar of Bikaner 170 
Parende Fort 37 
Pargana 30 
Parihar Chiefs 90 
Paris 165 
Parliament 406 

Parliamentary Constituency 390 

Parmars 23 

Parvati 117 

Parwez 32 

Patiala 53 

Patrassa Ghaut 71 

Patta 267 

Pattcdar 271 

Patun 207 

PaUfar 

-Circles 262, 264, 393, 394; 
-Halkas 264, 277 
P(itwaTt[s) 264, 276 
Pa%varwala 148 
Pawning 188 

Pay roils savings group in Railway 
.Workshop 19? 

Payment of Wages Act 3! 5 
Peace Conference 60 
Petpai 9S , 

Pe rs:r j 224 


People 65, 137; -of Bikaner 214 

Periodicals 398 

Peshkash 45 

Phalodi 35, 47, 51, 52 

Pharon ka Bazar 399 

Pheriwalas 188 

Phool Mahal 415 

Phulra 50 

Pilgrimage 54 

Pindari 51, 53 

Pipasar 94 

Plague 372 

Plan, Five year 131,263; -First 173, 
209, 250, 344, 377, 378; -Second 
125, m, 173, 209, 243, 250, 

252, 377, 378; -Third 173, 210, 
252,351, 377 

Plastic Articles 182 
Poets 356 
Poisoning 76 

Police 293, 294; -Act (1922) 293; 
-Administration 295; -Armed 
Police 296; -Circle 296; -Civil 
Police 206; -Code 293,294; -De- 
partment 62; -Inspector General 
of 294, 295; -Line Hospital, 
Bikaner 373; -Outposts 296, 309; 
-Stations 294, 296, 309; -Traffic 
297 

Political 

-Agent 58, 59, 61, 80, 367; -Agi- 
tation 66; -Awakening 64, 65; 
-Developments 68; -Institutions 
65; -Life 64; -Life of Bikaner 68; 
-Officer 75; -Workers 65, 66, 67 
Polytechnic 174 
Poongal 207 
Pope, J. A. 285 
I Popular Government 68 
I Population 2, 60, 83, g6, 332; Den- 
{ ‘sUyof83;-of district 1; urban 
■ 86; -urban and rural 85 



450 


t^ost O (Tices 

-in Bikaner district 218-219; 
-under Bikaner Head Office 218; 
-Under Ganganagar Head Office 
219: -Under Niigaur Head Office 
218 

t91 

Pot-Sherds 20 
Pottery 20 

Power House 157, 162 
Powlett. P.W. 29, 32,35. 56, 57. 156, 
239, 244, 324 

Prabodli of Janardhan 356 
Pradeep Industries 167 
Praja 

-Mandal 64, 67; -Parisliad 67, 
68, 394, 395; -Scvak Sangh 68; 
-Socialist Party 392, 393, 394, 
396; -Socialists 397 
Prakash Chitra 413 
Pratap Singh 49, 82 
Pratihara(s) 21, 22. 23; -Dynasty 22, 
23; -King Siluka 22 
President 63, 67 
Primary 

-Education 334, 341 , 351 ; -13631(11' 
Centr s 372, 374, 375; -School(s) 
326, 343, 350, 351 
Prime Minister 30, 64, 358 
Prince(s) 74; -Bijay Singh Memorial 
Men’s Hospital 372;'-Daniyal 32; 
-Khurram 36; -of Wales 60; 
-Salim 33 
Princely 

-Government of Bikaner 192; 
-India 66; -States 61, 65,68 
Principal Medical Officer 367 
Principality 69, 70 
Prison 

-Act (1927) 301;-Wctfarc Officer 
302 

Ptilhivi Raj Asan 358 


Prithvi Raj Chauhan 420 
Prithvi Raj Rathor 356 
Prithvi Singh 53 
Private Schools 342 
Professional Education 345 
Protected game 1 1 
■Providcni Pund 32s3 
Public 

-Park 9, 215; -Call Offices 220; 
Co-operaiion 405; -Relations 
405; -Relations Office 31 St-Safe- 
ly Act 66, 67;-Works Departmeni 
59, 311;-Ptigal 24. 25. 37, 111. 
139, 171, 216, 288, 318, 417,422; 
-Police Station 296 

Punjab 5, 7, 22. 33, ‘56, 62, 91, 147, 
161, 239, 241, 268; -^National 
Bank Ltd. 172, 194 
Furda 105 
Puri 117 
Purohit 35 

Q 

Quarrying 163 
Queen Victoria 56 

R 

Radha and Krishna 354 

Radio Station 217 

Raedeesir 207 

Raghunath Goswami 356 

Rai Bahadur Sodhi Hukam Singh 80 

Rai Mai Rana 28 

Rai Singh 31, 32, 33, 34, 51. 81, 
353, 355,356, 361, 414, 415 
Fai, title 34 

Railways 59, 147, 213; -and Postal 
Department 287; -and Transport 
Passengers Association 217; 
-Hospital, Bikaner 374; -in' the 
Bikaner State 213; -lihes 62; 
Northern 159, 160, 297, 320; 
-Station 65, 157, 160, 162, 214: 
-System 320;-workshop 182, 193 



451 


Raimalwali 38 

Rainfall 3, 12. 16, 17, 131, 412; 

-Station of 16 
Rains 147 
Rainy Season 14 
Rrdsinlignagar 1, 7, 64, 67 
Raisinghpur 43 
jRaJ 161 

Raj Singh 48. 49, 82, 418 
Raja of Jodhpur 37 
Rajas 25 

Rajasthan 1, 2 , 6 , 22, 66 , 83, 84, . 
86 . 103, 111, 114, 138, 142, 161. . 
164, 167, 168, 172, 195, 200. ! 
204, 211 , 222, 252, 253 263, j 

272, 279, 280, 285, 313, ; 

319,350,351,356,357 -Animals i 
and Birds Protection act (1951) | 
11; -Armed Constabulary (RAC) ' 
299; -Bank Ltd. 172, 194;-Bhoo- | 
dan Yagna Board 282; -Canal ! 
Project 129; -Cash Jagirs Aboli* I 
lion Act (1958) 280; -Code of 
Criminal Procedure Ordinance 


tion of Tenants Ordinance 
(1949) 280; -Sahitya Academy 
359, 360; -State Archives 313; 
-State Electricity Board 325, 
327;-State Warehousing Corpora- 
tion 199; -Tenancy Act(1955)280 1 
281; -Tcnancey (sixth Amend- 
ment) Act (1959) 282; -Town 
Municipality Act 322, 324, 

326, 327; -University 403; 
-Weights and Measures Act 
(1954) 205; -Weights & Measures 

(Enforcement) Act 205; -Wes- 
tern 4 

Rajasthani 89, 351, 356 
Rajgarh 1,145,295, 329, 351, 389; 

-tf/hsil 28 

Rojpootana (Sec Rajputana) 

Rajpur 50 
Rajpura 41 

Rajput(s) 24, 30. 38, 47, 49, 91, 92, 
105, 107, no, 111, 186, 300: 
Chicf(s) 38, 350; -Clans 23: 
-force 47; -rulers 39 


(1949) 306; -Financial Corpora- i Rajputana 56, 75, 91, 97, 244, 367; 

lion 172, 194; -Forest Act 12; f -Board 347; -Gazetteers 244; 

-formation of 367; - Government ; -States 293 

358; -Handicraft 171; 'Und j 257 , 283 

Reforms and Resumption of ; 270, 283 

Jagirs { Amendment ) Act j 75 

(1954; 280; -Land Revenue Act i 

281; -Land Revenue Act (1956) i 

277; Local-Sclf-Governmcnt I 

Institute 4 Q 0 ; -Medical Depart- | i^< 7 Sb!rabhasba Prachar Samhi 359 
ment Hospitals 403; -Motor . 

Vehicles Act 2S4; -Mnnicipaliiy 1 Devi Dhamani 360 

Act (1959) 326, 327; -M.C.C. ' Ratan Singh 28. 54. 55, 82,96, H3, 

Battalion 353; -PanchayatfAAct * 197,270,294,365. 


(!9S3j330; -PancKasat Samslis j Ratangarh 65, 213 
and Ztla Parisbad Act (1959) j Rathi Cows 10 
331; -‘Passengers and Goods ■ Rath! dnicct 89 


Taxation Act (lOS^) 211: -Protcc- 


Rathors 24, 26. 5J. 90. 275 



452 


Ram Bhatta and Shanti Sudhakar 
356 

Ram Chandra Binani 399 
Ram Lai Dwarkani 57 
Ram Raja 41 

Ram Rajya Parishad 391, 397 
Ram Singh 31, 46, 47, 412 
Ramdeoji 94, 98, 113 
Ramji 42 
Rana 24, 43 
Rana of Udaipur 47 
Rana Pratap 356 
Rana Rai Mai 28 

lianas of Moliilvali 24 
Ranawat Committee 306 
Rang Kahan 28 

Range Training School, Bikaner 297 

Rangmahal 20 

RaniCs) 24, 49 

Rani Bazar 247 

Ranisar 148 

Rann of Kutch 6 

Rao (also see respective names) 
-Bikal, 24, 25, 26, 27, 81, 
115, 119, 261,411, 413, 414, 
417, 420, 422; -Gujarmal 45; 
-let Singh 28; -Jetsi 81; 
-Jodha 24, 261; -Kalyan 418; 
-Kiilyan Mall 353, -Kalyan 
Singh 29, 30, 31,81; -Kandhal 
24; -Lunkaran 27, 81,416, 421; 
-Naro 81; -of Pnga) 37; 
-Shekha 25; -Suja 27 

Rawal Akhai Raj 47 
Rawal Bhim 36 
Rawal Jet Singh 28 
Rawal Kchar 25 
Rawal of Jaisalmer 46 
Rawat Bahadur Singh 50 
Rector 35S 


Regency Council 48 
Region 19,.21, 62 

Regional Sheep Research Station 
139 

Registrar 

-of Co operative Societies 190; 
-Departmental Examinations 348 
Registration Act (1893) 304 
Rekh 58, 270 
Rekhwali 270 
Reni 47, 276 

Representative Assembly 64 
Reptiles 1 1 
Research centres 9 
Reserve Bank of India 189, 245 
Responsible Government'64, 68 
I Rest House(s) 215 
Restorer of lost land a title 30 
Revenue 332; -Administration 62; 
-Authorities 134 -Circles 393, 
394; -Commissioner(s) 261, 
276; -Courts 57, 263; -Inspector 
276; -Member 276; -Minister 330; 
-Officer 276; -Secretary 276 
Rewari 27, 45, 214 
Rice 240; -Mills 180 
Richard Harte Kcatinge 75 
Ridmalsar fair 119 
Rigveda 19 
Rirmal 27 
Rirmalsar 140 
Rituals 105 

Rivers 3, 19, 99; -Drishadvali 19; 
-Ganges (alsoGanga,35,95;-Ghag 
gar 19; -Hakra 20; -Parvati 117; 
-Sarasvati 19, 20; -Shatadru 19; 
-Sutlej 19, 40, 62; -Yamuna 1 
Riyasat 66 

, Roads 63,70,209,210,21 1,212 
Robbers 55 
Robbery 54,76 
Rofura 10 



t 453 ) 


RoTling into Basic Form 182 
Rough Castings 182 
Round Table Conference 66 
Routes 23, 207, 208 
Royal Messengers 42 
Royalty 27 
Rudkin, G. D. 269 
Ruler(s) 22.57,59, 62, 63, 66, 74. 340; 
-of B!kaner43,45,47; -of Jodhpur 
44, 50; -of Merta 30; -of Nagaur 
42; -Rathors 68 
Ruling 

-Family 63; -Princes of India 60 
Runia 330 
Rupa 25 

Rural Credit Follow-up Survey 245 
Rural Credit Survey (1956-57j 189 
Rustam Khan 35 
Ryots 261 

S 

Sabkor 267 

Sadar 1,276,329; -division 270 
Sadul Club 413 

Sadul High School, Bikaner 353 
Sadul Singh (see also Maharaja) 63, 
67,82.358.418,419 
Sadulpur 213 

Sadvidya Pracharini Sabha 65 

Sahni 25 

Saiyads 38 

Sajji plants I7I 

Sales Tax Act (1954) 285 

Salig Ram Pathik of Allahabad 351 

Salt 240 

Salumbar 47 

Samba Sadasbim Stiiti 355 
SSmbai 10.12 
Sambhar 22.27,45 
Saracl 30 
Samrist 274 

Samyukta Socialist Party 394,397 
SastadlSl ‘ 


Sanatan Kalpa Lata 355 

Sanctuary 57 

Sand 

-dunes 41 1; -grouse 12; -stone 6 
Sanga 28,29 
Sanganer 29,35 
Sangit Vartaman 355 
Sangii Vinod 356 
Sangitacbarya 355 
Sangitamrag 355 
Sangrah Ratanmcla 355 
Sangram Singh 42, 43, 44 (also sec 
Maharana); -Mandlawat 49 
Sanitation 328 

Sankar Dev Nahala Kala Bhavan 
362 

Sankh’a(s) 23,24,25,26 420; -Rajput 
25 

Sankhya System 420 
Sansi 385 

Sanskrit 41,341,354,357 

Saran Bhartfaa 36 

Sarang Khan 26 

Saraogi 186 

Sarasvati 19, 20 

Saraswati Bhatacharya 356 

Saraswati Devi Mohala 360, 403 

Sarbhangi 385 

Sardar(s) 29,30,35,270 

Sardar Niwas 59 

Sardar Patel’s Policy 68 

Sardar Singh 54, 55, 56, 57, 82, 96, 
197, 198, 294, 303, 355 (also see 
Maharaja) 

SardSrgarh 54 
Sardarshahr 213 

Sardu! Brahmacharyashram Trust 
Bikaner 348 
Sargara385 
Sarkar 36 
Sarup Singh 81 



( 454 ) 


Sasan (Dharmada) 270 
Satsai 354 
Sa'tasar 139,288 

Satya Raj & Co , Bikaner 166.167 

Saiyagrah 65 

Saurashtra 1 >7 

Sauron 35; -ghat 35 

Savings Bank 196 

Saw Mills 180 

Sawai Jai Singh of Jaipur 44 

Sawars 39 
Scheduled 

. -Castes 106, 385, 386, 387, 389; 
-Tribes 385,386 

School 62; B. S T. C. 351; Bhairon 
Ratan Matri Pathashala 350; 
Blind 348; Girls school 342,350; 
High School 345,351,352; High- 
er Secondaiy School 351; Hindi 
and Urdu 340; Jai Pathashala 
350; Junior Basic 351; Kanya 
Pathashala 350;.La]dy Elgin Girls 
School 350; List of Secondary 
& Higher Secondary 363-364; 
Mahila Mandal and'Mdhila Jag- 
riti Parishad 350; MiddlcSchoolfe 
224,344,351,352; Nobels Girls 
School 350; Primary Schools 22r_ 
326, 343, 350; 351; Range’ 

Training School 297; Sadul High 
School, Bikaner 353; Secondary 
351; Secondary and, Higher 
Secondly School", .List of -363, 
364; Soohgiri Girls School 350; 
Soor Sagar Girls School- 350; 
State School 340,342; Technical 
348; Walter Nobles School 341; 
Second 

-Five Year Plan 125,172,269,243, 
250,252,377,378. -Gchbfal ' Elec- 
tion 389, 406. 408; -WdHd 
60, 203 


Secretariat 261; -System 61 
Secretary to the Governor General 
71 

Sects of Hindus 89 
Sedition 66 
Seetla gate 411 
Sehwan 10 

Sekhar Chandra Saxena 399 
Sela 51 

Senani Karyalaya 399 
Separation of the Judiciary 62 
Sesamum 243 
Sessions Courts 307 
Seth(s) 

-Bahadur Mai Jaskaran Sidhak- 
aran Rampuria Trust, Bikaner 
388; Hiralal Sobhag Mai Chari- 
lable-Trust, Bikaner 388; Leading 
145; -Rain Gopal Goverdhan 
Das Mohta Charitable Trust, 
Bikaner 388; -Shanker Dan 
Na'hta 357 

Seton.Karr, W. S, 77 
Seltiement(s),25, 267, .268, 27i, 275; 
-Commissioner 273; -Officer 273 
275; -of (1894-951 268; -Sum- 
mary 267 

Sex Ratio 84 
Shah Alam 197,361 
Shah Jahan 32,36,381361 
Shah of Persia 361' 

Shaikhkai* 330 
Shaiva 89 
Shakambhari 22 
Shakta 89 ' 

Shanti Bhatt 356 
Shatadru 19 

Sheep Breeding Farm 140 
Shekha 25. 29, 37, 417, 422; -Bliati 
25; -liao 25 

I Shekhar Chandra Saxena 401 



( 455 ) 


SVieksar 148 

Shekhawati 51,55, 293; -brieade 54 
Shco-Bari (also Shiv Bari), 6,95163, 
348,422; -fair 118 

Shershah 29,30 
Shi^. Bari Fair 1 18 
Shiv Printing Press 398 
Shiv Ram 356 
Shiv Shanker Purohjt 40p 

ShradHa Levy 279 
Shri Abhaya Jain 

-GranthaJaya 357; -Granthmala 
358 

Shri Bhairav Ratan Matra'Pathash- 
ala Trust, Bikaner 388 
Shri Bikaner MahilalMandal-403i404 
Shri Ganga Gaushalal Naukhii 142 
ShriGanga Jubilee Gaushafa, Bikaner 
142 

Shri Gaushala, Deshnoke 142 
Shri Gdtisliah, Napasar 142 
Shri Gun Prakash Sujjanalaya, 357 
Shri Murli Manohar Gaushala Bhi- 
nusar 142 

Shrinjati Gulab Kuinari Shekhawat 
403 

Shri Ram Krishan Kutir 35S 
Shrubs 9,19 
Shudh Manjari 356- 
Shuka-Sstrika 356 
Sickness 383 
Sikar 295.312,314 

Sikhs 55,89.97,186; ^•Campaigns 55 
Sikhvvar 55 
Silva 165 
Silver Jubilee 63 
Sind 32,239 
Sindh 59 

Sindhfi Fertiliser Factory I?j 
Singhiwal 3S5 


Siogarh 50 

Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence 75 
Sirdar(s} 46,52,61 
Sfrkar 266 
Strbhi 32 
Sirsa 28,29i30,56 
Siryari 32 
Sisodia lirinces 41 
SixVana 32 
Skandh Deo 117 

Small 

-Cause Courts Xct 304; Chief- 
tainships 25; -Pox 41, 372; 

-Savings Scheme 318 

SnJVggling 318 
Snakes 11 

, f '«< 

Social 

* > 
-Education 351; -Welfare 253; 
-Welfare Board 360; -Welfare 
Department 348, 386 

Socialist 389, 391. 397 
Socio-Economic Surveys of Mukam 
and Mudh (Marh) village 247 

Sohan burj 59 
Soil Conservation 25 1, 252 
Sojat 32, 46 
Solankis 23 
Solidarity 319 
Somaliland 60 
Soongiri Girls School 350 
Soorai Singh Bahadoor 69 
Soorsagar Girls School 350 
Sovereignty 26 
^ownrs 295 

Special Education 345, 351 
Spotted deer 10 
Stamps Act 284 

Stamps and Court Fees Act 304,306, 
i State 35. 48. 49, 53.' 54, 56; 58. ’59,' 
* 61.62,63,64,65.66,67,68. 69, 



( 456 ) 


99, 143, 146, 221, 268. 269, 275, 
294, 321, 349, 388, 412; -Admi- 
nistration 66, 67; -Authorities 
67; -Assembly Elections 390; 
-Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur 172, 
194; -Bureau of Educational 
and Vocational Guidance 401; 
-Council 276; -departments 63; 
-Government 148, 174, 249, 

261, 317, 404; -grant 323; ] 

-Hotel 413; -Industries depart- 
ment 169; -Insurance 195; -of 
Bikaner 189, 262, 270, 290, 341, 
344,345,351,373, 411; -language 
63; -Land Revenue and Tenancy 
Acts (1945) 272, -Legislature 
388; -Legislature Aseembly 334; 
-of Rajasthan (see also Rajas- 
than) 68, 305, 349; -Peoples’ 
Conference 66; -Plan 333; 
-Savings Bank 193; -Savings 
Bank, Bikaner 192; -Schools 340, 

342; -shops 241; -territory 172, 
297 

Sub Div’s onal Officers 263, 307 
Suba (also Subah) 34; -of Ajmer 
266 

Sub-caste 104 

Subedar 26, 27, 30, 35 

Sub-Regihrar, Bikaner City 284 

Sudarshan 37 

Sudras 99 

Sugar 242 

Suja 27 

Sujan Singh 41, 42, 43, 82 

Sujandesar fair 118 

Snjangarh 1, 55. 56, 213, 276, 295 , 

301,329. 362 
Suleman range 6 
Sulkhaniya 95, 412 
Sultan Bahlol Lodi 24 
Sultan of Delhi 27 


Summary Settlement 267, 268" 
Summer 14 
Sunehri Burj 59 
Sunnud 72 

Superintendent(s) 293, 295 

-of Police 263, 264; -of Revenue 
275 

Sur Sagar 412 
Sur Singh 35, 37, 81 
Surat Singh 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 
58. 69, 82, 197, 270, 415, 418 
Soratgarh 1, 50, 147, 213, 295, 329, 
361 

Surgeons 62 
Surpura 216, 330 
Surtan Deora 32 
Surya Prakash Bissa 401 
Sutlej 19, 40, 62 
Swadeshi 65 
Swami Japanaoda 358 
Swami Ram Krishna Paramhansa 
358 

Swami Vivekananda 358 
Swarup Singh 41, 81 
Swatantra 393, 394, 397 
Syed Hasan Ali 40 

T 

Tabkat-i-Akbari 30 
Taccavi 185, 187, 189 
Tahsil(s) (also see Bikaner, Kolayat, 
Lnnkaransar and Naukha) 2, 
149, 262, 268, 272, 274, 275 
Tahsildar(s) 261, 263, 304, 305 
Takht Nashini ki Bhach 63 
Talao 25 
Talwara 146 
Tank(s) 3, 19 
Tapoo 207 
Tara Singh 47 
1 Taranagar 389 



( 457 ) 


TaukoorS 70 

taxes 323; -Colleclion 3^8 
Tazimi 210i -Sardars 271 
teachers Training Certificate 345 ’ 

Technical schools 348 
Teja Bagor 33 | 

Telegraph 320; -Offices 220; -Offices 
and Public Call Offices in fiika- 
mt District 220 

Tclepitone Exchanges 320 
Temperatufe 12, l3, 14, 17, 4l2 
Temple(s) 9, 59, 416; -Chintamanis 
411; -Dhuninath 4l^;- -Jain 4ll; 
-Laxminarayan 44, 416; -Pancha 
Mukha Hanuraan 163; -Ra'sik 

Shiromaniji 416; -Rafan Rihariji 
416 

Tenancy Acts (1945) 272 
Terracota Scupltures 20 
Territory 24, 27, 46, 50, 55, 65, 69 
Tcssitory, Dr. L. P.20, 358, 361 
Textile 

-Commissioner 204; -Merchant’s, 
Committee 204 

Thakur(s) 27, 31, 42, 46. 48 50, 52| 
54 55, 5b 57, 58, 60, 293, 294. 
300; -of-Ajitpura 61; -of Bhadra 
43; -of Churu48; -of Khandla 
27; -of Mahajan 40, 44 
Thakur Singh 30 
Thakur Udaikaran 28 
Thakursi 30, 35 
Thali dialect 89 
Thaws 43 
Thawdars 261 
Thar 2.19, 22,23 
That herds 168 
Tlmtta 34. 35 

T?se District Excise Officer, Bikaner 
286 

The RfijasthSn Discontinuance of 
Ccssci Act (1959) 2Si 


The Rajasthan Gramdan Act 282 

The Rajasthan Land Reforms and 
Resumption of Jagirs Act (1952) 
2'80 

The State Government 176 
Third Five Tear Plan 173, 210', 252, 
351, 377 

Third General Election(s) 390, 392, 
3'96, 408 
Thoris 93, 385 
Thornton, A.P , Captain 78 
Throne 33; -of Delhi 42 
Thuggee 76 
Thunderstorms 15 
Tihun Pal 28 
Tikara Cband Khatri 400 
Tifgar 385 
Tirthankarans 97 
Tobacco 257 
Tod, Col. J. 49, 157 
Top'ograpbical Survey 58 
Topography 2 

Town{s) 2, 85, 86, 177, 417, 422’ 

Trade routes 23 

Trade Unions 183, 184, 217 

Traders' and Merchants’ Associations 
203 

Training Institute 174 

Transport 88; -Companies 212 

Treasury 51 ; -Officer 262 

Treaty 69, 71, 78; -of Versailles CO 

Trees 19 

Tribunal 61 

Tribute 42 

Iroops 53. 54, 70 

Tulsi9S 

I Tyre Rationing Order 

I . “ 

I Udai Chandra 355 
I Udai Karan 28 . 

1 Udaipur 36. 42, 43. ,302. 313. 353, 

I 360,* -district 48; -Princess 419 



( 4 

Udaisar 216 
Udasar 350, 352, 

Udat outpjst 296, 

Udrantisar 8, 12, 119, 350 
Ujjain 21 
Uraayyads 23 

Unani system of medicine 3,65 
Underground water 4. 

United Commercial Bank Ltd^. 172, 
194 

United State of Greater Rajasthan 
64, 68. 2 2 
University 322; -of Cambridge 60; 
-of Oxford 6,0; -of Rajasthan 
346; -of Udaipur 141, 347 
Untouchability 388, 405 
Urban areas 99, 349 
Urban Water Supply Schemes 252 
Usha Charita 353 
Ustad Abu Qasira 354 
Ustad Mohammad 354 
Ustad Shah Muhammad 354 
Uttar Pradesh 22, 147, 161 
V 

V.S, Pathik 356 
Vaccinations 371 
Vaishnava 89, 355 
Vaishya 99 
Vaital-Pachisi 356 
Vakil(s) 53, 65, 308 
Vallabh garden(s) 12 
Valmtki 385 
Variations 12 
Varsalpur 38 
Vazier 30 
Vedic 

-Age 19; -Culture 20; -hymns 19 
Vegetative divisions 10 
Vegetation 7 

Versailles Peace Conference 63 
Veterinary 349; -and Animal Hus- 
bandry Science 347 


8 ) 

Viceroy(s) 61, 63; -and Governor- 
General 78; -Lord Hardinge 414 
Vidya Nath 356 
Vidya Nath Stiri 356 
Vigraharaja Ghauhan 11-22 
Vijay Bhawan 347 
Village(s) 2, 56, 57, 61, 110: -Pan- 
chayats 332, 334 
Vinoba Bhave 282 
Viper 11 

Virendra Nath Gupta 399 
Visalpuf 139 

Vishva Bharati Nagari Bhandar 402 
VishwaJyoti 413 
Vishwanath 401 

Walter Noblp’s School 341 
War 50; -of.Independence (1857) 
361; -Second World War 203 
Water Supply 253, 328, 378 
Wazir 48 
Weather 18 

Weaving and Spinning -Units 165 
Weights and. Measures Act (1954) 
205; 

Welfare of backward classes 253 
Western Medical Science 377 
Wheat 239 , 240, 241, 242, 243 
White clay 5 
Widows 106 
Wilayat Hussain 57 
Wild boars 10 
William, Lord 56 
Winds 14 
Wolf 10 

Women education 351 
Woollen 

-and knitting mills 180; -Baling, 
Pressing and Cleaning ]'7,8; 
-Cottage Industries 174, 175; 



^59 


-Cottage Industries Training 
Institute Bikaner 175; -Industries 
181; -Production Centre 165 
V,’orld War ‘60 

X 

X-Ray apparatus 372 
Y 

Yajnas 19 
Yamuna 19 
Yaudheyas 22 
Yellow Ochre 6 


Z 

Zabita Khan 50, 51 

Zakat 270 

Zamindais 186 

Zenana Hospital 63, 373 

Ziauddin Khan 35 

Zila Parisbad(s) 252, 331, 332, 

334, 335 
Zoo 362, 416 

Zorawar Singh 43, 44, 45, 82, 354; 
Lord 418 



RAJASTHAN DISTRICT GAZETTEERS— BIKANER 


ERRATA 


Page 

Para 

Line 

For 

Read 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

3 

1 

1-2 

154 to 429 

122 to 366 

3 

1 

3 

6 

1.5 

3 

2 

1-2 

ranging from 

12.70 cm. to 25.40cm. 
(5" to 10") 

of 259.6 mm. 
(10.22") 

3 

2 

9 

0.4 km. (quarter 

0.8 km. (half 

3 

2 

10 

183 or 274 met- 
res (two or three 
hundred yards) 
across. 

0.4 km. (quarter 
mile broad) 

3 

4 

1 

80 

81 

3 

4 

4-5 

Gangasarowar- 

Mandalmadh, 

Dadav 

Gangasarowar, 
Mandal, Mudh, 
Dadar 

5 

4 

3 

80 

81 

6 

•M 

2 

Kotri Indaka 

Bala 

Koiri, Indaka- 
Bal” 


12 

86 

86 

86 

114 

115 
117 
llS 
120 
122 
133 
142 
144 
159 
163 
174 
180 


192 

192 

192 

194. 


19/ 

2m 

213 


3 
2 
2 

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1 

2 

3 

3 

2 

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last 

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12 

2 

3 

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1896- I 97 A 

1896-18971 

7 

1 

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Kaoni 

3 

4 

Ghari-sar 

Ghatsisar 

4 

4 

first five 

some 

— 

S. No. 45 Mfs Ratan In- 

deleted 

TC 5 

last 

dust rial Cor- 
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54,194 

TC 6 

8 

38,242 

5,909 

TC6 

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2,198 

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& Jaipur 

& Jaipur (form- 

3 



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of Jaipur) 


coins. 

coins, thouch Ojha 

1 

7 

Bardrasar 

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Badrasar 

1 

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MarwarJ border 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

226 

1 

7 

femal 

female 

228 

1 

5 

19,288 

29,288 

234 

TC3 

15 

- 

2 

in 

TC 23 

3 

2,261 

2,661 

237 

TC 23 

4 

884 

894 

247 

3 

5 

present 

present (1967) 

248 

T2 C3 

9 

2,480 

2,486 

274 

3 

1 

forty-two vill- 
ages of Nachna 

43 villages & 3 
hamlets of Bap 

281 

TC6 

last 

1,025 

1,015 

303 

3 

2 

1864-85 

■ 1884-85 

306 

2 

4 

powers 

powers of 

314 

2 

4 

six 

two 

314 

2 

4 

and one Excise 
Inspector. 

deleted 

314 

2 

5 

two 

one 

316 

3 

last 

196 

272 

323 

— 

12. 

1959 

the same year 
again 

330 

1 

5 

Jarasar 

Jasrasar 

332 

1 

8 

pond 

pound 

341 

1 

3 

thereafter 

thereafter except 
in 1925-26 

344 

_ 

9' 

435 

473 • 

345 

TC4 

r. 

1794 

1694 

350 

1 

11 

in 

in 1907 

360 

1 

13 

Girls 

Grill, 

374 

5 ■ 

1 

hospitals 

hospitals/dispen- 

saries 

376 

T1 G2 & 3 

% 

15700; 122536 

34551; 642,239 

376 

T2 C3 

2 

132 

131 

387 

1 

12 

nauka 

Naukha 

393 

4 

6 

candidates 

candidate 

399 

■ 2 

■ 6 

solds 

sold 

403 

3 

10 

is 

the 

418 

1 

3 • 

a rest house 

deleted 

418 

1 

4 

Higher Secondary 

Secondary 

418 

2 ' 

16 

is 

in 

421 

1 

8 

higher secondary 

secondary 

422 

- 

2 

a higher ’ 

a 

422 

1 

4 

secondary 

, higher secondary 

427 

— 

8 

hoid 

hold 

428 

- 

Page No. 248 

428 

Plate 4 

- • 

- 

Kod Gate 

Kote Gate 


T=TabIc; C- Column 




The Fort of Bikaner 






Gajner Palace 








Lalgarh Palace 












Ratan Bihariji Temple — Bikaner